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Paganetti Harald H Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 30 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2014
Proton therapy treatments are based on a proton RBE (relative biological effectiveness) relative to high-energy photons of 1.1. The use of this generic, spatially invariant RBE within tumors and normal tissues disregards the evidence that proton RBE varies with linear energy transfer (LET), physiological and biological factors, and clinical endpoint.Based ...
Palacio-Torralba Javier J Institute of Mechanical, Process and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, - - 2014
Although palpation has been successfully employed for centuries to assess soft tissue quality, it is a subjective test, and is therefore qualitative and depends on the experience of the practitioner. To reproduce what the medical practitioner feels needs more than a simple quasi-static stiffness measurement. This paper assesses the capacity ...
Yin Danni D Center for Computational Biology, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, - - 2014
Many higher plants of economic and biological importance undergo apomixis in which the maternal tissue of the ovule forms a seed, without experiencing meiosis and fertilization. This feature of apomixis has made it difficult to perform linkage mapping which relies on meiotic recombination. Here, we describe a computational model for ...
Rouhani Mohammad - - 2014
This paper presents a fast and flexible curve and surface reconstruction technique based on implicit B-spline. This representation does not require any parameterization and it is locally supported. This fact has been exploited in this paper to propose a reconstruction technique through solving a sparse system of equations. This method ...
Torres Jason M JM Committee on Molecular Metabolism and Nutrition, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2014
Top signals from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are enriched with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) identified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. We therefore hypothesized that such eQTLs might account for a disproportionate share of the heritability estimated from all SNPs interrogated through GWASs. To ...
Jiang Yugang Y School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai, 200030, - - 2014
Human spine ligaments show a highly non-linear, strain rate dependent biomechanical behavior under tensile tests. A visco-hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model was accordingly developed for human ligaments, in which the energy density function is decomposed into two parts. The first part represents the elastic strain energy stored in the soft tissue, ...
Casti Paola - - 2014
We hypothesize that quantification of structural similarity or dissimilarity between paired mammographic regions can be effective in detecting asymmetric signs of breast cancer. Bilateral masking procedures are applied for this purpose by using automatically detected anatomical landmarks. Changes in structural information of the extracted regions are investigated using spherical semivariogram ...
Hassanpour Saied S Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2014
Development of appropriate heat transfer models to investigate the thermal behavior of living tissues has become increasingly important in simulations of cancer hyperthermia. In this paper, a review is initially presented of the more important general models developed for heat transfer description of perfused tissues. Comparisons are then made between ...
Wadsö Lars L Building Materials, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
Calorespirometry is the simultaneous measurement of heat and gas exchange from biological systems. Such measurements can be used to assess fundamental properties of many different types of systems from small ecosystems to isolated tissues. Techniques for calorespirometric measurements on terrestrial (non-aquatic) samples are described. Methods and models for evaluation of ...
Kariem Hawraa H Institute for Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), Karlsplatz 13/E202, A-1040 Vienna, - - 2015
Microstructure-elasticity relations for bone tissue engineering scaffolds are key to rational biomaterial design. As a contribution thereto, we here report comprehensive length measuring, weighing, and ultrasonic tests at 0.1MHz frequency, on porous baghdadite (Ca3ZrSi2O9) scaffolds. The resulting porosity-stiffness relations further confirm a formerly detected, micromechanically explained, general relationship for a ...
Pacelli Settimio S Department of Drug Chemistry and Technologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Ple Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, - - 2014
In this work, a natural polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) has been modified with methacrylic groups (GG-MA) and combined with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) in order to create novel injectable hydrogels that can be easily delivered through a needle and photocross-linked in the injection site. A novel synthetic procedure for methacrylation ...
Yousefi Azizeh-Mitra AM Department of Chemical, Paper and Biomedical Engineering, Miami University, Oxford, OH, 45056, - - 2014
The repair of osteochondral defects requires a tissue engineering approach that aims at mimicking the physiological properties and structure of two different tissues (cartilage and bone) using specifically-designed scaffold-cell constructs. Biphasic and triphasic approaches utilize two or three different architectures, materials, or composites to produce a multilayered construct. This paper ...
