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Results 301 - 350 of 1218
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Petrillo Jennifer - - 2011
The exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease tool (EXACT) is a condition-specific daily diary recently developed to evaluate the frequency, severity, and duration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. A preference-based algorithm for the EXACT would allow utilities to be reported from patients during an exacerbation when EQ-5D data ...
Pierucci-Alves Fernando - - 2011
Nearly all male cystic fibrosis (CF) patients exhibit tissue abnormalities in the reproductive tract, a condition that renders them azoospermic and infertile. Two swine CF models have been reported recently that include respiratory and digestive manifestations that are comparable to human CF. The goal of this study was to determine ...
Sierra Germán - - 2011
Berry and Keating conjectured that the classical Hamiltonian H=xp is related to the Riemann zeros. A regularization of this model yields semiclassical energies that behave, on average, as the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. However, the classical trajectories are not closed, rendering the model incomplete. In this Letter, ...
Lorenz Jan - - 2011
Social groups can be remarkably smart and knowledgeable when their averaged judgements are compared with the judgements of individuals. Already Galton [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:7] found evidence that the median estimate of a group can be more accurate than estimates of experts. This wisdom of crowd effect was recently ...
Fureix Carole - - 2011
Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and ...
Jim Warwicker - - 2011
Modeling charge interactions is important for understanding many aspects of biological structure and function, and continuum methods such as Finite Difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB) are commonly employed. Calculations of pH-dependence have identified separate populations; surface groups that can be modeled with a simple Debye-Hückel (DH) model, and buried groups, with stronger ...
Ma Qi - - 2011
Several empirical studies have shown that the animal group size distribution of many species can be well fit by power laws with exponential truncation. A striking empirical result due to Niwa is that the exponent in these power laws is one and the truncation is determined by the average group ...
Morales-Hojas Ramiro - - 2011
The Drosophila virilis group is one of the major lineages of Drosophila previously recognised and it has been used as a model for different types of studies. It comprises 13 species whose phylogenetic relationships are not well resolved. In the present study, six nuclear genes (Adh, fused, Gpdh, NonA, CG9631 ...
Rivera-Torres V - - 2011
Along with the fast genetic improvement, nutritional and environmental effects on poultry growth performance have made it necessary to develop growth models that have the flexibility to adapt to different genotypes and growing conditions. A mechanistic simulation model of energy and nutrient utilization in growing turkeys is presented herein. The ...
Pileri Stefano A - - 2011
The classification of malignant lymphomas remained controversial for over 30 years. The first scheme was proposed by Rappaport in the '60th and was based on incorrect histogenetic concepts. To overcome these limitations, several groups formulated new proposals in '70th. Among these two merited attention: the Lukes and Collins and the ...
Chang Ying - - 2011
Investigating the early diversification of major clades requires well-corroborated and accurate phylogenetic inferences. We examined the performance of a large set of plastid genes for inferring the broad phylogenetic backbone of mosses-the second largest major clade of land plants-and their nearest relatives. We surveyed 14-17 plastid genes from a broadly ...
Dafni Urania - - 2011
This statistical primer presents the landmark analysis method, exploring its appropriate use and interpretation while recognizing its limitations. This observational method is used for comparing time-to-event outcome between groups determined during study follow-up. The goal of the landmark method is to estimate in an unbiased way the time-to-event probabilities in ...
Miyazaki Ryoji - - 2011
The two- and three-dimensional transverse-field Ising models with ferromagnetic exchange interactions are analyzed by means of the real-space renormalization-group method. The basic strategy is a generalization of a method developed for the one-dimensional case, which exploits the exact invariance of the model under renormalization and is known to give the ...
Bever Gabe S - - 2011
SUMMARY The origin of the tridactyl hand of crown birds from the pentadactyl hand of those early theropod dinosaurs lying along the avian stem has become a classic, but at times seemingly intractable, historical problem. The point in question is whether the fingers of crown birds represent digits 1-3 as ...
Bletzer Keith V KV School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA. - - 2011
Focus groups provide a source of data that highlight community ideas on a topic of interest. How interview data will be utilized varies by project. With this in mind, we identify ways that focus group data from a particular population (Native American) articulate a health issue of individual tribal concern ...
White Joseph D - - 2011
Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated ...
Henriksen Rie - - 2011
Although most work on prenatal stress has been conducted on mammalian species, birds provide useful alternative models since avian embryos develop outside the mother's body in a concealed environment, the egg, which is produced during a short time window of 4-14 days. This facilitates measurement of maternal substances provided for ...
Thomas Philippe J - - 2011
Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are widely used to control rodent pests but exposure and poisonings occur in non-target species, such as birds of prey. Liver residues are often analysed to detect exposure in birds found dead but their use to assess toxicity of SGARs is problematic. We analysed published data ...
