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Results 401 - 450 of 1194
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Porvasnik Stacy L - - 2010
Administration of molecular, pharmacologic, or cellular constructs to the intestinal epithelium is limited by luminal surface mucosal barriers and ineffective intestinal delivery via systemic injection. Many murine models of intestinal disease are used in laboratory investigation today and would benefit specific modulation of the intestinal epithelium. Our aim was to ...
Hu James X - - 2010
In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. ...
Zörner Björn - - 2010
Rodents are frequently used to model damage and diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to functional deficits. Impaired locomotor function is currently evaluated by using scoring systems or biomechanical measures. These methods often suffer from limitations such as subjectivity, nonlinearity and low sensitivity, or focus on a ...
Tøttrup Anders P - - 2010
Evidence for climate-driven phenological changes is rapidly increasing at all trophic levels. Our current poor knowledge of the detailed control of bird migration from the level of genes and hormonal control to direct physiological and behavioral responses hampers our ability to understand and predict consequences of climatic change for migratory ...
Ju Wenjun - - 2010
Animal models have long been useful in investigating both normal and abnormal human physiology. Systems biology provides a relatively new set of approaches to identify similarities and differences between animal models and human beings that may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of human kidney pathophysiology. In this review, we ...
Hurtado David E - - 2010
Senile plaques formed by β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formed by hyperphosphorylated tau, a microtubule-associated protein, are the hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to loss of neurons. While several transgenic (Tg) mouse models have recapitulated aspects of AD-like Aβ and tau pathologies, a spatiotemporal mapping ...
Rai Hardeep S - - 2010
• Premise of the Study: The monilophytes (ferns and relatives)-the third largest group of land plants-exhibit a diverse array of vegetative and reproductive morphologies. Investigations into their early ecological and life-history diversification require accurate, well-corroborated phylogenetic estimates. We examined the utility of a large plastid-based data set in inferring backbone ...
Bastian Brock - - 2010
Being human implies a particular moral status: having moral value, agency, and responsibility. However, people are not seen as equally human. Across two studies, we examine the consequences that subtle variations in the perceived humanness of actors or groups have for their perceived moral status. Drawing on Haslam's two-dimensional model ...
Kobbe Susanne - - 2011
Flexibility in physiological processes is essential to adequately respond to changes in environmental conditions. Madagascar is a particularly challenging environment because climatic conditions seem less predictable than in comparative ecosystems in other parts of the world. We used the reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) from the most unpredictable environment in ...
Scheikl Tanja - - 2010
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and a frequent cause of neurological disability in young adults. Multifocal inflammatory lesions in the CNS white matter, demyelination, oligodendrocyte loss, axonal damage, as well as astrogliosis represent the histological hallmarks of the disease. These pathological ...
Nicholson Rachel M - - 2010
We have previously used fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography to detect the pattern of metabolic declines in two different transgenic mouse models of fibrillar beta-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the PDAPP mouse, which overexpresses a mutant form of human APP, and the PSAPP mouse, which overexpresses mutant forms of the ...
Chen Liyan - - 2011
Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) is a useful tool for studying airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), but an exact EB animal model is lacking. Our objective was to establish an EB mouse model using ovalbumin (OVA). Mice were divided into asthma, normal saline (NS) control and three model groups. Asthma mice were challenged intranasally ...
Melki Sami J - - 2010
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Excitotoxic and related inflammatory injury are implicated in the spiral ganglion degeneration seen with Meniere's disease and endolymphatic hydrops (ELH). Excitotoxicity is initiated with glutamate elevation and associated with downstream increases in reactive oxygen species resulting in inflammation-mediated neuronal degeneration. This study tests the hypothesis that interruption of the ...
Hussain Ishrut - - 2010
A critical requirement in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics is a demonstration of the in vivo efficacy of compounds in pre-clinical disease relevant models. One of the most frequently used models in AD research are transgenic mice overexpressing mutant forms of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) that are ...
Peterson Richard A - - 2010
Morphological evaluation of humanized chimeric mouse livers from the PhoenixBio (uPA(+/+)/SCID) mouse model show robust replacement and expansion with human hepatocytes, however areas of human hepatocytes had prominent steatosis and a variable lack of sinusoids which was consistent with decreased hepatocellular perfusion and lacked bile canalicular formation between human and ...
Sapienza Irene - - 2010
Although literature provides evidence for the relationship between values and acculturation, the relationship between host community acculturation orientations has not yet been investigated. In this study we tested the effects of four high-order values (openness to change, self-transcendence, conservation, and self-enhancement, devised according to Schwartz's model) on host community acculturation ...
