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Results 401 - 450 of 1237
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Kirkness J P JP Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, - - 2011
Existing physiological databases have not been sufficiently detailed to provide relevant and important information for characterizing the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. Critical collapsing pressure (P(CRIT)) is a standard method for determining upper airway patency during sleep, however is labor intensive and prohibits large-scale studies. Based on previously published data ...
González-Suárez A A Biomedical Synergy, Electronic Engineering Department, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain. - - 2011
Although some types of bipolar electrodes have been broadly employed in clinical practice to coagulate biological tissue by means of radiofrequency (RF) currents, there is still scanty available information about their electrical-thermal behaviour. We are focused on internally cooled bipolar electrodes. The goal of our study was to know more ...
Estévez Jorge - - 2011
In this work kinetic data were obtained for different paraoxon concentrations incubated with chicken serum and the soluble fraction of chicken peripheral nerve. A kinetic model equation was deduced by assuming a multienzymatic system with three different simultaneously occurring molecular phenomena: (1) inhibition; (2) simultaneous spontaneous reactivation; (3) "ongoing" inhibition ...
Virkkala Raimo - - 2011
Human land-use effects on species populations are minimized in protected areas and population changes can thus be more directly linked with changes in climate. In this study, bird population changes in 96 protected areas in Finland were compared using quantitative bird census data, between two time slices, 1981-1999 and 2000-2009, ...
Sénéchal Edith - - 2011
The strategy of relying extensively on stored resources for reproduction has been termed capital breeding and is in contrast to income breeding, where needs of reproduction are satisfied by exogenous (dietary) resources. Most species likely fall somewhere between these two extremes, and the position of an organism along this gradient ...
Fournié G - - 2011
Live bird markets (LBMs) act as a network 'hub' and potential reservoir of infection for domestic poultry. They may therefore be responsible for sustaining H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus circulation within the poultry sector, and thus a suitable target for implementing control strategies. We developed a stochastic transmission ...
Tark Kwan-Chul - - 2010
In the present study, we used the diabetic mouse as a model of delayed wound healing to investigate the effects of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSC) on wound healing. A delayed wound healing model was used by db/db mice. Study models were divided by an injection of human ...
McKenzie Valerie J - - 2010
In the present study, we examined whether bird community composition can predict the annual number of human West Nile virus (WNV) cases on a per county basis in the Colorado Front Range, a region that experienced high numbers of human cases during the early part of the North American epidemic. ...
Howie J A - - 2010
1. This study is the first to quantitatively compare the structure of feeding behaviour of broilers, ducks and turkeys as recorded by electronic feeders. It tests the hypothesis that this structure is so similar that the same models would be suitable to group the feeding behaviour of these species into ...
Casco-Robles Martin Miguel - - 2010
Newts have been recognized as an ideal model for body-parts regeneration after traumatic injury since the 18(th) century. However, molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration remain a mystery because of technical limitations. In the current study, to break this obstacle, we established a simple and efficient transgenic protocol for the newt Cynops ...
Sheehan-Rooney Kelly - - 2010
Mutation of SATB2 causes cleft palate in humans. To understand the role of SATB2 function in palatogenesis, SATB2 analyses in vertebrate model systems will be essential. To facilitate these analyses, we have performed a cross-species comparison of SATB2 structure and function across three vertebrate model systems: mouse, chick, and zebrafish. ...
Mehta Cyrus R - - 2011
This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of adaptive sample size re-estimation for phase 3 confirmatory clinical trials. Comparisons are made with more traditional fixed sample and group sequential designs. It is seen that the real benefit of the adaptive approach arises through the ability to invest sample size resources ...
Herranz Daniel - - 2010
The family of protein deacetylases represented by yeast Sir2 has been the focus of intense investigation because of the longevity activity of Sir2 in yeast, worms and flies. Research in mammals has mainly focused on SIRT1, the closest homologue of Sir2. Emerging evidence from mouse models is yielding a sharper ...
van Loon E E - - 2011
Many soaring bird species migrate southwards in autumn from their breeding grounds in Europe and Central Asia towards their wintering grounds. Our knowledge about interactions between migrating birds, thermal selection during migration and mechanisms that lead to flocking or convergent travel networks is still very limited. To start investigating these ...
Evan Andrew P - - 2010
Extensive evidence now supports the role of papillary interstitial deposits-Randall's plaques-in the formation of stones in the idiopathic, calcium oxalate stone former. These plaques begin as deposits of apatite in the basement membranes of the thin limbs of Henle's loop, but can grow to become extensive deposits beneath the epithelium ...
Jamsai Duangporn - - 2011
Limited knowledge of the genetic causes of male infertility has resulted in few treatment and targeted therapeutic options. Although the ideal approach to identify infertility causing mutations is to conduct studies in the human population, this approach has progressed slowly due to the limitations described herein. Given the complexity of ...
