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Christensen Jette - - 2011
In 2008, Canada designed and implemented the Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (CanNAISS) with six surveillance activities in a phased-in approach. CanNAISS was a surveillance system because it had more than one surveillance activity or component in 2008: passive surveillance; pre-slaughter surveillance; and voluntary enhanced notifiable avian influenza surveillance. ...
Vardanis Yannis - - 2011
The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found ...
Foth Christian - - 2011
Avian neoptile feathers are defined as the first feather generation, which covers the chick after hatching, and usually described as simple structures consisting of numerous downy barbs which are radially symmetrically arranged and come together in a short calamus. In contrast, in some birds (e.g., Anas platyrhynchos, Dromaius novaehollandiae) the ...
Faridi A - - 2011
Three Narushin-Takma (NT) models (NT1, NT2, and NT3) were examined for their ability to describe different curves obtained from broiler breeder flocks. The models NT1, NT2, and NT3 comprise 3 flexible mathematical functions (rational polynomial functions) with 5, 6, and 7 parameters, respectively. The characteristics fitted were BW, egg production, ...
Yassin H - - 2011
In the Dutch broiler chain, data are collected as a routine practice. However, there is wide variation in the content of data collected and in data collection systems. This variability hampers the use of field data in management information systems to support decisions. The objective of this study was to ...
Chasteen Bernadette M - - 2011
In 2005, RTI International researchers developed methods to generate synthesized population data on US households for the US Synthesized Population Database. These data are used in agent-based modeling, which simulates large-scale social networks to test how changes in the behaviors of individuals affect the overall network. Group quarters are residences ...
Wood T C - - 2011
Senter's strategy of arguing against creationism using their own methodology focused on demonstrating a morphological continuum between birds and nonavian dinosaurs using classical multidimensional scaling (CMDS), a method used by some creationists to assign species to assist in the detection of phylogenetic 'discontinuities.' Because creationists do not typically use CMDS ...
Saraux Claire - - 2011
In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean ...
Alhaji N B - - 2011
There is considerable global concern over the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) that has affected domestic poultry flocks in Nigeria and other parts of the world. There have been little investigations on the proposition that free-range flocks are potentially at higher risk of HPAI than confined small-scale commercial ...
Zhang Hui - - 2011
Lymphatic dysfunctions are associated with many diseases, ranging from cancer metastasis to transplant rejection, for which there is little effective treatment. To date, there is no natural model with which to study lymphatic regression. This study was conducted to investigate whether murine cornea, an extensively exploited tissue for vascular studies, ...
Scheenstra Alize - - 2011
Morphometry is defined as studying variations in and changes of shapes. Evaluation of shape changes in the brain is a key step in the development of new mouse models, the monitoring of different pathologies, and measuring environmental influences. Traditional morphometry was performed by manual shape delineation, so-called volumetry. Currently, automated ...
Gaonkar Bilwaj - - 2011
Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is widely used in the neuroimaging community to infer group differences in brain morphology. VBM is effective in quantifying group differences highly localized in space. However it is not equally effective when group differences might be based on interactions between multiple brain networks. We address this ...
Makuch Almut - - 2011
The purpose of the present study was to compare artificial tooth-brushing models (TBM) and individual modeling regarding their efficacy in teaching the correct brushing movements to younger preschool children. A total of 141 30- to 50-month-old preschool children who had not been previously instructed on tooth-brushing were enrolled in the ...
Hendrickx Jan Fa - - 2011
The wide range of fresh gas flow - vaporizer setting (FGF - FD) combinations used by different anesthesiologists during the wash-in period of inhaled anesthetics indicates that the selection of FGF and FD is based on habit and personal experience. An empirical model could rationalize FGF - FD selection during ...
Garwood Russell J - - 2011
Harvestmen, the third most-diverse arachnid order, are an ancient group found on all continental landmasses, except Antarctica. However, a terrestrial mode of life and leathery, poorly mineralized exoskeleton makes preservation unlikely, and their fossil record is limited. The few Palaeozoic species discovered to date appear surprisingly modern, but are too ...
Liesz Arthur - - 2011
Inflammatory cascades contribute to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) via humoral factors and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Several experimental models were previously developed to analyze post-hemorrhagic neuroinflammation. However, neuroinflammatory markers have not been compared face-to-face between these models so far, and therefore, pathophysiological conclusions drawn from only one individual model may ...
Gijbels Marion J J - - 2011
Over the past decades, transgenic and knock-out mouse models have become common use in research laboratories. Detailed phenotypic characterization of such models is essential for understanding basic mechanisms of normal physiology and disease. Hereto, pathological examination is a very helpful tool. This chapter describes detailed procedures to perform autopsy and ...