Noble W W Departments of Neuroscience, MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, UK. - - 2010
Tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the central nervous system, and are the major cause of dementia in later life. Considerable advances have been made in developing mouse models that recapitulate, to varying extents, the development of human tau pathology, ...
Zohn Irene E IE Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA. - - 2010
Neural tube defects (NTDs) represent some of the most common congenital malformations in humans. The causes of NTDs are complex with both genetic and environmental contributing factors. Periconception nutrition is an important environmental factor influencing the penetrance of NTDs. NTDs arise from failure to close the neural tube completely during ...
Min Booki - - 2010
Basophils are the least abundant granulocytes found in the circulation. Until recently, their functions were poorly understood. In the past few years, the list of basophil functions in the context of immunity has dramatically increased. Thus, the need for basophil-deficient animal models to confirm these findings is imperative. In this ...
Li L L Computing Laboratory, University of Oxford and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United - - 2010
Mathematical modeling of Ca(2+) dynamics in the heart has the potential to provide an integrated understanding of Ca(2+)-handling mechanisms. However, many previous published models used heterogeneous experimental data sources from a variety of animals and temperatures to characterize model parameters and motivate model equations. This methodology limits the direct comparison ...
Nachlieli Hila - - 2011
Print quality (PQ) is a composite attribute defined by human perception. As such, the ultimate way to determine and quantify PQ is by human survey. However, repeated surveys are time consuming and often represent a burden on processes that involve repeated evaluations. A desired alternative would be an automatic quality ...
Ellacott Kate L J - - 2010
The global obesity epidemic has heightened the need for an improved understanding of how body weight is controlled, and research using mouse models is critical to this effort. In this perspective, we provide a conceptual framework for investigation of feeding behavior in this species, with an emphasis on factors that ...
Spatara M L - - 2010
In vivo aggregation of tau protein is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence has also demonstrated activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in AD, although the role of the UPR in disease pathogenesis is not ...
Silverman Jill L - - 2010
Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology that affects 1 in 100-150 individuals. Diagnosis is based on three categories of behavioural criteria: abnormal social interactions, communication deficits and repetitive behaviours. Strong evidence for a genetic basis has prompted the development of mouse models with targeted mutations in candidate ...
Juneja Vijay K - - 2011
Comparison of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in cooked uncured products during cooling for different meat species is presented. Cooked, uncured product was inoculated with C. perfringens spores and vacuum packaged. For the isothermal experiments, all samples were incubated in a water bath stabilized at selected temperatures between 10 and ...
Peterson Richard A - - 2010
Morphological evaluation of humanized chimeric mouse livers from the PhoenixBio(R) (uPA(+/+)/SCID) mouse model show robust replacement and expansion with human hepatocytes, however areas of human hepatocytes had prominent steatosis and a variable lack of sinusoids which was consistent with decreased hepatocellular perfusion and lacked bile canalicular formation between human and ...
Yu Peng - - 2010
Mouse models serve as relatively new yet powerful research tools to study intimal hyperplasia and wall remodeling of vein bypass graft failure. Several model variations have been reported in the past decade. However, the approach demands thoughtful preparation, selected sophisticated equipment, microsurgical technical expertise, advanced tissue processing, and data acquisition. ...
Auvin Stéphane - - 2010
In many experimental systems, proinflammatory stimuli exhibit proconvulsant properties. There are also accumulating data suggesting that inflammation may contribute to epileptogenesis in experimental models as well as in humans. Using two different models (Lithium-pilocarpine induced-status epilepticus (SE) and rapid kindling), we address this issue in the developing brain. Using P14 ...
Liu Junting - - 2010
Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a new optical molecular imaging modality, which can monitor both physiological and pathological processes by using bioluminescent light-emitting probes in small living animal. Especially, this technology possesses great potential in drug development, early detection, and therapy monitoring in preclinical settings. In the present study, we developed ...
Karlstetter Marcus - - 2010
In contrast to the tremendous amount of research data from the central nervous system, relatively little is known about microglial homeostasis in the retina. This may be explained by a strong research bias towards important brain pathologies including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Multiple Sclerosis. In addition, there are specific ...
Thorup Kasper - - 2010
For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds orient during migration. Despite the difficulties ...
Nicholson Rachel M - - 2010
We have previously used fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography to detect the pattern of metabolic declines in two different transgenic mouse models of fibrillar beta-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the PDAPP mouse, which overexpresses a mutant form of human APP, and the PSAPP mouse, which overexpresses mutant forms of the ...
Tamowski Susan - - 2010
Over the past few decades with the rapid advances in embryo and embryonic stem cell manipulation techniques, transgenic mouse models have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of gene function and complex diseases including male infertility. In this review we give a brief history of the development of ...