Tomino Yasuhiko - - 2011
IgA nephropathy is the most common primary chronic glomerulonephritis in the world and was first described by Berger et al. (J Urol Nephrol 74:694-695;1968). Histopathologically, IgA nephropathy is characterized by expansion of the glomerular mesangial matrix with mesangial cell proliferation. Glomeruli typically contain generalized diffuse granular mesangial deposits of IgA ...
van Tijn Paula - - 2011
Autosomal dominant mutations in the presenilin gene PSEN cause familial Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurological disorder pathologically characterized by intraneuronal accumulation and extracellular deposition of amyloid-β in plaques and intraneuronal, hyperphosphorylated tau aggregation in neurofibrillary tangles. Presenilins (PS/PSENs) are part of the proteolytic γ-secretase complex, which cleaves substrate proteins within ...
Tjørve Kathleen M C - - 2010
We compare four candidate models (logistic, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, and extreme value function) for modelling the growth of birds. We fitted the models to two empirical data sets of chick growth (six biometric measurements) of African black oystercatchers Haematopus moquini from South Africa and little stints Calidris minuta from Russia, ...
Wei Fengrong - - 2010
In regression problems where covariates can be naturally grouped, the group Lasso is an attractive method for variable selection since it respects the grouping structure in the data. We study the selection and estimation properties of the group Lasso in high-dimensional settings when the number of groups exceeds the sample ...
Grippo Paul J - - 2010
With the advent of mouse models that recapitulate the cellular and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasia and cancer, it is now feasible to recruit and deploy these models for the evaluation of various chemopreventive and/or anticancer regimens. The highly lethal nature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) makes multiple areas of ...
Larsen Melinda - - 2010
Branching morphogenesis is a crucial developmental process in which vertebrate organs generate extensive epithelial surface area while retaining a compact size. In the vertebrate submandibular salivary gland, branching morphogenesis is crucial for the generation of the large surface area necessary to produce sufficient saliva. However, in many salivary gland diseases, ...
Won Jungyeon - - 2011
The need for mouse models, with their well-developed genetics and similarity to human physiology and anatomy, is clear and their central role in furthering our understanding of human disease is readily apparent in the literature. Mice carrying mutations that alter developmental pathways or cellular function provide model systems for analyzing ...
Beetz Nadine - - 2011
In the time since its discovery, phosducin's functions have been intensively studied both in vivo and in vitro. Phosducin's most important biochemical feature in in vitro studies is its binding to heterotrimeric G protein βγ-subunits. Data on phosducin's in vivo relevance, however, have only recently been published but expand the ...
Ravindran Resmi - - 2010
Multiplex methodologies enable simultaneous detection of antibodies against several infectious agents allowing sample conservation, cost effectiveness, and amenability to high-throughput/automation. We have previously described a multiplex microbead immunoassay for serodetection of ten, high-priority mouse infectious pathogens. Here, we present a validation of this multiplex diagnostic system using approximately four hundred ...
Cheatham Mary Ann - - 2011
The cochlear microphonic (CM) can be a useful analytical tool, but many investigators may not be fully familiar with its unique properties to interpret it accurately in mouse models of hearing. The purpose of this report is to develop a model for generation of the CM in wild-type (WT) and ...
Knaus Brian J BJ USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 3200 S.W. Jefferson Way, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 - - 2010
• The study of infra-taxa has historically been considered the study of incipient species. Astragalus lentiginosus Douglas ex Hooker (Fabaceae) is the most taxonomically diverse species in the U. S. flora. To gain insight into the nature of infra-taxa, I ask whether an optimal number of groups exists within A. ...
Rowley Nicole M - - 2010
Chronic electrical stimulation via corneal electrodes can rapidly yield large numbers of kindled mice with a seizure phenotype reflective of secondarily generalized partial seizures. The corneal kindled mouse model has been found to be a highly sensitive and efficient screening model for antiepileptic drug (AED) discovery. The present study further ...
Watts Christopher R - - 2011
To investigate the effects of a heterozygous elastin gene (Eln) abnormality (deletion of one Eln allele) on the structural characteristics of the vocal fold lamina propria using a mouse model of human disease. Cross-sectional between-subjects design. Five mice, four with heterozygous Eln deletions (Eln +/-) serving as an animal model ...
Bentzon Jacob Fog - - 2010
Genetically-engineered mice with hyperlipidemia are the most widely used atherosclerosis models today, but recent advances in transgenesis open the possibility to create new models in alternative species, such as the rat and pig. It seems relevant at this point in time to review some of the strengths and weaknesses of ...
Czosek Richard J - - 2010
Duplication or absence of parts of the specialized cardiac conduction system in patients with heterotaxy syndrome causes significant clinical disease, but the mechanistic basis by which embryonic disruption of left-right patterning alters conduction system patterning in these patients is not well understood. We sought to determine whether a mouse model ...
Timmer N M - - 2010
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide in brain parenchyma and vasculature. Several proteins co-deposit with Aβ, including heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPG have been suggested to contribute to Aβ aggregation and deposition, and may influence plaque formation and persistence by stimulating Aβ fibrillization ...
