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Results 301 - 350 of 1256
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Barclay-Goddard Ruth - - 2012
To develop and verify a model of participation post stroke, as a domain of health related quality of life. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was selected. The quantitative phase developed a participation model with data from an observational study of 453 participants at 12 months post-stroke, using structural equation modeling. The ...
Kelley Ken - - 2011
Longitudinal studies are necessary to examine individual change over time, with group status often being an important variable in explaining some individual differences in change. Although sample size planning for longitudinal studies has focused on statistical power, recent calls for effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals underscore the importance ...
Witham Shawn - - 2011
Accurate predictions of pKa values of titratable groups require taking into account all relevant processes associated with the ionization/deionization. Frequently, however, the ionization does not involve significant structural changes and the dominating effects are purely electrostatic in origin allowing accurate predictions to be made based on the electrostatic energy difference ...
Acién Pedro - - 2011
BACKGROUND A correct classification of malformations of the female genital tract is essential to prevent unnecessary and inadequate surgical operations and to compare reproductive results. An ideal classification system should be based on aetiopathogenesis and should suggest the appropriate therapeutic strategy. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of relevant articles ...
Johnson Neil - - 2011
In military planning, it is important to be able to estimate not only the number of fatalities but how often attacks that result in fatalities will take place. We uncovered a simple dynamical pattern that may be used to estimate the escalation rate and timing of fatal attacks. The time ...
Henderson E Elizabeth - - 2011
Surface behavior and concurrent underwater vocalizations were recorded for Pacific white-sided dolphins in the Southern California Bight (SCB) over multiple field seasons spanning 3 years. Clicks, click trains, and pulsed calls were counted and classified based on acoustic measurements, leading to the identification of 19 key call features used for ...
Farrell Chad R - - 2011
This study investigates the changing racial diversity and structure of metropolitan neighborhoods. We consider three alternative perspectives about localized racial change: that neighborhoods are bifurcating along a white/nonwhite color line, fragmenting into homogeneous enclaves, or integrating white, black, Latino, and Asian residents into diverse residential environments. To assess hypotheses drawn ...
Segù M - - 2011
Numerous studies have shown how the disc displacement, which usually occurs in an antero-medial direction, can be a factor contributing to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and dysfunction. The aim of this study was to ascertain, through a critical review of the literature, current knowledge relating to anterior articular disc (ADD) ...
Miao Miao - - 2011
Discocephalids and pseudoamphisiellids are possibly two of the most confused groups among hypotrichous/euplotid ciliates regarding their systematic position and phylogenetic relationships. The former were often regarded as related to euplotids while the latter, in the absence of molecular data, were mostly assigned to the urostylid-like hypotrichs. In the present work, ...
He Jianghua - - 2011
To examine and model the dynamic association of BMI and mortality in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). BMI is transformed to facilitate modeling curvature associations. Logistic models are used to demonstrate whether different conclusions may be obtained for the same group of individuals under different settings created from FHS. Time-dependent ...
Leite Saulo Nani - - 2011
The skin requires adequate levels of nutrients to function properly. To analyze skin trophism in well-nourished and undernourished rats using two models of malnutrition. In the marasmus model, 60 Wistar rats were kept on a controlled diet, 30 being randomly selected to receive half the established diet for 60 days. ...
Aktipis C Athena - - 2011
The evolution of cooperation through partner choice mechanisms is often thought to involve relatively complex cognitive abilities. Using agent-based simulations I model a simple partner choice rule, the 'Walk Away' rule, where individuals stay in groups that provide higher returns (by virtue of having more cooperators), and 'Walk Away' from ...
Kwon Deukwoo - - 2011
To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear ...
Wang Fei - - 2011
A diverse array of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sensory materials have been synthesized and used to create sensors capable of identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the basis of their functional groups. Functionalized MWCNTs with a series of cross-sensitive recognition groups were successfully synthesized via zwitterionic and post-transformation synthetic procedures. ...
Xu D - - 2011
In this paper, we propose a new patch distribution feature (referred to as Gabor-PDF) for human gait recognition. We represent each gait energy image (GEI) as a set of local augmented Gabor features which concatenate the Gabor features extracted from different scales and different orientations together with the X-Y coordinates. ...
Susanna Alfonso - - 2011
The geographic distribution of the genus Plectocephalus comprises a single species in Ethiopia, two in North America and possibly four more in South America, in a striking disjunction that is exceptional for genera of the tribe Cardueae. The enormity of this disjunction cast doubts on the precise taxonomic delineation of ...
Abdulkadir Ahmed A Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Freiburg Brain Imaging, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. - - 2011
Fully automated machine learning methods based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can assist radiologists in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These algorithms require large data sets to learn the separation of subjects with and without AD. Training and test data may come from heterogeneous hardware settings, which ...
