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Wu Hsin-Chieh - - 2010
This study utilized an external logger system for onsite measurements of computer activities of two professional groups-twelve university administrators and twelve computer-aided design (CAD) draftsmen. Computer use of each participant was recorded for 10 consecutive days-an average of 7.9+/-1.8 workdays and 7.8+/-1.5 workdays for administrators and draftsmen, respectively. Quantitative parameters ...
King Andrew J - - 2010
Postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations have recently been identified as a major, independent risk factor for future cardiovascular events. As a result, postprandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was two-fold. Firstly, to describe and characterize a standardized model of postprandial hyperlipidemia in multiple ...
Lim Hyunjung Jade - - 2010
Much of our knowledge of human uterine physiology and pathology has been extrapolated from the study of diverse animal models, as there is no ideal system for studying human uterine biology in vitro. Although it remains debatable whether mouse models are the most suitable system for investigating human uterine function(s), ...
Beachy Sarah H - - 2010
Three general approaches have been used to model myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in mice, including treatment with mutagens or carcinogens, xenotransplantation of human MDS cells, and genetic engineering of mouse hematopoietic cells. This article discusses the phenotypes observed in available mouse models for MDS with a concentration on a model that ...
Lincecum John M - - 2010
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. Using unbiased transcript profiling in an ALS mouse model, we identified a role for the co-stimulatory pathway, a key regulator of immune responses. Furthermore, we observed that this pathway is upregulated in the blood ...
Ong Henry H - - 2010
Q-space magnetic resonance imaging (QSI) can quantify white matter (WM) axonal architecture at the cellular level non-destructively, unlike histology, but currently has several limitations. First, current methodology does not differentiate between diffusing molecules occupying extra- or intra-cellular spaces (ECS and ICS, respectively). Second, accurate assessment of axonal architecture requires high-gradient ...
Telfer W R - - 2010
Collagen VI is an integral part of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stability and facilitating matrix-dependent cell signaling. Mutations in collagen VI result in either Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) or Bethlem myopathy (BM), with UCMD being clinically more severe. Recent studies demonstrating increased apoptosis and abnormal mitochondrial ...
Jaworski Tomasz - - 2010
Alzheimer's dementia is developing ever more as a complex syndrome with various unknown genetic and epigenetic contributions. These are compounded on and exacerbating the underlying amyloid and tau pathology that remain the basis of the pathological definition of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we present a selection of aspects of recent bigenic ...
Hod E A - - 2010
Mice provide tractable animal models for studying the pathophysiology of various human disorders. This review discusses the use of mouse models for understanding red-blood-cell (RBC) clearance. These models provide important insights into the pathophysiology of various clinically relevant entities, such as autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, haemolytic transfusion reactions, other complications of ...
de Jong Marion - - 2010
Animal models have been instrumental in elucidating key biochemical and physiologic processes of cancer onset and propagation in a living organism. Most importantly, they have served as a surrogate for patients in the evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drugs, including radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental tumors raised in rodents constitute the ...
Cao Songsong - - 2010
Movement disorders represent a significant societal burden for which therapeutic options are limited and focused on treating disease symptomality. Early-onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is one such disorder characterized by sustained and involuntary muscle contractions that frequently cause repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner with reduced ...
Ortega Zaira - - 2010
The presence of intracellular ubiquitylated inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders and the role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in degrading abnormal hazardous proteins have given rise to the hypothesis that UPS-impairment underlies neurodegenerative processes. However, this remains controversial for polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington disease (HD). Whereas studies in cellular models ...
Patton E Elizabeth EE Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, MRC Human Genetics Unit and Division of Cancer Research, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. - - 2010
Experimental animal models are extremely valuable for the study of human diseases, especially those with underlying genetic components. The exploitation of various animal models, from fruitflies to mice, has led to major advances in our understanding of the etiologies of many diseases, including cancer. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a form ...
Taylor Tonya N - - 2010
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder afflicting millions of people in the United States. The advent of transgenic technologies has contributed to the development of several new mouse models, many of which recapitulate some aspects of the disease; however, no model has been demonstrated to faithfully reproduce ...
Dubois Albertine - - 2010
Biomarkers and technologies similar to those used in humans are essential for the follow-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models, particularly for the clarification of mechanisms and the screening and validation of new candidate treatments. In humans, changes in brain metabolism can be detected by 1-deoxy-2-[(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET) and ...
Yergeau Donald A - - 2010
Transposon-mediated integration strategies in Xenopus offer simple and robust methods for the generation of germline transgenic animals. Co-injection of fertilized one-cell embryos with plasmid DNA harboring a transposon transgene and synthetic mRNA encoding the cognate transposase enzyme results in mosaic integration of the transposon at early cleavage stages that are ...
