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Long Benjamin L - - 2011
Mental distractions and physical impairments can increase the risk of accidents by affecting a driver's ability to control the vehicle. In this paper we developed a linear mathematical model that may be used to quantitatively predict drivers' performance over a variety of possible driving conditions. Predictions were not limited only ...
Muffly Tyler M - - 2012
To determine whether the tissue model onto which a knot is tied influences the knot's tensile strength. Zero-gauge, nonexpired, silk, polyglactin 910, polydioxanone, and polypropylene sutures were tied on 4 different mock tissue models. The tissue models were standard metal hex head screw, uncooked chicken breast, a tube of packaged ...
Li Lang - - 2011
• Premise of the study: The Persea group (Lauraceae) has a tropical and subtropical amphi-pacific disjunct distribution with most of its members, and it includes two Macaronesian species. The relationships within the group are still controversial, and its intercontinental disjunction has not been investigated with extensive sampling and precise time ...
Bergman Michael S - - 2011
BACKGROUND: A concern with reuse of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) is that multiple donnings could stress FFR components, impairing fit. This study investigated the impact of multiple donnings on the facepiece fit of 6 N95 FFR models using a group of 10 ...
Gondan Matthias - - 2011
When participants are asked to respond in the same way to stimuli from different sources (e.g., auditory and visual), responses are often observed to be substantially faster when both stimuli are presented simultaneously (redundancy gain). Different models account for this effect, the two most important being race models and coactivation ...
Feldman Chris R - - 2011
The brush and tree lizards (Urosaurus) are a small clade of phrynosomatid lizards native to western North America. Though not as well known as their diverse sister clade, the spiny lizards (Sceloporus), some Urosaurus have nonetheless become model organisms in integrative biology. In particular, dramatic phenotypic and behavioral differences associated ...
Faes Miriam C - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: In some trials, the intervention is delivered to individuals in groups, for example, groups that exercise together. The group structure of such trials has to be taken into consideration in the analysis and has an impact on the power of the trial. Our aim was to provide optimal methods ...
Gai Zhikun - - 2011
Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or 'ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight ...
Friedman Matt - - 2012
Giant suspension feeders such as mysticete whales, basking and whale sharks, and the extinct (indicated by '†') †pachycormiform teleosts are conspicuous members of modern and fossil marine vertebrate faunas. Whether convergent anatomical features common to these clades arose along similar evolutionary pathways has remained unclear because of a lack of ...
Abrams Daniel M - - 2011
When social groups compete for members, the resulting dynamics may be understandable with mathematical models. We demonstrate that a simple ordinary differential equation (ODE) model is a good fit for religious shift by comparing it to a new international data set tracking religious nonaffiliation. We then generalize the model to ...
Dekkers Olaf M - - 2011
The counterfactual theory defines a conceptual framework for judging causation of therapeutic interventions. The main assumption underlying the claim that a counterfactual statement holds is that compared groups are exchangeable. In observational studies for therapeutic effects causal claims are hard to justify because the lack of exchangeability between compared groups. ...
Ge Weina - - 2011
Building upon state-of-the-art algorithms for pedestrian detection and multi-object tracking, and inspired by sociological models of human collective behavior, we automatically detect small groups of individuals who are traveling together. These groups are discovered by bottom-up hierarchical clustering using a generalized, symmetric Hausdorff distance defined with respect to pairwise proximity ...
de Hoop Esther - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Balance of prognostic factors between treatment groups is desirable because it improves the accuracy, precision, and credibility of the results. In cluster-controlled trials, imbalance can easily occur by chance when the number of cluster is small. If all clusters are known at the start of the study, the "best ...
Trizzino Marco - - 2011
Hydraena is the largest genus within the water beetle family Hydraenidae, with ca. 1000 species distributed worldwide. Within this large genus some monophyletic groups of species are recognised, among them the "Haenydra" lineage, including ca. 90 species distributed in the western Palaearctic from the Iberian peninsula to Iran. Species of ...
van Veelen Matthijs - - 2011
It is often suggested that any group selection model can be recast in terms of inclusive fitness. A standard reference to support that claim is "'Quantitative genetics, inclusive fitness, and group selection" by Queller (1992. Quantitative genetics, inclusive fitness, and group selection. Am. Nat. (3), 540-558). In that paper the ...
Fricke-Zech Susanne - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To conduct a pilot study to investigate the potentiality to determine the midpalatal sutural width radiographically with a flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) in a porcine model. Materials and Methods: Bone samples from the midpalatal suture of five young (16 weeks) and five old (200 weeks) sus scrofa domestica were ...
Lee Seung-Pyo - - 2011
Tooth wear is an unavoidable process associated with aging. Currently, virtual three-dimensional dental models are widely used and provide an advantage for studying tooth wear. However, there are no wear assessment parameters using virtual tooth models for the quantitative analysis of wear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to ...