Oliveira Mariana B MB 3B's Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables, and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, 4806-909 Taipas, Guimarães, Portugal; ICVS/3B's-PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, - - 2014
With the increasing need for biomaterials and tissue engineering alternatives, more accurate, rapid, and cost-saving methods and models to study biomaterial-cell interactions must be developed. We review the evolution of microarray platforms used for such studies in order to meet the criteria of complex tissue engineering biological environments. Particular aspects ...
Shankar P Mohana PM Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The existence of edges and boundaries in regions of interest (ROIs) in B-scan images alters the statistics of the backscattered echo from the ROI. Boundaries are the result of at least two different types of scattering scenarios in tissue, and the Nakagami model, which is being used extensively in ultrasound, ...
Zhang Lihai L Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia, - - 2014
Recent imaging has revealed that in vivo contact deformations of human knee cartilage under physiological loadings are surprisingly large-typically on the order of 10%, but up to 20 or 30% of tibiofemora cartilage thickness depending on loading conditions. In this paper we develop a biphasic, large deformation, non-linear poroelastic model ...
DuRaine Grayson D GD Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, - - 2014
This review explores scaffold-free methods as an additional paradigm for tissue engineering. Musculoskeletal cartilages-for example articular cartilage, meniscus, temporomandibular joint disc, and intervertebral disc-are characterized by low vascularity and cellularity, and are amenable to scaffold-free tissue engineering approaches. Scaffold-free approaches, particularly the self-assembling process, mimic elements of developmental processes underlying ...
Li Congsheng C China Academy of Telecommunication Research of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Beijing, China; College of Computer and Communication Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, - - 2014
Realistic anatomical modeling is essential in analyzing human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Infants have significant physical and anatomical differences compared with other age groups. However, few realistic infant models are available. In this work, we developed one 12-month-old male whole body model and one 17-month-old male head model from magnetic ...
Argento G G Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, - - 2014
The anisotropic collagen architecture of an engineered cardiovascular tissue has a major impact on its in vivo mechanical performance. This evolving collagen architecture is determined by initial scaffold microstructure and mechanical loading. Here, we developed and validated a theoretical and computational microscale model to quantitatively understand the interplay between scaffold ...
Arkenbout Ewout A EA Department BioMechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD, Delft, the - - 2014
To assess the basic morcellation process in laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH). Proper understanding of this process may help enhance future efficacy of morcellation regarding prevention of tissue scatter. Time Action Analysis was performed based on video imaging of the procedures. Classification: II-2 SETTING: Procedures were performed at Leiden University Medical ...
Barsness Katherine A KA 1 Division of Pediatric Surgery, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago , Chicago, - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia (EA)/tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) repair is technically challenging. We have previously reported our experiences with a high-fidelity hybrid model for simulation-based educational instruction in thoracoscopic EA/TEF, including the high cost of the tissue for these models. The purposes of this study were (1) to create a ...
Yazdanpanah Goharrizi Amin A Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: One important challenge in image-guided ablative therapies is the effect of heat diffusion which can cause damage to surrounding organs and limit the ability to achieve a conformal pattern of thermal damage. Furthermore, tissue properties such as perfusion and energy absorption can be dynamic and difficult to measure. ...
Flores Micah M Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; Bacterial and Rickettsial Department, Wound Infections, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types ...
Cooney Gerard M GM Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Parsons Building, Trinity College, College Green, Dublin 2, Ireland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Incisional hernia is a severe complication post-laparoscopic/laparotomy surgery that is commonly associated with the linea alba. However, the few studies on the mechanical properties of the linea alba in the literature appear contradictory, possible due to challenges with the physical dimensions of samples and variations in protocol. This study focuses ...
Moran Richard R Escuela de Ingeniería Civil y Geomática. Universidad del Valle. Colombia; Department of Mechanical Engineering. Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA; Escuela de Ingeniería Civil y Geomática. Universidad del Valle. Colombia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The mechanical properties of human brain tissue are the subject of interest because of their use in understanding brain trauma and in developing therapeutic treatments and procedures. To represent the behavior of the tissue, we have developed hyperelastic mechanical models whose parameters are fitted in accordance with experimental test results. ...
de Boer Bouke A BA Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Physiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Insights into the mechanisms of development of the mammalian four-chambered heart are based on biological observations at organ, tissue, cell, and molecular levels, but the full integration of these experimental data awaits a systems biology approach. Such an approach can be employed to formulate and test conceptual models in a ...