Frautschy Sally A - - 2010
This article from Coma et al. shows that a salicylic acid derivative Triflusal, a platelet aggregation inhibitor and irreversible inhibitor of COX-1, can correct defects in axonal curvature and cognition in an AD transgenic mouse model (Tg2576) (Coma et al., 2010). Here we discuss the controversy over the role of ...
Taguchi Akihiko - - 2010
In order to evaluate novel stroke therapies, it is essential to utilize a highly reproducible model of focal cerebral ischemia. Though a range of rodent stroke models has been employed in the literature, there are persistent issues regarding reproducibility of the ischemic zone, as there is considerable inter-animal and inter-laboratory ...
Jeet Varinder - - 2010
Despite considerable success in treatment of early stage localized prostate cancer (PC), acute inadequacy of late stage PC treatment and its inherent heterogeneity poses a formidable challenge. Clearly, an improved understanding of PC genesis and progression along with the development of new targeted therapies are warranted. Animal models, especially, transgenic ...
Tanaka Nobuhiko - - 2010
This article reports the development of SDOP-DB, which can provide definite, detailed and easy comparison of experimental protocols used in mouse phenotypic analyses among institutes or laboratories. Because SDOP-DB is fully compliant with international standards, it can act as a practical foundation for international sharing and integration of mouse phenotypic ...
Lawson Heather A - - 2010
Animal models have enriched understanding of the physiological basis of metabolic disorders and advanced identification of genetic risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Murine models are especially appropriate for this type of research, and are an excellent resource not only for identifying candidate genomic regions, but also for illuminating ...
Cacho N Ivalú - - 2010
The study of traits that play a key role in promoting diversification is central to evolutionary biology. Floral nectar spurs are among the few plant traits that correlate with an enhanced rate of diversification, supporting the claim that they are key innovations. Slight changes in spur morphology could confer some ...
Liu Kai - - 2010
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) makes it possible to elucidate molecular and cellular signatures to better understand the effects of human disease in small animal models in vivo. The unambiguous three-dimensional bioluminescent source information obtained by bioluminescence tomography (BLT) could further facilitate its applications in biomedicine. However, to the best of our ...
Watts Christopher R - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to identify the presence and characteristics of the distribution patterns of elastic fibers in a 15-week-old C57BL/6J mouse vocal fold, to confirm the presence and distribution of collagen fibers, and to describe potential gender differences in staining patterns, with the aim of further developing ...
Smith Phillip P Department of Psychology, American University, Washington, DC 20016, - - 2010
In the human mini-ultimatum game, a proposer splits a sum of money with a responder. If the responder accepts, both are paid. If not, neither is paid. Typically, responders reject inequitable distributions, favoring punishing over maximizing. In Jensen et al.'s (Science 318:107-109, 2007) adaptation with apes, a proposer selects between ...
Fausto Nelson - - 2010
The etiology of liver cancer is well known, but despite recent progress in the application of molecular techniques for the analysis of the development of these tumors, we still lack precise knowledge about pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Animal models can provide essential knowledge about HCC pathogenesis, particularly if they ...
Freeman Jonathan B - - 2010
In the present article, we present a software package, MouseTracker, that allows researchers to use a computer mouse-tracking method for assessing real-time processing in psychological tasks. By recording the streaming x-, y-coordinates of the computer mouse while participants move the mouse into one of multiple response alternatives, motor dynamics of ...
McIntosh Robert L - - 2010
In vivo studies involving radiofrequency (RF) exposure of rodents require detailed dosimetric analysis to enable correct interpretation of biological outcomes. Detailed anatomical models of mice--a female, a pregnant female, a male and a foetus--have been developed for analyses using finite difference numerical techniques. The mouse models, consisting of 49 tissues, ...
Xia Robin H - - 2010
Severe murine experimental autoimmune neuritis (sm-EAN) in SJL/J mice is a recently described, but incompletely characterized mouse model of Guillain-Barr? syndrome (GBS). Electrophysiological and pathologic characterization during the disease course is a necessary prerequisite to designing mechanistic studies that may be relevant to GBS pathogenesis. Sm-EAN is a monophasic disorder ...
Katsman Yulia - - 2010
BACKGROUND: We found when using a mouse model of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) that platelet (PLT) nadir could not be maintained in the face of daily PLT antibody, making interpretation of treatment modalities difficult. This finding was documented to be at least in part due to increased thrombopoiesis as a result ...
Higuchi Makoto - - 2010
Diverse age-associated neurodegenerative disorders are featured at a molecular level by depositions of self-aggregating molecules, as represented by amyloid beta peptides (Abeta) and tau proteins in Alzheimer's disease, and cascade-type chain reactions are supposedly commenced with biochemical aberrancies of these amyloidogenic components. Mutagenesis and multiplication of the genes encoding Abeta, ...