Rios-Soto Karen R - - 2011
The recent H1N1 ("swine flu") pandemic and recent H5N1 ("avian flu") outbreaks have brought increased attention to the study of the role of animal populations as reservoirs for pathogens that could invade human populations. It is believed that pigs acquired flu strains from birds and humans, acting as a mixing ...
van de Sluis Bart - - 2011
Transgenics are powerful mouse models to understand the biological functions of genes. This chapter gives a short overview of the requirements and considerations in designing a transgene. In addition, potential important choices that have to be made in advance for the successful designing and generating a transgenic mouse model are ...
Parsons Kevin J - - 2011
The African cichlids of the East-African rift-lakes provide one of the most dramatic examples of adaptive radiation known. It has long been thought that functional decoupling of the oral and pharyngeal jaws in cichlids has facilitated their explosive evolution. Recent research has also shown that craniofacial evolution from radiations in ...
Summers Richard L - - 2011
A population is considered diverse if it contains individuals with a wide variety of demographic and cultural characteristics or attributes. However, it is often difficult to compare the relative diversity of two groups. It is even more difficult to specifically measure or quantify the diversity of any single group. In ...
Congreve Curtis R - - 2011
Sphaerexochinae is a speciose and widely distributed group of cheirurid trilobites. Their temporal range extends from the earliest Ordovician through the Silurian, and they survived the end Ordovician mass extinction event (the second largest mass extinction in Earth history). Prior to this study, the individual evolutionary relationships within the group ...
Vikhrev Nikita - - 2011
The taxonomic reasons for regarding Lispe draperi Séguy, 1933, sp. rev., as a valid species instead of a synonym of Lispe tentaculata (De Geer, 1776) and for treating Lispe quaerens Villeneuve, 1936, syn. n., as a junior synonym of Lispe sericipalpis Stein, 1904 are given. A revised key for the ...
Ai Yong - - 2011
Aurora kinases have emerged as attractive targets for the design of anticancer drugs. 3D-QSAR (comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA)) and Surflex-docking studies were performed on a series of pyrrole-indoline-2-ones as Aurora A inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models using 25 inhibitors in the ...
Kamel Ibrahim - - 2011
Limited energy is the most critical constraint that limits the capabilities of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most sensors operate on batteries with limited power. Battery recharging or replacement may be impossible. Security mechanisms that are based on public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA and digital signatures are prohibitively expensive ...
Ilger Jan-Michael - - 2011
With Baryshnyala occultagen. et sp. n. (Baryshnyalidaefam. n.) we report a new small species from early Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) deposits in Hagen-Vorhalle. It differs in its unique venation pattern and small size from all other Neoptera known from this Lagerstätte and other contemporaneous locations worldwide. With an estimated wing length ...
Khalid Imran - - 2011
Different formulas have been proposed to exclude restriction based on spirometry, however none of them have specifically tested the patients whose spirometry show both obstruction and a low forced vital capacity (FVC). The study was designed to create an algorithm that would better predict the absence of restriction in such ...
Hammerschlag-Peyer Caroline M - - 2011
Ontogenetic niche shifts occur across diverse taxonomic groups, and can have critical implications for population dynamics, community structure, and ecosystem function. In this study, we provide a hypothesis-testing framework combining univariate and multivariate analyses to examine ontogenetic niche shifts using stable isotope ratios. This framework is based on three distinct ...
Bharatham Kavitha - - 2011
In this work, belonging to the field of comparative analysis of protein sequences, we focus on detection of functional specialization on the residue level. As the input, we take a set of sequences divided into groups of orthologues, each group known to be responsible for a different function. This provides ...
Espeland Marianne - - 2011
The high diversity of New Caledonia has traditionally been seen as a result of its Gondwanan origin, old age and long isolation under stable climatic conditions (the museum model). Under this scenario, we would expect species diversification to follow a constant rate model. Alternatively, if New Caledonia was completely submerged ...
MacCallum Justin L - - 2011
We assess performance in the structure refinement category in CASP9. Two years after CASP8, the performance of the best groups has not improved. There are few groups that improve any of our assessment scores with statistical significance. Some predictors, however, are able to consistently improve the physicality of the models. ...
Hollén Linda I - - 2011
Efficient cooperation requires effective coordination of individual contributions to the cooperative behaviour. Most social birds and mammals involved in cooperation produce a range of vocalisations, which may be important in regulating both individual contributions and the combined group effort. Here we investigate the role of a specific call in regulating ...
