Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1218
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Tjørve Kathleen M C - - 2010
We compare four candidate models (logistic, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, and extreme value function) for modelling the growth of birds. We fitted the models to two empirical data sets of chick growth (six biometric measurements) of African black oystercatchers Haematopus moquini from South Africa and little stints Calidris minuta from Russia, ...
Wei Fengrong - - 2010
In regression problems where covariates can be naturally grouped, the group Lasso is an attractive method for variable selection since it respects the grouping structure in the data. We study the selection and estimation properties of the group Lasso in high-dimensional settings when the number of groups exceeds the sample ...
Grippo Paul J - - 2010
With the advent of mouse models that recapitulate the cellular and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasia and cancer, it is now feasible to recruit and deploy these models for the evaluation of various chemopreventive and/or anticancer regimens. The highly lethal nature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) makes multiple areas of ...
Larsen Melinda - - 2010
Branching morphogenesis is a crucial developmental process in which vertebrate organs generate extensive epithelial surface area while retaining a compact size. In the vertebrate submandibular salivary gland, branching morphogenesis is crucial for the generation of the large surface area necessary to produce sufficient saliva. However, in many salivary gland diseases, ...
Won Jungyeon - - 2011
The need for mouse models, with their well-developed genetics and similarity to human physiology and anatomy, is clear and their central role in furthering our understanding of human disease is readily apparent in the literature. Mice carrying mutations that alter developmental pathways or cellular function provide model systems for analyzing ...
Beetz Nadine - - 2011
In the time since its discovery, phosducin's functions have been intensively studied both in vivo and in vitro. Phosducin's most important biochemical feature in in vitro studies is its binding to heterotrimeric G protein βγ-subunits. Data on phosducin's in vivo relevance, however, have only recently been published but expand the ...
Ravindran Resmi - - 2010
Multiplex methodologies enable simultaneous detection of antibodies against several infectious agents allowing sample conservation, cost effectiveness, and amenability to high-throughput/automation. We have previously described a multiplex microbead immunoassay for serodetection of ten, high-priority mouse infectious pathogens. Here, we present a validation of this multiplex diagnostic system using approximately four hundred ...
Cheatham Mary Ann - - 2011
The cochlear microphonic (CM) can be a useful analytical tool, but many investigators may not be fully familiar with its unique properties to interpret it accurately in mouse models of hearing. The purpose of this report is to develop a model for generation of the CM in wild-type (WT) and ...
Knaus Brian J - - 2010
• Premise of the study: The study of infra-taxa has historically been considered the study of incipient species. Astragalus lentiginosus Douglas ex Hooker (Fabaceae) is the most taxonomically diverse species in the U. S. flora. To gain insight into the nature of infra-taxa, I ask whether an optimal number of ...
Rowley Nicole M - - 2010
Chronic electrical stimulation via corneal electrodes can rapidly yield large numbers of kindled mice with a seizure phenotype reflective of secondarily generalized partial seizures. The corneal kindled mouse model has been found to be a highly sensitive and efficient screening model for antiepileptic drug (AED) discovery. The present study further ...
Watts Christopher R - - 2011
To investigate the effects of a heterozygous elastin gene (Eln) abnormality (deletion of one Eln allele) on the structural characteristics of the vocal fold lamina propria using a mouse model of human disease. Cross-sectional between-subjects design. Five mice, four with heterozygous Eln deletions (Eln +/-) serving as an animal model ...
Bentzon Jacob Fog - - 2010
Genetically-engineered mice with hyperlipidemia are the most widely used atherosclerosis models today, but recent advances in transgenesis open the possibility to create new models in alternative species, such as the rat and pig. It seems relevant at this point in time to review some of the strengths and weaknesses of ...
Czosek Richard J - - 2010
Duplication or absence of parts of the specialized cardiac conduction system in patients with heterotaxy syndrome causes significant clinical disease, but the mechanistic basis by which embryonic disruption of left-right patterning alters conduction system patterning in these patients is not well understood. We sought to determine whether a mouse model ...
Timmer N M - - 2010
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide in brain parenchyma and vasculature. Several proteins co-deposit with Aβ, including heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPG have been suggested to contribute to Aβ aggregation and deposition, and may influence plaque formation and persistence by stimulating Aβ fibrillization ...
Méndez Loyda B - - 2010
The availability of molecular and genetic tools has made the mouse the most common animal model for a variety of human diseases in toxicology studies. However, little is known about the factors that will influence the dose delivery to murine lungs during an inhalation study. Among these factors are the ...
Markert Chad D - - 2010
The underlying causes of denervation of the neuromuscular junction and eventual motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have not been resolved. The superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)(G93A) mutant mouse is a frequently used animal model of ALS. We hypothesized that resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic molecule that enhances mammalian NAD(+)-dependent ...
