Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1194
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Mariani Valerio - - 2011
In the Ninth Edition of the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP9), 61,665 models submitted by 176 groups were assessed for their accuracy in the template based modeling category. The models were evaluated numerically in comparison to their experimental control structures using two global measures (GDT and ...
Sahlqvist Shannon L - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Initiatives to promote utility cycling in countries like Australia and the US, which have low rates of utility cycling, may be more effective if they first target recreational cyclists. This study aimed to describe patterns of utility cycling and examine its correlates, among cyclists in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: An ...
Albert Jeffrey M - - 2011
Zero-inflated (ZI) models, which may be derived as a mixture involving a degenerate distribution at value zero and a distribution such as negative binomial (ZINB), have proved useful in dental and other areas of research by accommodating 'extra' zeroes in the data. Used in conjunction with generalised linear models, they ...
Chaianunporn T - - 2011
Theoretical and empirical studies indicate that exploitation is a possible driver of exploiter and victim diversification. However, there are many factors which could promote and limit this diversification process. Using a spatially explicit individual-based model, where an exploiter's success depends on matching between its own and a victim's continuous trait, ...
Richmond Jonathan Q - - 2011
Abstract Mechanical reproductive barriers have been dismissed as a major driver of animal speciation, yet the extent to which such barriers cause reproductive isolation in most animal groups is largely unknown and rarely tested. In this study, we used hierarchical Bayesian modeling of mate compatibility experiments to show that body ...
Maia Luiz Guilherme Martins - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to use photoelastic analysis to compare the system of forces generated by retraction T-loop springs made with stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) with photoelastic analysis. Three photoelastic models were used to evaluate retraction T-loop springs with the same preactivations in ...
Garofolo Fabio - - 2011
The 5th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) was organized by the Calibration and Validation Group as a 2-day full immersion workshop for pharmaceutical companies, CROs and regulatory agencies to discuss, review, share perspectives, provide potential solutions and agree upon a consistent approach to recent issues in the bioanalysis ...
Squadrone R - - 2011
The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the VibramFivefingers model, with its minimal structure, cushioning and finger separation, allows a more accurate estimate of static and dynamic foot position compared to wearing a standard cushioned running shoe. Static ankle joint position sense was assessed in ...
Sakirkin Sharon L P - - 2011
Visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR, 350-2500 nm) diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) models built from "as-collected" samples of solid cattle manure accurately predict concentrations of moisture and crude ash. Because different organic molecules emit different spectral signatures, variations in livestock diet composition may affect the predictive accuracy of these models. This study ...
Gilles Ingrid - - 2011
Much research studies how individuals cope with disease threat by blaming out-groups and protecting the in-group. The model of collective symbolic coping (CSC) describes four stages by which representations of a threatening event are elaborated in the mass media: awareness, divergence, convergence, and normalization. We used the CSC model to ...
Ramos-Jiliberto Rodrigo - - 2011
The coast of Chañaral Bay in northern Chile has been affected by copper mine wastes for decades. This sustained perturbation has disrupted the intertidal community in several ways, but the mechanisms behind the observed shifts in local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Our main goal was to identify the species (lumped ...
Long Benjamin L - - 2011
Mental distractions and physical impairments can increase the risk of accidents by affecting a driver's ability to control the vehicle. In this paper we developed a linear mathematical model that may be used to quantitatively predict drivers' performance over a variety of possible driving conditions. Predictions were not limited only ...
Muffly Tyler M - - 2012
To determine whether the tissue model onto which a knot is tied influences the knot's tensile strength. Zero-gauge, nonexpired, silk, polyglactin 910, polydioxanone, and polypropylene sutures were tied on 4 different mock tissue models. The tissue models were standard metal hex head screw, uncooked chicken breast, a tube of packaged ...
Li Lang - - 2011
• Premise of the study: The Persea group (Lauraceae) has a tropical and subtropical amphi-pacific disjunct distribution with most of its members, and it includes two Macaronesian species. The relationships within the group are still controversial, and its intercontinental disjunction has not been investigated with extensive sampling and precise time ...
Bergman Michael S - - 2011
BACKGROUND: A concern with reuse of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) is that multiple donnings could stress FFR components, impairing fit. This study investigated the impact of multiple donnings on the facepiece fit of 6 N95 FFR models using a group of 10 ...
Gondan Matthias - - 2011
When participants are asked to respond in the same way to stimuli from different sources (e.g., auditory and visual), responses are often observed to be substantially faster when both stimuli are presented simultaneously (redundancy gain). Different models account for this effect, the two most important being race models and coactivation ...
Feldman Chris R - - 2011
The brush and tree lizards (Urosaurus) are a small clade of phrynosomatid lizards native to western North America. Though not as well known as their diverse sister clade, the spiny lizards (Sceloporus), some Urosaurus have nonetheless become model organisms in integrative biology. In particular, dramatic phenotypic and behavioral differences associated ...