Hong Pei-Ying - - 2011
This study used 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to examine the microbial community that is closely associated with the colonic mucosa of five healthy individuals. Spatial heterogeneity in microbiota was measured at right colon, left colon and rectum, and between biopsy duplicates spaced 1 cm apart. The data demonstrate that mucosal-associated microbiota ...
Plaisance Laetitia - - 2011
Tropical reefs shelter one quarter to one third of all marine species but one third of the coral species that construct reefs are now at risk of extinction. Because traditional methods for assessing reef diversity are extremely time consuming, taxonomic expertise for many groups is lacking, and marine organisms are ...
Stillwell R Craig - - 2011
The scaling of body parts is a central feature of animal morphology. Within species, morphological traits need to be correctly proportioned to the body for the organism to function; larger individuals typically have larger body parts and smaller individuals generally have smaller body parts, such that overall body shape is ...
Wilson Alastair J - - 2011
Aggression occurs when individuals compete over limiting resources. While theoretical studies have long placed a strong emphasis on context-specificity of aggression, there is increasing recognition that consistent behavioural differences exist among individuals, and that aggressiveness may be an important component of individual personality. Though empirical studies tend to focus on ...
Evers Ellen - - 2011
In group-living animals, such as primates, the average spatial group structure often reflects the dominance hierarchy, with central dominants and peripheral subordinates. This central-peripheral group structure can arise by self-organization as a result of subordinates fleeing from dominants after losing a fight. However, in real primates, subordinates often avoid interactions ...
Barber Brian R - - 2011
Understanding how freshwater assemblages have been formed and maintained is a fundamental goal in evolutionary and ecological disciplines. Here we use a historical approach to test the hypothesis of codivergence in three clades of the Chilean freshwater species assemblage. Molecular studies of freshwater crabs (Aegla: Aeglidae: Anomura) and catfish (Trichomycterus ...
Fauchald Per - - 2011
In a "wasp-waist" ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have ...
Griesser Michael - - 2011
One of the most striking aspects of animal groups is their remarkable variation in size, both within and between species. While a number of mechanistic models have been proposed to explain this variation, there are few comprehensive datasets against which these models have been tested. In particular, we only vaguely ...
Basu Saonli - - 2011
Studying one locus or one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time may not be sufficient to understand complex diseases because they are unlikely to result from the effect of only one SNP. Each SNP alone may have little or no effect on the risk of the disease, but together ...
Howard Kirsten - - 2011
Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in ...
Li Jun - - 2011
Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping patterns and processes of extant animal distributions within East Asian margins. We select Hynobius salamanders (Amphibia: Hynobiidae) as a model to examine biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins. First, we use GenBank molecular data ...
Eichele Tom - - 2011
Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful method for source separation and has been used for decomposition of EEG, MRI, and concurrent EEG-fMRI data. ICA is not naturally suited to draw group inferences since it is a non-trivial problem to identify and order components across individuals. One solution to this ...
Lehmann Laurent - - 2011
Intraspecific coalitional aggression between groups of individuals is a widespread trait in the animal world. It occurs in invertebrates and vertebrates, and is prevalent in humans. What are the conditions under which coalitional aggression evolves in natural populations? In this article, I develop a mathematical model delineating conditions where natural ...
Gebregziabher Mulugeta - - 2011
Many studies have investigated racial/ethnic disparities in medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes using common measures such as medication possession ratio (MPR) or gaps between refills. All these measures including MPR are quasi-continuous and bounded and their distribution is usually skewed. Analysis of such measures using traditional regression ...
Monteiro Leandro R - - 2011
The phyllostomid bats present the most extensive ecological and phenotypic radiation known among mammal families. This group is an important model system for studies of cranial ecomorphology and functional optimisation because of the constraints imposed by the requirements of flight. A number of studies supporting phyllostomid adaptation have focused on ...
Gagliardo Anna - - 2011
A large body of evidence has shown that anosmic pigeons are impaired in their navigation. However, the role of odours in navigation is still subject to debate. While according to the olfactory navigation hypothesis homing pigeons possess a navigational map based on the distribution of environmental odours, the olfactory activation ...
Bever Gabe S - - 2011
The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of ...
Mann Richard P - - 2011
The emergence of similar collective patterns from different self-propelled particle models of animal groups points to a restricted set of "universal" classes for these patterns. While universality is interesting, it is often the fine details of animal interactions that are of biological importance. Universality thus presents a challenge to inferring ...
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