Adebambo Ayotunde Olutumininu - - 2011
General and specific combining abilities for feed efficiency in 5,191 chicks from a combination of four breeds of chickens, (Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G), and normal indigenous (N) chickens) were examined by means of diallel analysis. The analysis revealed that Anak Titan had the highest general combining ability ...
Achar Rosi Aparecida Nunes - - 2011
This paper proposes a model of training surgical skills using vascular anastomosis in an animal model that simulates the size, consistency and resistance arteries and veins, to use it to chicken trachea and esophagus, respectively. We used chicken necks where the esophagus and trachea were dissected and after preparation were ...
Men H - - 2011
As the importance of swine models in biomedical research increases, it is essential to develop low-cost, high-throughput systems to cryopreserve swine germplasm for maintenance of these models. However, porcine embryos are exceedingly sensitive to low temperature and successful cryopreservation is generally limited to the use of vitrification in open systems ...
Wu Chen-Fa - - 2011
This work utilizes bird survey data, regression modeling, land-use modeling and landscape metrics to evaluate the effects of various spatial bird diversity conservation approaches on land-use allocation, land-use patterns, and biodiversity in the Shangan sub-watershed in central Taiwan. A survey of the distribution of species revealed that bird species are ...
Wang X - - 2011
We examine the relationships between primary feather length (f(prim) ) and total arm length (ta) (sum of humerus, ulna and manus lengths) in Mesozoic fossil birds to address one aspect of avian wing shape evolution. Analyses show that there are significant differences in the composition of the wing between the ...
Dong Ni - - 2011
A VR-based training system for practicing biopsies simulates ultrasound imagery by stitching multiple ultrasound volumes on the basis of a 3D scale-invariant feature transform algorithm. In addition, a six-degree-of-freedom force model delivers a realistic haptic rendering of needle insertion.
Christensen Jette - - 2011
In 2008, Canada designed and implemented the Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (CanNAISS) with six surveillance activities in a phased-in approach. CanNAISS was a surveillance system because it had more than one surveillance activity or component in 2008: passive surveillance; pre-slaughter surveillance; and voluntary enhanced notifiable avian influenza surveillance. ...
Vardanis Yannis - - 2011
The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found ...
Foth Christian - - 2011
Avian neoptile feathers are defined as the first feather generation, which covers the chick after hatching, and usually described as simple structures consisting of numerous downy barbs which are radially symmetrically arranged and come together in a short calamus. In contrast, in some birds (e.g., Anas platyrhynchos, Dromaius novaehollandiae) the ...
Faridi A - - 2011
Three Narushin-Takma (NT) models (NT1, NT2, and NT3) were examined for their ability to describe different curves obtained from broiler breeder flocks. The models NT1, NT2, and NT3 comprise 3 flexible mathematical functions (rational polynomial functions) with 5, 6, and 7 parameters, respectively. The characteristics fitted were BW, egg production, ...
Yassin H - - 2011
In the Dutch broiler chain, data are collected as a routine practice. However, there is wide variation in the content of data collected and in data collection systems. This variability hampers the use of field data in management information systems to support decisions. The objective of this study was to ...
Chasteen Bernadette M - - 2011
In 2005, RTI International researchers developed methods to generate synthesized population data on US households for the US Synthesized Population Database. These data are used in agent-based modeling, which simulates large-scale social networks to test how changes in the behaviors of individuals affect the overall network. Group quarters are residences ...
Wood T C - - 2011
Senter's strategy of arguing against creationism using their own methodology focused on demonstrating a morphological continuum between birds and nonavian dinosaurs using classical multidimensional scaling (CMDS), a method used by some creationists to assign species to assist in the detection of phylogenetic 'discontinuities.' Because creationists do not typically use CMDS ...
Saraux Claire - - 2011
In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean ...
Alhaji N B - - 2011
There is considerable global concern over the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) that has affected domestic poultry flocks in Nigeria and other parts of the world. There have been little investigations on the proposition that free-range flocks are potentially at higher risk of HPAI than confined small-scale commercial ...
Zhang Hui - - 2011
Lymphatic dysfunctions are associated with many diseases, ranging from cancer metastasis to transplant rejection, for which there is little effective treatment. To date, there is no natural model with which to study lymphatic regression. This study was conducted to investigate whether murine cornea, an extensively exploited tissue for vascular studies, ...
Scheenstra Alize - - 2011
Morphometry is defined as studying variations in and changes of shapes. Evaluation of shape changes in the brain is a key step in the development of new mouse models, the monitoring of different pathologies, and measuring environmental influences. Traditional morphometry was performed by manual shape delineation, so-called volumetry. Currently, automated ...