Copplestone D - - 2010
A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which ...
Boesch Christophe - - 2010
The quest to understand "what makes us human" has been heading towards an impasse, when comparative psychology compares primarily individuals that are not representative of their species. Captives experience such divergent socioecological niches that they cannot stand for their wild counterparts. Only after removing ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism will we be ...
Drusano G L - - 2010
We wished to delineate granulocytes' impact on the clearance of different bacterial burdens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in a granulocyte-replete mouse thigh infection model. A mouse thigh model was employed. Bacterial challenges from 10(5) to 3 × 10(7) CFU (S. aureus) and from 3 × 10(4) to 3 ...
Li Dong - - 2010
Glioma derived from the neural ectoderm is the most common brain tumor and is of great damage to human health among all lethal tumors. Scientists have been trying their best to find new methods and develop new drugs to treat glioma in recent years. The animal glioma model is of ...
Stahl Andreas A Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2010
The mouse retina has been used extensively over the past decades to study both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Over time, various mouse retina models have evolved into well-characterized and robust tools for in vivo angiogenesis research. This article is a review of the angiogenic development of the mouse retina and ...
Sterniczuk Roxanne - - 2010
Circadian disturbances, including a fragmented sleep-wake pattern and sundowning, are commonly reported early in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These changes are distinctly different from those observed in non-pathological aging. Transgenic models of AD are a promising tool in understanding the underlying mechanisms and cause of disease. A novel ...
Mijares Armand Salvador - - 2010
Documentation of early human migrations through Island Southeast Asia and Wallacea en route to Australia has always been problematic due to a lack of well-dated human skeletal remains. The best known modern humans are from Niah Cave in Borneo (40-42ka), and from Tabon Cave on the island of Palawan, southwest ...
Coxworth J E - - 2010
Mammalian oocyte stocks reach maximum size in early development and begin depletion immediately thereafter. This depletion ends women's fertility by midlife. Here we compare five models proposed to characterize human follicular depletion, highlight underlying variation in atresia, and use oocyte counts from laboratory mice to illustrate possible effects of known ...
Singh Mallika - - 2010
The low rate of approval of novel anti-cancer agents underscores the need for better preclinical models of therapeutic response as neither xenografts nor early-generation genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) reliably predict human clinical outcomes. Whereas recent, sporadic GEMMs emulate many aspects of their human disease counterpart more closely, their ability ...
Timmer Nienke M - - 2010
Abstract Aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide in brain parenchyma and vasculature. Several proteins co-deposit with Abeta, including heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPG have been suggested to contribute to Abeta aggregation and deposition, and may influence plaque formation and persistence by stimulating ...
Kislinger Thomas - - 2010
The molecular dissections of the mechanistic pathways involved in human disease have always relied on the use of model organisms. Among the higher mammalian organisms, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) is the most widely used model. A large number of commercially-available, inbred strains are available to the community, including an ...
Devuyst Olivier - - 2010
The development of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a successful therapy has and still depends on experimental models to test and understand critical pieces of pathophysiology. To date, the majority of studies performed in rat and rabbit models derive mechanistic insights primarily on the basis of interventional pharmacologic agents, blocking antibodies, ...
Kathman Steven J - - 2010
The mouse dermal assay has long been used to assess the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This mouse skin model has been developed for use in carcinogenicity testing utilizing the SENCAR mouse as the standard strain. Though the model has limitations, it remains as the most relevant method ...
Ueno Yoshiyuki - - 2010
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a human autoimmune liver disease whose molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood because of the difficulty in accessing human tissue and the absence of appropriate animal models. Recently, several unique murine models of human PBC have been discovered. These models have great potential for illustrating the ...
Schofield Paul N PN Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2010
A major challenge of the post-genomic era is coding phenotype data from humans and model organisms such as the mouse, to permit the meaningful translation of phenotype descriptions between species. This ability is essential if we are to facilitate phenotype-driven gene function discovery and empower comparative pathobiology. Here, we review ...
Bonnet M - - 2010
Targeted internal radionuclide therapy (TRT) could be an efficient, specific way to treat disseminated melanoma. Based on a previous pharmacomodulation study, we selected a quinoxaline-derived molecule (ICF01012) for its melanin specificity and kinetic properties suitable for TRT. Here, we determined the efficacy of [(131)I]ICF01012 radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo ...
Curran Allison M - - 2010
In this study it is demonstrated that human odor collected from items recovered at a post-blast scene can be evaluated using human scent specific canine teams to locate and identify individuals who have been in contact with the improvised explosive device (IED) components and/or the delivery vehicle. The purpose of ...
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