Ryan J - - 2011
The WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) recognises five distinct groups, all sharing a mean, resting, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) > 25 mmHg. The aetiology of PH varies by group (1-pulmonary vascular disease, 2-high left heart filling pressures, 3-hypoxia, 4-unresolved pulmonary embolism and 5-miscellaneous). Inclusion in a group reflects shared histological, haemodynamic ...
Simon Burton - - 2011
Hamilton's rule is regarded as a useful tool in the understanding of social evolution, but it relies on restrictive, overly simple assumptions. Here we model more realistic situations, in which the traditional Hamilton's rule generally fails to predict the direction of selection. We offer modifications that allow accurate predictions, but ...
Martins Catarina I M - - 2012
Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory ...
Xu Xing - - 2011
Archaeopteryx is widely accepted as being the most basal bird, and accordingly it is regarded as central to understanding avialan origins; however, recent discoveries of derived maniraptorans have weakened the avialan status of Archaeopteryx. Here we report a new Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China. This find further demonstrates that many features ...
Katz Yael - - 2011
Determining individual-level interactions that govern highly coordinated motion in animal groups or cellular aggregates has been a long-standing challenge, central to understanding the mechanisms and evolution of collective behavior. Numerous models have been proposed, many of which display realistic-looking dynamics, but nonetheless rely on untested assumptions about how individuals integrate ...
Lüdtke Oliver - - 2011
In multilevel modeling, group-level variables (L2) for assessing contextual effects are frequently generated by aggregating variables from a lower level (L1). A major problem of contextual analyses in the social sciences is that there is no error-free measurement of constructs. In the present article, 2 types of error occurring in ...
Davies Sheryl S Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University CHP/PCOR, 117 Encina Commons, Stanford, CA 94305-6019, USA. - - 2011
To test the implementation of a novel structured panel process in the evaluation of quality indicators. National panel of 64 clinicians rating usefulness of indicator applications in 2008-2009. Hybrid panel combined Delphi Group and Nominal Group (NG) techniques to evaluate 81 indicator applications. The Delphi Group and NG rated 56 ...
Galovich Luis Alvarez - - 2011
Calcium phosphate cements (biocements) are alternative materials for use in vertebral augmentation procedures, and are a potential solution to problems associated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cements. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of percutaneously injected biocements compared with PMMA in a validated animal model of osteoporosis. Fortyseven ...
Donovan Michael J MJ Aureon Biosciences, Yonkers, NY 10701, USA. - - 2012
To compare the performance of a systems-based risk assessment tool with standard defined risk groups and the 10-year postoperative nomogram for predicting disease progression, including biochemical relapse and clinical (systemic) failure. Clinical variables, biometric profiles and outcome results from a training cohort comprising 373 patients in a published postoperative systems-based ...
Nascimento Alexandre T Amaral - - 2011
The critically endangered black-faced lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara, has a restricted geographical distribution consisting of small mainland and island populations, each with distinct habitats in coastal southeastern Brazil. Necessary conservation management actions require an assessment of whether differences in habitats are reflected in use of space by the species. We ...
Funato Tetsuro - - 2011
Aggressive behaviour within pairs of male crickets leads to the establishment of a dominance hierarchy. Defeated males avoid their victorious adversaries for several hours before regaining aggressiveness. However, the defeated male does not regain aggressiveness if repeated fighting occurs. Loss of individual aggressiveness is limited by group size, which constrains ...
Berk Maurice - - 2011
Metabolomics is the study of the complement of small molecule metabolites in cells, biofluids and tissues. Many metabolomic experiments are designed to compare changes observed over time under two experimental conditions or groups (e.g. a control and drug-treated group) with the goal of identifying discriminatory metabolites or biomarkers that characterize ...
Barclay-Goddard Ruth - - 2012
To develop and verify a model of participation post stroke, as a domain of health related quality of life. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was selected. The quantitative phase developed a participation model with data from an observational study of 453 participants at 12 months post-stroke, using structural equation modeling. The ...
Kelley Ken - - 2011
Longitudinal studies are necessary to examine individual change over time, with group status often being an important variable in explaining some individual differences in change. Although sample size planning for longitudinal studies has focused on statistical power, recent calls for effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals underscore the importance ...
Witham Shawn - - 2011
Accurate predictions of pKa values of titratable groups require taking into account all relevant processes associated with the ionization/deionization. Frequently, however, the ionization does not involve significant structural changes and the dominating effects are purely electrostatic in origin allowing accurate predictions to be made based on the electrostatic energy difference ...