Faes Miriam C - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: In some trials, the intervention is delivered to individuals in groups, for example, groups that exercise together. The group structure of such trials has to be taken into consideration in the analysis and has an impact on the power of the trial. Our aim was to provide optimal methods ...
Gai Zhikun - - 2011
Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or 'ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight ...
Friedman Matt - - 2012
Giant suspension feeders such as mysticete whales, basking and whale sharks, and the extinct (indicated by '†') †pachycormiform teleosts are conspicuous members of modern and fossil marine vertebrate faunas. Whether convergent anatomical features common to these clades arose along similar evolutionary pathways has remained unclear because of a lack of ...
Abrams Daniel M - - 2011
When social groups compete for members, the resulting dynamics may be understandable with mathematical models. We demonstrate that a simple ordinary differential equation (ODE) model is a good fit for religious shift by comparing it to a new international data set tracking religious nonaffiliation. We then generalize the model to ...
Dekkers Olaf M - - 2011
The counterfactual theory defines a conceptual framework for judging causation of therapeutic interventions. The main assumption underlying the claim that a counterfactual statement holds is that compared groups are exchangeable. In observational studies for therapeutic effects causal claims are hard to justify because the lack of exchangeability between compared groups. ...
Ge Weina - - 2011
Building upon state-of-the-art algorithms for pedestrian detection and multi-object tracking, and inspired by sociological models of human collective behavior, we automatically detect small groups of individuals who are traveling together. These groups are discovered by bottom-up hierarchical clustering using a generalized, symmetric Hausdorff distance defined with respect to pairwise proximity ...
de Hoop Esther - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Balance of prognostic factors between treatment groups is desirable because it improves the accuracy, precision, and credibility of the results. In cluster-controlled trials, imbalance can easily occur by chance when the number of cluster is small. If all clusters are known at the start of the study, the "best ...
Trizzino Marco - - 2011
Hydraena is the largest genus within the water beetle family Hydraenidae, with ca. 1000 species distributed worldwide. Within this large genus some monophyletic groups of species are recognised, among them the "Haenydra" lineage, including ca. 90 species distributed in the western Palaearctic from the Iberian peninsula to Iran. Species of ...
van Veelen Matthijs - - 2011
It is often suggested that any group selection model can be recast in terms of inclusive fitness. A standard reference to support that claim is "'Quantitative genetics, inclusive fitness, and group selection" by Queller (1992. Quantitative genetics, inclusive fitness, and group selection. Am. Nat. (3), 540-558). In that paper the ...
Fricke-Zech Susanne - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To conduct a pilot study to investigate the potentiality to determine the midpalatal sutural width radiographically with a flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) in a porcine model. Materials and Methods: Bone samples from the midpalatal suture of five young (16 weeks) and five old (200 weeks) sus scrofa domestica were ...
Lee Seung-Pyo - - 2011
Tooth wear is an unavoidable process associated with aging. Currently, virtual three-dimensional dental models are widely used and provide an advantage for studying tooth wear. However, there are no wear assessment parameters using virtual tooth models for the quantitative analysis of wear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to ...
Kirkness J P - - 2011
Existing physiological databases have not been sufficiently detailed to provide relevant and important information for characterizing the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. Critical collapsing pressure (PcRit) is a standard method for determining upper airway patency during sleep, however is labor intensive and prohibits large-scale studies. Based on previously published data ...
Rabotti Chiara - - 2011
Electrophysiological measurement of uterine contractions, referred to as electrohysterogram (EHG), is potentially more informative than methods currently used during pregnancy for timely recognition of complications such as preterm labor. Unfortunately, EHG measurement and interpretation remain challenging. Recently, some attention has been dedicated to the analysis of the EHG propagation, which ...
Roldan Eva M Cirugeda - - 2011
This study is aimed at characterizing three signal entropy measures, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn) and Multiscale Entropy (MSE) over real EEG signals when a number of samples are randomly lost due to, for example, wireless data transmission. The experimental EEG database comprises two main signal groups: control EEGs ...
Gonzalez-Suarez A - - 2011
Although some types of bipolar electrodes have been broadly employed in clinical practice to coagulate biological tissue by means of radiofrequency (RF) currents, there is still scanty available information about their electrical-thermal behaviour. We are focused on internally cooled bipolar electrodes. The goal of our study was to know more ...
Ryan J - - 2011
The WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) recognises five distinct groups, all sharing a mean, resting, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) > 25 mmHg. The aetiology of PH varies by group (1-pulmonary vascular disease, 2-high left heart filling pressures, 3-hypoxia, 4-unresolved pulmonary embolism and 5-miscellaneous). Inclusion in a group reflects shared histological, haemodynamic ...