Jucker Mathias - - 2010
Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are largely limited to humans and rarely occur spontaneously in animals. Genetically engineered mouse models recapitulate aspects of the corresponding human diseases and are instrumental in studying disease mechanisms and testing therapeutic strategies. If considered within the range of their validity, mouse models have been predictive of ...
Traka Maria - - 2010
Adult-onset demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system represent the most common neurological abnormalities in young adults. Nevertheless, our understanding of disease pathogenesis and recovery in demyelinating disorders remains incomplete. To facilitate investigation into these processes, we have developed a new mouse model system that allows for the induction of ...
Soza Valerie L - - 2010
• Premise of the study: Dioecy occurs in only about 6% of angiosperms, yet it has evolved many times from hermaphroditism. Polygamy is an even more uncommon condition within angiosperms, in which both unisexual and bisexual flowers occur within a species. Polygamy, dioecy, and hermaphroditism all occur within a New ...
Parks Connie L - - 2011
Decomposition studies utilizing nonhuman subjects as human analogues are well established, but fewer studies utilizing intact human remains exist. This study provides data from a controlled decomposition study involving human remains in Central Texas. A 63.5-kg unmodified cadaver was placed in an open-air site and observed over a 10-week period ...
Melis Alicia P - - 2010
Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of ...
Nolan Tony - - 2011
In the last 10 years the availability of the genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae and the development of a transgenic technology for several species of Anopheles mosquitoes have, in combination, helped in enabling us to gain several insights into the biology of these mosquitoes that is relevant to their capacity as ...
Toups Melissa A - - 2011
Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since ...
Granic Ivica - - 2010
In the present paper by David E. Hurtado and colleagues report on a new mouse model for AD bearing Aβ and MAPT pathology by crossing PS19 and PDAPP Tg mice. Here, we tried to highlight the importance and necessity of the critical and systematic analysis of models such as the ...
Porvasnik Stacy L - - 2010
Administration of molecular, pharmacologic, or cellular constructs to the intestinal epithelium is limited by luminal surface mucosal barriers and ineffective intestinal delivery via systemic injection. Many murine models of intestinal disease are used in laboratory investigation today and would benefit specific modulation of the intestinal epithelium. Our aim was to ...
Hu James X - - 2010
In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. ...
Zörner Björn - - 2010
Rodents are frequently used to model damage and diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to functional deficits. Impaired locomotor function is currently evaluated by using scoring systems or biomechanical measures. These methods often suffer from limitations such as subjectivity, nonlinearity and low sensitivity, or focus on a ...
Tøttrup Anders P - - 2010
Evidence for climate-driven phenological changes is rapidly increasing at all trophic levels. Our current poor knowledge of the detailed control of bird migration from the level of genes and hormonal control to direct physiological and behavioral responses hampers our ability to understand and predict consequences of climatic change for migratory ...
Ju Wenjun - - 2010
Animal models have long been useful in investigating both normal and abnormal human physiology. Systems biology provides a relatively new set of approaches to identify similarities and differences between animal models and human beings that may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of human kidney pathophysiology. In this review, we ...
Hurtado David E - - 2010
Senile plaques formed by β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formed by hyperphosphorylated tau, a microtubule-associated protein, are the hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to loss of neurons. While several transgenic (Tg) mouse models have recapitulated aspects of AD-like Aβ and tau pathologies, a spatiotemporal mapping ...
Rai Hardeep S - - 2010
• Premise of the Study: The monilophytes (ferns and relatives)-the third largest group of land plants-exhibit a diverse array of vegetative and reproductive morphologies. Investigations into their early ecological and life-history diversification require accurate, well-corroborated phylogenetic estimates. We examined the utility of a large plastid-based data set in inferring backbone ...
Bastian Brock - - 2010
Being human implies a particular moral status: having moral value, agency, and responsibility. However, people are not seen as equally human. Across two studies, we examine the consequences that subtle variations in the perceived humanness of actors or groups have for their perceived moral status. Drawing on Haslam's two-dimensional model ...
Kobbe Susanne - - 2011
Flexibility in physiological processes is essential to adequately respond to changes in environmental conditions. Madagascar is a particularly challenging environment because climatic conditions seem less predictable than in comparative ecosystems in other parts of the world. We used the reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) from the most unpredictable environment in ...
Scheikl Tanja - - 2010
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and a frequent cause of neurological disability in young adults. Multifocal inflammatory lesions in the CNS white matter, demyelination, oligodendrocyte loss, axonal damage, as well as astrogliosis represent the histological hallmarks of the disease. These pathological ...