Hattori-Hara Erica E Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, - - 2014
To investigate the influence of unilateral disc displacement (DD) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on the stress in the contralateral joint, with a normally-positioned disc, during clenching. A finite element model of the TMJ was constructed based on MRI and 3D-CT of a single patient with a unilateral DD. A ...
Miller Kristin S KS Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, - - 2015
Continued advances in the tissue engineering of vascular grafts have enabled a paradigm shift from the desire to design for adequate suture retention, burst pressure and thrombo-resistance to the goal of achieving grafts having near native properties, including growth potential. Achieving this far more ambitious outcome will require the identification ...
Lee Albert - - 2014
Non-human primates (NHPs) and humans share major biological mechanisms, functions, and responses due to their close evolutionary relationship and, as such, provide ideal animal models to study human diseases. RNA expression in NHPs provides specific signatures that are informative of disease mechanisms and therapeutic modes of action. Unlike the human ...
Yoon Kyoung-Sik KS a Graduate student, Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul, - - 2014
Objective: (1) To perform a prospective study using a new set of data to test the validity of a new soft tissue prediction method developed for Class II surgery patients and (2) to propose a better validation method that can be applied to a validation study. Materials and Methods: Subjects ...
Haggard Patrick P Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London. Electronic address: - - 2014
Oral somatosensory awareness refers to the somatiC doi: sensations arising within the mouth, and to the information these sensations provide about the state and structure of the mouth itself, and objects in the mouth. Because the oral tissues have a strong somatosensory innervation, they are the locus of some of ...
Männicke N N Julius Wolff Institute and Berlin-Brandenburg School for Regenerative Therapies, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, - - 2014
To date only single ultrasound parameters were regarded in statistical analyses to characterize osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage and the potential benefit of using parameter combinations for characterization remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this work was to utilize feature selection and classification of a Mankin subset score (i.e., cartilage ...
Alibegović Armin A Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The determination of the time of death or the postmortem interval (PMI) is one of the most important and frequently asked questions in forensic medicine. The methods used for PMI determination are based largely on early and late postmortem changes. The determination of the PMI during the late postmortem changes ...
Kossovich Elena L EL Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya street, Saratov, 410012, Russian Federation, - - 2014
We present a new hybrid molecular dynamics model of chitosan oligomers which is constructed specifically for studying chitosan + carbon nanostructures composites, their structure and mechanical properties. The model is derived for application within the modified molecular mechanics force field AMBER. Method of virtual sites mapping allowed to retain hexagonal ...
Zhao Y J YJ School of Automation Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, - - 2014
The random equivalent sampling (RES) is a sampling approach that can be applied to capture high speed repetitive signals with a sampling rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. However, the uneven random distribution of the time interval between the excitation pulse and the signal degrades the signal ...
Carlson Lindsey C - - 2014
Although cervical softening is critical in pregnancy, there currently is no objective method for assessing the softness of the cervix. Shear wave speed (SWS) estimation is a noninvasive tool used to measure tissue mechanical properties such as stiffness. The goal of this study was to determine the spatial variability and ...
Celmar Costa França Tanos T a Laboratory of Molecular Modeling Applied to Chemical and Biological Defense (LMACBD) Military Institute of Engineering , Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 - Rio de Janeiro , - - 2014
Abstract In the last decades homology modeling has become a popular tool to access theoretical three-dimensional (3D) structures of molecular targets. So far several 3D models of proteins have been built by this technique and used in a great diversity of structural biology studies. But are those models consistent enough ...
Payne Thomas T Sports Technology Institute, Loughborough University, - - 2015
Previous sports impact reconstructions have highlighted the inadequacies in current measures to evaluate the effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and emphasised the need for improved impact surrogates that provide a more biofidelic representation of human impact response. The skin, muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues were considered to constitute the ...
Shang Yu Y Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky , Lexington, Kentucky 40506, - - 2014
Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon ...