Giacovazzo Carmelo - - 2011
In a recent paper [Giacovazzo & Mazzone (2011). Acta Cryst. A67, 210-218] a mathematical expression of the variance at any point of the unit cell has been described. The formulas were derived in P1 for any type of Fourier synthesis (observed, difference and hybrid) under the following hypothesis: the current ...
Armstrong G - - 2011
Species with different regenerative responses to fire are hypothesised to coexist by utilising the different temporal and spatial niche opportunities created by the stochasticity of the fire regime. This is strongly supported by observations of instability of species' presence and abundance at the local scale while these are stable at ...
Zech Hajo - - 2011
Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) allows for reliable quantification of global protein abundance changes. The threshold of significance for protein abundance changes depends on the experimental variation (biological and technical). This study estimates biological, technical and total variation inherent to 2D DIGE analysis of environmental bacteria, using the model ...
Fishbach Ayelet - - 2011
This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is ...
Zador Paul L - - 2011
This randomized controlled trial of 2168 DWI multiple offenders assigned to a state-wide ignition interlock program in Maryland compared non-compliance with interlock requirements among drivers who were closely monitored (by Westat staff) and drivers who received standard monitoring (by the Motor Vehicle Administration). Compliance comparisons relied on datalogger data from ...
Antonio F J - - 2011
The accidental oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 has caused perceptible damage to marine and freshwater ecosystems. The large quantity of oil leaking at a constant rate and the long duration of the event caused an exponentially increasing mortality of vertebrates. Using data provided by NOAA and ...
Abrams Dominic - - 2011
We tested a social-identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model predicting Scottish nationalist beliefs and intention to vote for the separatist Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP). Data were from a survey of a large and representative sample of Scottish teenagers administered in the late 1980s. The SIRD model distinguishes effects of group-based and ...
Morgado Pedro - - 2011
As part of a systematic study of the thermophysical properties of two important classes of fluorinated organic compounds (perfluoroalkanes and perfluoroalkylalkanes), viscosity measurements of four n-perfluoroalkanes and five perfluoroalkylalkanes have been carried out at atmospheric pressure and over a wide range of temperatures (278 K - 353 K). From the ...
Childers W Lee - - 2011
Cyclists with uni-lateral transtibial amputation (CTA) provide a unique model to study integration of the neuromuscular and bicycle systems while having the option to modify this integration via the properties of the prosthesis. This study included eight CTA and nine intact cyclists. The cyclists pedaled on a stationary bicycle with ...
Arthur Robert M - - 2011
Objectives: This article will empirically examine the contagion theory using traffic count and speed data. This theory proposes that a driver's choice of speed will be influenced by the speed of other drivers on the road. Thus, if a person is driving at the speed limit but a certain number ...
Feaster Daniel - - 2011
This manuscript illustrates methods for utilizing measurements of individuals to identify group contextual effects on individual outcomes. Contextual effects can be identified by 1 of 3 methods: (1) divergence of the simple within- and between-group regression coefficients, (2) the presence of a cross-level interaction of the within- and between-group predictor ...
Millanes Ana M - - 2011
The Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota, Fungi) are a nutritionally heterogeneous group comprising saprotrophs, animal parasites, and fungicolous species (fungal-inhabiting, including lichen-inhabiting). The relationships of many species, particularly those with a lichenicolous habit, have never been investigated by molecular methods. We present a phylogeny of the Tremellomycetes based on three nuclear DNA ...
Marshall James A R JA Department of Computer Science/Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7HQ, UK. - - 2011
Inclusive fitness theory, summarised in Hamilton's rule, is a dominant explanation for the evolution of social behaviour. A parallel thread of evolutionary theory holds that selection between groups is also a candidate explanation for social evolution. The mathematical equivalence of these two approaches has long been known. Several recent papers, ...
Rizzo Amilcar Ezequiel AE Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2012
Wound healing is a complex process that involves multiple intercellular and intracellular processes and extracellular interactions. Explanted human skin has been used as a model for the re-epithelialization phase of human wound healing. The currently used standard technique uses a circular punch biopsy tool to make the initial wound. Despite ...
Christie Andrew E - - 2011
Decapod crustaceans have long served as important models for the study of neuroendocrine signaling. For example, the process of neurosecretion was first formally demonstrated by using a member of this order. In this review, the major decapod neuroendocrine organs are described, as are their phylogenetic conservation and neurochemistry. In addition, ...