Acién Pedro - - 2011
BACKGROUND A correct classification of malformations of the female genital tract is essential to prevent unnecessary and inadequate surgical operations and to compare reproductive results. An ideal classification system should be based on aetiopathogenesis and should suggest the appropriate therapeutic strategy. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of relevant articles ...
Johnson Neil - - 2011
In military planning, it is important to be able to estimate not only the number of fatalities but how often attacks that result in fatalities will take place. We uncovered a simple dynamical pattern that may be used to estimate the escalation rate and timing of fatal attacks. The time ...
Henderson E Elizabeth - - 2011
Surface behavior and concurrent underwater vocalizations were recorded for Pacific white-sided dolphins in the Southern California Bight (SCB) over multiple field seasons spanning 3 years. Clicks, click trains, and pulsed calls were counted and classified based on acoustic measurements, leading to the identification of 19 key call features used for ...
Farrell Chad R - - 2011
This study investigates the changing racial diversity and structure of metropolitan neighborhoods. We consider three alternative perspectives about localized racial change: that neighborhoods are bifurcating along a white/nonwhite color line, fragmenting into homogeneous enclaves, or integrating white, black, Latino, and Asian residents into diverse residential environments. To assess hypotheses drawn ...
Segù M - - 2011
Numerous studies have shown how the disc displacement, which usually occurs in an antero-medial direction, can be a factor contributing to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and dysfunction. The aim of this study was to ascertain, through a critical review of the literature, current knowledge relating to anterior articular disc (ADD) ...
Miao Miao - - 2011
Discocephalids and pseudoamphisiellids are possibly two of the most confused groups among hypotrichous/euplotid ciliates regarding their systematic position and phylogenetic relationships. The former were often regarded as related to euplotids while the latter, in the absence of molecular data, were mostly assigned to the urostylid-like hypotrichs. In the present work, ...
He Jianghua - - 2011
To examine and model the dynamic association of BMI and mortality in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). BMI is transformed to facilitate modeling curvature associations. Logistic models are used to demonstrate whether different conclusions may be obtained for the same group of individuals under different settings created from FHS. Time-dependent ...
Leite Saulo Nani - - 2011
The skin requires adequate levels of nutrients to function properly. To analyze skin trophism in well-nourished and undernourished rats using two models of malnutrition. In the marasmus model, 60 Wistar rats were kept on a controlled diet, 30 being randomly selected to receive half the established diet for 60 days. ...
Aktipis C Athena - - 2011
The evolution of cooperation through partner choice mechanisms is often thought to involve relatively complex cognitive abilities. Using agent-based simulations I model a simple partner choice rule, the 'Walk Away' rule, where individuals stay in groups that provide higher returns (by virtue of having more cooperators), and 'Walk Away' from ...
Kwon Deukwoo - - 2011
To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear ...
Wang Fei - - 2011
A diverse array of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sensory materials have been synthesized and used to create sensors capable of identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the basis of their functional groups. Functionalized MWCNTs with a series of cross-sensitive recognition groups were successfully synthesized via zwitterionic and post-transformation synthetic procedures. ...
Xu D - - 2011
In this paper, we propose a new patch distribution feature (referred to as Gabor-PDF) for human gait recognition. We represent each gait energy image (GEI) as a set of local augmented Gabor features which concatenate the Gabor features extracted from different scales and different orientations together with the X-Y coordinates. ...
Susanna Alfonso - - 2011
The geographic distribution of the genus Plectocephalus comprises a single species in Ethiopia, two in North America and possibly four more in South America, in a striking disjunction that is exceptional for genera of the tribe Cardueae. The enormity of this disjunction cast doubts on the precise taxonomic delineation of ...
Abdulkadir Ahmed - - 2011
Fully automated machine learning methods based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can assist radiologists in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These algorithms require large data sets to learn the separation of subjects with and without AD. Training and test data may come from heterogeneous hardware settings, which ...
Giacovazzo Carmelo - - 2011
In a recent paper [Giacovazzo & Mazzone (2011). Acta Cryst. A67, 210-218] a mathematical expression of the variance at any point of the unit cell has been described. The formulas were derived in P1 for any type of Fourier synthesis (observed, difference and hybrid) under the following hypothesis: the current ...
Armstrong G - - 2011
Species with different regenerative responses to fire are hypothesised to coexist by utilising the different temporal and spatial niche opportunities created by the stochasticity of the fire regime. This is strongly supported by observations of instability of species' presence and abundance at the local scale while these are stable at ...
Zech Hajo - - 2011
Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) allows for reliable quantification of global protein abundance changes. The threshold of significance for protein abundance changes depends on the experimental variation (biological and technical). This study estimates biological, technical and total variation inherent to 2D DIGE analysis of environmental bacteria, using the model ...
Fishbach Ayelet - - 2011
This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is ...
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