Simon Burton - - 2011
Hamilton's rule is regarded as a useful tool in the understanding of social evolution, but it relies on restrictive, overly simple assumptions. Here we model more realistic situations, in which the traditional Hamilton's rule generally fails to predict the direction of selection. We offer modifications that allow accurate predictions, but ...
Martins Catarina I M - - 2012
Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory ...
Xu Xing - - 2011
Archaeopteryx is widely accepted as being the most basal bird, and accordingly it is regarded as central to understanding avialan origins; however, recent discoveries of derived maniraptorans have weakened the avialan status of Archaeopteryx. Here we report a new Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China. This find further demonstrates that many features ...
Katz Yael - - 2011
Determining individual-level interactions that govern highly coordinated motion in animal groups or cellular aggregates has been a long-standing challenge, central to understanding the mechanisms and evolution of collective behavior. Numerous models have been proposed, many of which display realistic-looking dynamics, but nonetheless rely on untested assumptions about how individuals integrate ...
Lüdtke Oliver - - 2011
In multilevel modeling, group-level variables (L2) for assessing contextual effects are frequently generated by aggregating variables from a lower level (L1). A major problem of contextual analyses in the social sciences is that there is no error-free measurement of constructs. In the present article, 2 types of error occurring in ...
Davies Sheryl S Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University CHP/PCOR, 117 Encina Commons, Stanford, CA 94305-6019, USA. - - 2011
To test the implementation of a novel structured panel process in the evaluation of quality indicators. National panel of 64 clinicians rating usefulness of indicator applications in 2008-2009. Hybrid panel combined Delphi Group and Nominal Group (NG) techniques to evaluate 81 indicator applications. The Delphi Group and NG rated 56 ...
Galovich Luis Alvarez - - 2011
Calcium phosphate cements (biocements) are alternative materials for use in vertebral augmentation procedures, and are a potential solution to problems associated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cements. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of percutaneously injected biocements compared with PMMA in a validated animal model of osteoporosis. Fortyseven ...
Donovan Michael J - - 2011
Study Type - Prognostic (individual cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Physicians are becoming increasingly aware of the need to better understand adverse pathology (e.g. margin positive or extracapsular extension) post-surgery. Systems models provide the necessary risk discriminatory tools to guide ...
Nascimento Alexandre T Amaral - - 2011
The critically endangered black-faced lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara, has a restricted geographical distribution consisting of small mainland and island populations, each with distinct habitats in coastal southeastern Brazil. Necessary conservation management actions require an assessment of whether differences in habitats are reflected in use of space by the species. We ...
Funato Tetsuro - - 2011
Aggressive behaviour within pairs of male crickets leads to the establishment of a dominance hierarchy. Defeated males avoid their victorious adversaries for several hours before regaining aggressiveness. However, the defeated male does not regain aggressiveness if repeated fighting occurs. Loss of individual aggressiveness is limited by group size, which constrains ...
Berk Maurice - - 2011
Metabolomics is the study of the complement of small molecule metabolites in cells, biofluids and tissues. Many metabolomic experiments are designed to compare changes observed over time under two experimental conditions or groups (e.g. a control and drug-treated group) with the goal of identifying discriminatory metabolites or biomarkers that characterize ...
Barclay-Goddard Ruth - - 2012
To develop and verify a model of participation post stroke, as a domain of health related quality of life. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was selected. The quantitative phase developed a participation model with data from an observational study of 453 participants at 12 months post-stroke, using structural equation modeling. The ...
Kelley Ken - - 2011
Longitudinal studies are necessary to examine individual change over time, with group status often being an important variable in explaining some individual differences in change. Although sample size planning for longitudinal studies has focused on statistical power, recent calls for effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals underscore the importance ...
Witham Shawn - - 2011
Accurate predictions of pKa values of titratable groups require taking into account all relevant processes associated with the ionization/deionization. Frequently, however, the ionization does not involve significant structural changes and the dominating effects are purely electrostatic in origin allowing accurate predictions to be made based on the electrostatic energy difference ...
Acién Pedro - - 2011
BACKGROUND A correct classification of malformations of the female genital tract is essential to prevent unnecessary and inadequate surgical operations and to compare reproductive results. An ideal classification system should be based on aetiopathogenesis and should suggest the appropriate therapeutic strategy. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of relevant articles ...
Johnson Neil - - 2011
In military planning, it is important to be able to estimate not only the number of fatalities but how often attacks that result in fatalities will take place. We uncovered a simple dynamical pattern that may be used to estimate the escalation rate and timing of fatal attacks. The time ...
Henderson E Elizabeth - - 2011
Surface behavior and concurrent underwater vocalizations were recorded for Pacific white-sided dolphins in the Southern California Bight (SCB) over multiple field seasons spanning 3 years. Clicks, click trains, and pulsed calls were counted and classified based on acoustic measurements, leading to the identification of 19 key call features used for ...
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