Méndez Loyda B - - 2010
The availability of molecular and genetic tools has made the mouse the most common animal model for a variety of human diseases in toxicology studies. However, little is known about the factors that will influence the dose delivery to murine lungs during an inhalation study. Among these factors are the ...
Markert Chad D - - 2010
The underlying causes of denervation of the neuromuscular junction and eventual motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have not been resolved. The superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)(G93A) mutant mouse is a frequently used animal model of ALS. We hypothesized that resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic molecule that enhances mammalian NAD(+)-dependent ...
Jucker Mathias - - 2010
Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are largely limited to humans and rarely occur spontaneously in animals. Genetically engineered mouse models recapitulate aspects of the corresponding human diseases and are instrumental in studying disease mechanisms and testing therapeutic strategies. If considered within the range of their validity, mouse models have been predictive of ...
Traka Maria - - 2010
Adult-onset demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system represent the most common neurological abnormalities in young adults. Nevertheless, our understanding of disease pathogenesis and recovery in demyelinating disorders remains incomplete. To facilitate investigation into these processes, we have developed a new mouse model system that allows for the induction of ...
Soza Valerie L VL Department of Biology, University of Washington, Box 355325, Seattle, Washington 98195-5325 - - 2010
• Dioecy occurs in only about 6% of angiosperms, yet it has evolved many times from hermaphroditism. Polygamy is an even more uncommon condition within angiosperms, in which both unisexual and bisexual flowers occur within a species. Polygamy, dioecy, and hermaphroditism all occur within a New World clade of Galium ...
Parks Connie L - - 2011
Decomposition studies utilizing nonhuman subjects as human analogues are well established, but fewer studies utilizing intact human remains exist. This study provides data from a controlled decomposition study involving human remains in Central Texas. A 63.5-kg unmodified cadaver was placed in an open-air site and observed over a 10-week period ...
Melis Alicia P - - 2010
Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of ...
Nolan Tony - - 2011
In the last 10 years the availability of the genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae and the development of a transgenic technology for several species of Anopheles mosquitoes have, in combination, helped in enabling us to gain several insights into the biology of these mosquitoes that is relevant to their capacity as ...
Toups Melissa A - - 2011
Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since ...
Granic Ivica - - 2010
In the present paper by David E. Hurtado and colleagues report on a new mouse model for AD bearing Aβ and MAPT pathology by crossing PS19 and PDAPP Tg mice. Here, we tried to highlight the importance and necessity of the critical and systematic analysis of models such as the ...
Porvasnik Stacy L - - 2010
Administration of molecular, pharmacologic, or cellular constructs to the intestinal epithelium is limited by luminal surface mucosal barriers and ineffective intestinal delivery via systemic injection. Many murine models of intestinal disease are used in laboratory investigation today and would benefit specific modulation of the intestinal epithelium. Our aim was to ...
Hu James X - - 2010
In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. ...
Zörner Björn - - 2010
Rodents are frequently used to model damage and diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to functional deficits. Impaired locomotor function is currently evaluated by using scoring systems or biomechanical measures. These methods often suffer from limitations such as subjectivity, nonlinearity and low sensitivity, or focus on a ...
Tøttrup Anders P - - 2010
Evidence for climate-driven phenological changes is rapidly increasing at all trophic levels. Our current poor knowledge of the detailed control of bird migration from the level of genes and hormonal control to direct physiological and behavioral responses hampers our ability to understand and predict consequences of climatic change for migratory ...
Ju Wenjun - - 2010
Animal models have long been useful in investigating both normal and abnormal human physiology. Systems biology provides a relatively new set of approaches to identify similarities and differences between animal models and human beings that may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of human kidney pathophysiology. In this review, we ...
Hurtado David E - - 2010
Senile plaques formed by β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formed by hyperphosphorylated tau, a microtubule-associated protein, are the hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to loss of neurons. While several transgenic (Tg) mouse models have recapitulated aspects of AD-like Aβ and tau pathologies, a spatiotemporal mapping ...
Rai Hardeep S HS UBC Botanical Garden & Centre for Plant Research (Faculty of Land & Food Systems), 2357 Main Mall, and Department of Botany, 6270 University Boulevard, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, - - 2010
• The monilophytes (ferns and relatives)-the third largest group of land plants-exhibit a diverse array of vegetative and reproductive morphologies. Investigations into their early ecological and life-history diversification require accurate, well-corroborated phylogenetic estimates. We examined the utility of a large plastid-based data set in inferring backbone relationships for monilophytes. • ...
Bastian Brock - - 2010
Being human implies a particular moral status: having moral value, agency, and responsibility. However, people are not seen as equally human. Across two studies, we examine the consequences that subtle variations in the perceived humanness of actors or groups have for their perceived moral status. Drawing on Haslam's two-dimensional model ...
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