Richardson Wade W Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los - - 2014
The development of new methods for the early diagnosis of cartilage disease could offer significant improvement in patient care. Raman spectroscopy is an emerging biomedical technology with unique potential to recognize disease tissues, though difficulty in obtaining the samples needed to train a diagnostic and excessive signal noise could slow ...
Liu Huaping - - 2014
Robust exemplar extraction from the noisy sample set is one of the most important problems in pattern recognition. In this brief, we propose a novel approach for exemplar extraction through structured sparse learning. The new model accounts for not only the reconstruction capability and the sparsity, but also the diversity ...
Moulton D E DE Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ammonites are a group of extinct cephalopods that garner tremendous interest over a range of scientific fields and have been a paradigm for biochronology, palaeobiology, and evolutionary theories. Their defining feature is the spiral geometry and ribbing pattern through which palaeontologists infer phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary trends. Here, we develop ...
García-Alcover Irma I Valentia BioPharma, Valencia, - - 2014
Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs is an important mechanism to achieve correct cellular function in higher eukaryotes. It is known that a growing number of human genetic diseases involve important splicing defects directly connected to pathologic signs. In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) it is proposed that several clinical manifestations ...
Chen Jianyu J Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Private Bag, 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand; The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag, 11-600, Palmerston North, New - - 2014
The mature pigmented spathe of Zantedeschia is characterized by a developmental process, wherein the spathe regreens after anthesis and prior to senescence of the inflorescence. Previous research has shown that spathe regreening involves redifferentiation of chloroplasts and reaccumulation of chlorophyll, but the detailed physiological changes associated with regreening are still ...
Battaglia Santina S Medical Technology Laboratory, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, - - 2014
In its normal lifespan, a knee prosthesis must bear highly demanding loading conditions, going beyond the sole activity of level walking required by ISO standard 14243. We have developed a protocol for in vitro wear simulation of stair climbing on a displacement controlled knee simulator. The flexion/extension angle, intra/extra rotation ...
Drumheller Stephanie K SK Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA, - - 2014
Hypotheses of feeding behaviors and community structure are testable with rare direct evidence of trophic interactions in the fossil record (e.g., bite marks). We present evidence of four predation, scavenging, and/or interspecific fighting events involving two large paracrocodylomorphs (='rauisuchians') from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation (∼220-210 Ma). The larger femur preserves ...
Lepage J J Gynaecology Department, Jeanne de Flandre Hospital, CHRU Lille-Lille Nord University, 59000, Lille, France, - - 2014
We created a pregnant woman pelvic model to perform a simulation of delivery to understand the pathophysiology of urogenital prolapse by studying the constraints on the pelvic components (muscles, ligaments, pelvic organs) during childbirth. These simulations will also provide valuable tools to understand and teach obstetrical mechanics. We built a ...
Conconi Michele M Health Sciences and Technologies - Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research (HST-ICIR), Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy - - 2014
In the medical world, the term "congruence" is used to describe by visual inspection how the articular surfaces mate each other, evaluating the joint capability to distribute an applied load from a purely geometrical perspective. Congruence is commonly employed for assessing articular physiology and for the comparison between normal and ...
Broeckx Valérie V Functional Genomics and Proteomics, KU Leuven, Naamsestraat 59, BE-3000, Leuven, - - 2014
Tissue is the most relevant biological material to gather insights in disease mechanisms by means of omics technologies. However, fresh frozen tissue, that is generally regarded as the best imaginable source for such studies, is often not available. In case it is available, the different ways of storage (e.g. -20°C, ...
Zhang Qinghui Q Department of Radiation Oncology University of Nebraska Medical center, Omaha, Nebraska - - 2014
Objectives: A new dosimetric variable, dose dropping speed (DDS), was proposed and used to evaluate normal tissue sparing among stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans with different prescription isodose lines. Methods: Forty plans were generated for 8 intracranial SRS cases, prescribing to isodose levels (IDLs) ranging from 50% to 90% in 10% ...
Poynton Clare - - 2014
There is increasing evidence that iron deposition occurs in specific regions of the brain in normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's disease. Iron deposition changes the magnetic susceptibility of tissue, which alters the MR signal phase, and allows estimation of susceptibility differences using quantitative susceptibility ...
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