Shaikh Abdul R - - 2011
This study tested the effects of two theory-based interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake. Hypothesized intervention mediators included self-efficacy (SE), social support (SS), autonomous motivation (AM), and controlled motivation (CM). At baseline, 1,021 African American adults were recruited from 16 churches randomized to one comparison and two intervention groups: ...
Petrillo Jennifer - - 2011
The exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease tool (EXACT) is a condition-specific daily diary recently developed to evaluate the frequency, severity, and duration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. A preference-based algorithm for the EXACT would allow utilities to be reported from patients during an exacerbation when EQ-5D data ...
Pierucci-Alves Fernando - - 2011
Nearly all male cystic fibrosis (CF) patients exhibit tissue abnormalities in the reproductive tract, a condition that renders them azoospermic and infertile. Two swine CF models have been reported recently that include respiratory and digestive manifestations that are comparable to human CF. The goal of this study was to determine ...
Sierra Germán - - 2011
Berry and Keating conjectured that the classical Hamiltonian H=xp is related to the Riemann zeros. A regularization of this model yields semiclassical energies that behave, on average, as the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. However, the classical trajectories are not closed, rendering the model incomplete. In this Letter, ...
Lorenz Jan - - 2011
Social groups can be remarkably smart and knowledgeable when their averaged judgements are compared with the judgements of individuals. Already Galton [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:7] found evidence that the median estimate of a group can be more accurate than estimates of experts. This wisdom of crowd effect was recently ...
Fureix Carole - - 2011
Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and ...
Jim Warwicker - - 2011
Modeling charge interactions is important for understanding many aspects of biological structure and function, and continuum methods such as Finite Difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB) are commonly employed. Calculations of pH-dependence have identified separate populations; surface groups that can be modeled with a simple Debye-Hückel (DH) model, and buried groups, with stronger ...
Ma Qi - - 2011
Several empirical studies have shown that the animal group size distribution of many species can be well fit by power laws with exponential truncation. A striking empirical result due to Niwa is that the exponent in these power laws is one and the truncation is determined by the average group ...
Morales-Hojas Ramiro - - 2011
The Drosophila virilis group is one of the major lineages of Drosophila previously recognised and it has been used as a model for different types of studies. It comprises 13 species whose phylogenetic relationships are not well resolved. In the present study, six nuclear genes (Adh, fused, Gpdh, NonA, CG9631 ...
Rivera-Torres V - - 2011
Along with the fast genetic improvement, nutritional and environmental effects on poultry growth performance have made it necessary to develop growth models that have the flexibility to adapt to different genotypes and growing conditions. A mechanistic simulation model of energy and nutrient utilization in growing turkeys is presented herein. The ...
Pileri Stefano A - - 2011
The classification of malignant lymphomas remained controversial for over 30 years. The first scheme was proposed by Rappaport in the '60th and was based on incorrect histogenetic concepts. To overcome these limitations, several groups formulated new proposals in '70th. Among these two merited attention: the Lukes and Collins and the ...
Chang Ying - - 2011
Investigating the early diversification of major clades requires well-corroborated and accurate phylogenetic inferences. We examined the performance of a large set of plastid genes for inferring the broad phylogenetic backbone of mosses-the second largest major clade of land plants-and their nearest relatives. We surveyed 14-17 plastid genes from a broadly ...
Dafni Urania - - 2011
This statistical primer presents the landmark analysis method, exploring its appropriate use and interpretation while recognizing its limitations. This observational method is used for comparing time-to-event outcome between groups determined during study follow-up. The goal of the landmark method is to estimate in an unbiased way the time-to-event probabilities in ...
Miyazaki Ryoji - - 2011
The two- and three-dimensional transverse-field Ising models with ferromagnetic exchange interactions are analyzed by means of the real-space renormalization-group method. The basic strategy is a generalization of a method developed for the one-dimensional case, which exploits the exact invariance of the model under renormalization and is known to give the ...
Bever Gabe S - - 2011
SUMMARY The origin of the tridactyl hand of crown birds from the pentadactyl hand of those early theropod dinosaurs lying along the avian stem has become a classic, but at times seemingly intractable, historical problem. The point in question is whether the fingers of crown birds represent digits 1-3 as ...
Bletzer Keith V KV School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA. - - 2011
Focus groups provide a source of data that highlight community ideas on a topic of interest. How interview data will be utilized varies by project. With this in mind, we identify ways that focus group data from a particular population (Native American) articulate a health issue of individual tribal concern ...
White Joseph D - - 2011
Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated ...
Henriksen Rie - - 2011
Although most work on prenatal stress has been conducted on mammalian species, birds provide useful alternative models since avian embryos develop outside the mother's body in a concealed environment, the egg, which is produced during a short time window of 4-14 days. This facilitates measurement of maternal substances provided for ...
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