Gaonkar Bilwaj - - 2011
Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is widely used in the neuroimaging community to infer group differences in brain morphology. VBM is effective in quantifying group differences highly localized in space. However it is not equally effective when group differences might be based on interactions between multiple brain networks. We address this ...
Makuch Almut - - 2011
The purpose of the present study was to compare artificial tooth-brushing models (TBM) and individual modeling regarding their efficacy in teaching the correct brushing movements to younger preschool children. A total of 141 30- to 50-month-old preschool children who had not been previously instructed on tooth-brushing were enrolled in the ...
Hendrickx Jan Fa - - 2011
The wide range of fresh gas flow - vaporizer setting (FGF - FD) combinations used by different anesthesiologists during the wash-in period of inhaled anesthetics indicates that the selection of FGF and FD is based on habit and personal experience. An empirical model could rationalize FGF - FD selection during ...
Garwood Russell J - - 2011
Harvestmen, the third most-diverse arachnid order, are an ancient group found on all continental landmasses, except Antarctica. However, a terrestrial mode of life and leathery, poorly mineralized exoskeleton makes preservation unlikely, and their fossil record is limited. The few Palaeozoic species discovered to date appear surprisingly modern, but are too ...
Liesz Arthur - - 2011
Inflammatory cascades contribute to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) via humoral factors and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Several experimental models were previously developed to analyze post-hemorrhagic neuroinflammation. However, neuroinflammatory markers have not been compared face-to-face between these models so far, and therefore, pathophysiological conclusions drawn from only one individual model may ...
Gijbels Marion J J - - 2011
Over the past decades, transgenic and knock-out mouse models have become common use in research laboratories. Detailed phenotypic characterization of such models is essential for understanding basic mechanisms of normal physiology and disease. Hereto, pathological examination is a very helpful tool. This chapter describes detailed procedures to perform autopsy and ...
Rios-Soto Karen R - - 2011
The recent H1N1 ("swine flu") pandemic and recent H5N1 ("avian flu") outbreaks have brought increased attention to the study of the role of animal populations as reservoirs for pathogens that could invade human populations. It is believed that pigs acquired flu strains from birds and humans, acting as a mixing ...
van de Sluis Bart - - 2011
Transgenics are powerful mouse models to understand the biological functions of genes. This chapter gives a short overview of the requirements and considerations in designing a transgene. In addition, potential important choices that have to be made in advance for the successful designing and generating a transgenic mouse model are ...
Parsons Kevin J - - 2011
The African cichlids of the East-African rift-lakes provide one of the most dramatic examples of adaptive radiation known. It has long been thought that functional decoupling of the oral and pharyngeal jaws in cichlids has facilitated their explosive evolution. Recent research has also shown that craniofacial evolution from radiations in ...
Summers Richard L - - 2011
A population is considered diverse if it contains individuals with a wide variety of demographic and cultural characteristics or attributes. However, it is often difficult to compare the relative diversity of two groups. It is even more difficult to specifically measure or quantify the diversity of any single group. In ...
Congreve Curtis R - - 2011
Sphaerexochinae is a speciose and widely distributed group of cheirurid trilobites. Their temporal range extends from the earliest Ordovician through the Silurian, and they survived the end Ordovician mass extinction event (the second largest mass extinction in Earth history). Prior to this study, the individual evolutionary relationships within the group ...
Vikhrev Nikita - - 2011
The taxonomic reasons for regarding Lispe draperi Séguy, 1933, sp. rev., as a valid species instead of a synonym of Lispe tentaculata (De Geer, 1776) and for treating Lispe quaerens Villeneuve, 1936, syn. n., as a junior synonym of Lispe sericipalpis Stein, 1904 are given. A revised key for the ...
Ai Yong - - 2011
Aurora kinases have emerged as attractive targets for the design of anticancer drugs. 3D-QSAR (comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA)) and Surflex-docking studies were performed on a series of pyrrole-indoline-2-ones as Aurora A inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models using 25 inhibitors in the ...
Kamel Ibrahim - - 2011
Limited energy is the most critical constraint that limits the capabilities of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most sensors operate on batteries with limited power. Battery recharging or replacement may be impossible. Security mechanisms that are based on public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA and digital signatures are prohibitively expensive ...
Ilger Jan-Michael - - 2011
With Baryshnyala occultagen. et sp. n. (Baryshnyalidaefam. n.) we report a new small species from early Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) deposits in Hagen-Vorhalle. It differs in its unique venation pattern and small size from all other Neoptera known from this Lagerstätte and other contemporaneous locations worldwide. With an estimated wing length ...
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