Nicholson Rachel M - - 2010
We have previously used fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography to detect the pattern of metabolic declines in two different transgenic mouse models of fibrillar beta-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the PDAPP mouse, which overexpresses a mutant form of human APP, and the PSAPP mouse, which overexpresses mutant forms of the ...
Chen Liyan - - 2011
Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) is a useful tool for studying airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), but an exact EB animal model is lacking. Our objective was to establish an EB mouse model using ovalbumin (OVA). Mice were divided into asthma, normal saline (NS) control and three model groups. Asthma mice were challenged intranasally ...
Melki Sami J - - 2010
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Excitotoxic and related inflammatory injury are implicated in the spiral ganglion degeneration seen with Meniere's disease and endolymphatic hydrops (ELH). Excitotoxicity is initiated with glutamate elevation and associated with downstream increases in reactive oxygen species resulting in inflammation-mediated neuronal degeneration. This study tests the hypothesis that interruption of the ...
Hussain Ishrut - - 2010
A critical requirement in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics is a demonstration of the in vivo efficacy of compounds in pre-clinical disease relevant models. One of the most frequently used models in AD research are transgenic mice overexpressing mutant forms of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) that are ...
Peterson Richard A - - 2010
Morphological evaluation of humanized chimeric mouse livers from the PhoenixBio (uPA(+/+)/SCID) mouse model show robust replacement and expansion with human hepatocytes, however areas of human hepatocytes had prominent steatosis and a variable lack of sinusoids which was consistent with decreased hepatocellular perfusion and lacked bile canalicular formation between human and ...
Sapienza Irene - - 2010
Although literature provides evidence for the relationship between values and acculturation, the relationship between host community acculturation orientations has not yet been investigated. In this study we tested the effects of four high-order values (openness to change, self-transcendence, conservation, and self-enhancement, devised according to Schwartz's model) on host community acculturation ...
Noble W W Departments of Neuroscience, MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, UK. - - 2010
Tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the central nervous system, and are the major cause of dementia in later life. Considerable advances have been made in developing mouse models that recapitulate, to varying extents, the development of human tau pathology, ...
Zohn Irene E IE Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA. - - 2010
Neural tube defects (NTDs) represent some of the most common congenital malformations in humans. The causes of NTDs are complex with both genetic and environmental contributing factors. Periconception nutrition is an important environmental factor influencing the penetrance of NTDs. NTDs arise from failure to close the neural tube completely during ...
Min Booki - - 2010
Basophils are the least abundant granulocytes found in the circulation. Until recently, their functions were poorly understood. In the past few years, the list of basophil functions in the context of immunity has dramatically increased. Thus, the need for basophil-deficient animal models to confirm these findings is imperative. In this ...
Li L L Computing Laboratory, University of Oxford and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United - - 2010
Mathematical modeling of Ca(2+) dynamics in the heart has the potential to provide an integrated understanding of Ca(2+)-handling mechanisms. However, many previous published models used heterogeneous experimental data sources from a variety of animals and temperatures to characterize model parameters and motivate model equations. This methodology limits the direct comparison ...
Nachlieli Hila - - 2011
Print quality (PQ) is a composite attribute defined by human perception. As such, the ultimate way to determine and quantify PQ is by human survey. However, repeated surveys are time consuming and often represent a burden on processes that involve repeated evaluations. A desired alternative would be an automatic quality ...
Ellacott Kate L J - - 2010
The global obesity epidemic has heightened the need for an improved understanding of how body weight is controlled, and research using mouse models is critical to this effort. In this perspective, we provide a conceptual framework for investigation of feeding behavior in this species, with an emphasis on factors that ...
Spatara M L - - 2010
In vivo aggregation of tau protein is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence has also demonstrated activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in AD, although the role of the UPR in disease pathogenesis is not ...
Silverman Jill L - - 2010
Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology that affects 1 in 100-150 individuals. Diagnosis is based on three categories of behavioural criteria: abnormal social interactions, communication deficits and repetitive behaviours. Strong evidence for a genetic basis has prompted the development of mouse models with targeted mutations in candidate ...
Juneja Vijay K - - 2011
Comparison of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in cooked uncured products during cooling for different meat species is presented. Cooked, uncured product was inoculated with C. perfringens spores and vacuum packaged. For the isothermal experiments, all samples were incubated in a water bath stabilized at selected temperatures between 10 and ...
Peterson Richard A - - 2010
Morphological evaluation of humanized chimeric mouse livers from the PhoenixBio(R) (uPA(+/+)/SCID) mouse model show robust replacement and expansion with human hepatocytes, however areas of human hepatocytes had prominent steatosis and a variable lack of sinusoids which was consistent with decreased hepatocellular perfusion and lacked bile canalicular formation between human and ...
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