Farrar Christian T - - 2010
The vessel caliber index (VCI), a magnetic resonance imaging biomarker of the average blood vessel diameter, is increasingly being used as a tool for assessing tumor angiogenesis and response to antiangiogenic therapy. However, although the VCI has been correlated with histological vessel diameters, good quantitative agreement with histology has been ...
Sanjabi Shomyseh - - 2010
The recent recognition of the importance of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in mediating many cellular immune functions has popularized the use of mouse models where TGF-beta signaling is blocked in specific cell types. However, there are some caveats affiliated with each model. Here we describe and show evidence for ...
Song Hoseok - - 2010
Although mouse models have been valuable for studying human disease, the cellular and physiological differences between mouse and human have made it increasingly important to develop more relevant human disease models for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which can undergo unlimited self-renewal and retain the ...
Gupta Tripti - - 2010
Over the last 20 years, the zebrafish has become a powerful model organism for understanding vertebrate development and disease. Although experimental analysis of the embryo and larva is extensive and the morphology has been well documented, descriptions of adult zebrafish anatomy and studies of development of the adult structures and ...
Panchal Heena - - 2010
The mouse mammary gland is a unique organ since although the mammary gland primordium forms during embryogenesis, the majority of development occurs postnatally upon hormonal stimulation at puberty and full functionality (i.e. lactation) is not achieved until after parturition. Since both the epidermis and mammary glands share the same developmental ...
Koechling Thorsten - - 2010
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia in the aged human population. It is characterized by the presence of two main pathological hallmarks in the brain: senile plaques containing beta-amyloid peptide and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), consisting of fibrillar polymers of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Both ...
Saunders Jessica M - - 2010
The group-based trajectory modeling approach is a systematic way of categorizing subjects into different groups based on their developmental trajectories using formal and objective statistical criteria. With the recent advancement in methods and statistical software, modeling possibilities are almost limitless; however, parallel advances in theory development have not kept pace. ...
Timmer Nienke M - - 2010
Senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients not only consist of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), but also contain many different Aβ-associated factors, such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans, apolipoproteins, and complement factors. These factors may all influence Aβ deposition, aggregation, and clearance and therefore seem important in ...
Cuello A C - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Intracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) is one of the early features in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome. This can be reproduced in cell and transgenic animal models of the AD-like amyloid pathology. In a transgenic rat model, our lab has previously shown that the intracellular ...
Ray Thomas S - - 2010
[This corrects the article on p. e9019 in vol. 5.].
Shen Yan - - 2010
We describe a protocol for establishing mouse models of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). PVL is the predominant form of brain injury in premature infants and the most common antecedent of cerebral palsy. PVL is characterized by periventricular white matter damage with prominent oligodendroglial injury. Hypoxia/ischemia with or without systemic infection/inflammation are ...
Magen Iddo - - 2010
The identification of several mutations causing familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the creation of multiple lines of mice expressing similar genetic alterations. These models present a unique opportunity for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms leading to PD in a mammalian brain and provide models that are suitable for ...
Jhuang Hueihan - - 2010
Neurobehavioural analysis of mouse phenotypes requires the monitoring of mouse behaviour over long periods of time. In this study, we describe a trainable computer vision system enabling the automated analysis of complex mouse behaviours. We provide software and an extensive manually annotated video database used for training and testing the ...
Hothorn Ludwig A - - 2010
The analysis of dose-response relationships is a common problem in pre-clinical studies. For example, proportions such as mortality rates and histopathological findings are of particular interest in repeated toxicity studies. Commonly applied designs consist of an untreated control group and several, possibly unequally spaced, dosage groups. The Williams test can ...
Medina Eva - - 2010
Despite the medical advances achieved during the last century to fight against bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, infectious diseases are still a major cause of death, disability, and social and economic upheaval for millions around the world. Challenges remain in countering microorganisms even where antibiotics and vaccines are available. Much ...
Collignon Anne - - 2010
Mouse models have been developed to study the pathogenic process of Clostridium difficile infections, first the intestinal colonization and second the toxin production. These models have also been used to test the role of environmental conditions that modulate infection. Different mouse models have been used successfully to study C. difficile ...
Janus Christopher - - 2010
The major symptom of Alzheimer's disease is rapidly progressing dementia, coinciding with the formation of amyloid and tau deposits in the central nervous system, and neuronal death. At present familial cases of dementias provide the most promising foundation for modelling neurodegeneration. We describe the mnemonic and other major behavioral symptoms ...
Wirths Oliver - - 2010
Since their initial generation in the mid 1990s, transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers's disease (AD) have been proven to be valuable model systems which are indispensable for modern AD research. Whereas most of these models are characterized by extensive amyloid plaque pathology, inflammatory changes and often behavioral deficits, modeling of ...
Visconti Pablo E - - 2010
A model of the early events of mammalian fertilization has emerged during the past 30 years. However, studies during the past decade have used newly available mouse models to readdress these processes. Here, we will consider these new data in light of the existing model and point to areas of ...
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