Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1229
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Sapienza Irene - - 2010
Although literature provides evidence for the relationship between values and acculturation, the relationship between host community acculturation orientations has not yet been investigated. In this study we tested the effects of four high-order values (openness to change, self-transcendence, conservation, and self-enhancement, devised according to Schwartz's model) on host community acculturation ...
Noble W W Departments of Neuroscience, MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, UK. - - 2010
Tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the central nervous system, and are the major cause of dementia in later life. Considerable advances have been made in developing mouse models that recapitulate, to varying extents, the development of human tau pathology, ...
Zohn Irene E IE Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA. - - 2010
Neural tube defects (NTDs) represent some of the most common congenital malformations in humans. The causes of NTDs are complex with both genetic and environmental contributing factors. Periconception nutrition is an important environmental factor influencing the penetrance of NTDs. NTDs arise from failure to close the neural tube completely during ...
Min Booki - - 2010
Basophils are the least abundant granulocytes found in the circulation. Until recently, their functions were poorly understood. In the past few years, the list of basophil functions in the context of immunity has dramatically increased. Thus, the need for basophil-deficient animal models to confirm these findings is imperative. In this ...
Li L L Computing Laboratory, University of Oxford and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United - - 2010
Mathematical modeling of Ca(2+) dynamics in the heart has the potential to provide an integrated understanding of Ca(2+)-handling mechanisms. However, many previous published models used heterogeneous experimental data sources from a variety of animals and temperatures to characterize model parameters and motivate model equations. This methodology limits the direct comparison ...
Nachlieli Hila - - 2011
Print quality (PQ) is a composite attribute defined by human perception. As such, the ultimate way to determine and quantify PQ is by human survey. However, repeated surveys are time consuming and often represent a burden on processes that involve repeated evaluations. A desired alternative would be an automatic quality ...
Ellacott Kate L J - - 2010
The global obesity epidemic has heightened the need for an improved understanding of how body weight is controlled, and research using mouse models is critical to this effort. In this perspective, we provide a conceptual framework for investigation of feeding behavior in this species, with an emphasis on factors that ...
Spatara M L - - 2010
In vivo aggregation of tau protein is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence has also demonstrated activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in AD, although the role of the UPR in disease pathogenesis is not ...
Silverman Jill L - - 2010
Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology that affects 1 in 100-150 individuals. Diagnosis is based on three categories of behavioural criteria: abnormal social interactions, communication deficits and repetitive behaviours. Strong evidence for a genetic basis has prompted the development of mouse models with targeted mutations in candidate ...
Juneja Vijay K - - 2011
Comparison of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in cooked uncured products during cooling for different meat species is presented. Cooked, uncured product was inoculated with C. perfringens spores and vacuum packaged. For the isothermal experiments, all samples were incubated in a water bath stabilized at selected temperatures between 10 and ...
Peterson Richard A - - 2010
Morphological evaluation of humanized chimeric mouse livers from the PhoenixBio(R) (uPA(+/+)/SCID) mouse model show robust replacement and expansion with human hepatocytes, however areas of human hepatocytes had prominent steatosis and a variable lack of sinusoids which was consistent with decreased hepatocellular perfusion and lacked bile canalicular formation between human and ...
Yu Peng - - 2010
Mouse models serve as relatively new yet powerful research tools to study intimal hyperplasia and wall remodeling of vein bypass graft failure. Several model variations have been reported in the past decade. However, the approach demands thoughtful preparation, selected sophisticated equipment, microsurgical technical expertise, advanced tissue processing, and data acquisition. ...
Auvin Stéphane - - 2010
In many experimental systems, proinflammatory stimuli exhibit proconvulsant properties. There are also accumulating data suggesting that inflammation may contribute to epileptogenesis in experimental models as well as in humans. Using two different models (Lithium-pilocarpine induced-status epilepticus (SE) and rapid kindling), we address this issue in the developing brain. Using P14 ...
Liu Junting - - 2010
Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a new optical molecular imaging modality, which can monitor both physiological and pathological processes by using bioluminescent light-emitting probes in small living animal. Especially, this technology possesses great potential in drug development, early detection, and therapy monitoring in preclinical settings. In the present study, we developed ...
Karlstetter Marcus - - 2010
In contrast to the tremendous amount of research data from the central nervous system, relatively little is known about microglial homeostasis in the retina. This may be explained by a strong research bias towards important brain pathologies including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Multiple Sclerosis. In addition, there are specific ...
Thorup Kasper - - 2010
For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds orient during migration. Despite the difficulties ...
Nicholson Rachel M - - 2010
We have previously used fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography to detect the pattern of metabolic declines in two different transgenic mouse models of fibrillar beta-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the PDAPP mouse, which overexpresses a mutant form of human APP, and the PSAPP mouse, which overexpresses mutant forms of the ...
Tamowski Susan - - 2010
Over the past few decades with the rapid advances in embryo and embryonic stem cell manipulation techniques, transgenic mouse models have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of gene function and complex diseases including male infertility. In this review we give a brief history of the development of ...
Copplestone D - - 2010
A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which ...
Boesch Christophe - - 2010
The quest to understand "what makes us human" has been heading towards an impasse, when comparative psychology compares primarily individuals that are not representative of their species. Captives experience such divergent socioecological niches that they cannot stand for their wild counterparts. Only after removing ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism will we be ...
Li Dong - - 2010
Glioma derived from the neural ectoderm is the most common brain tumor and is of great damage to human health among all lethal tumors. Scientists have been trying their best to find new methods and develop new drugs to treat glioma in recent years. The animal glioma model is of ...
Stahl Andreas A Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2010
The mouse retina has been used extensively over the past decades to study both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Over time, various mouse retina models have evolved into well-characterized and robust tools for in vivo angiogenesis research. This article is a review of the angiogenic development of the mouse retina and ...
Drusano G L GL Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA. - - 2010
We wished to delineate granulocytes' impact on the clearance of different bacterial burdens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in a granulocyte-replete mouse thigh infection model. A mouse thigh model was employed. Bacterial challenges from 10(5) to 3 × 10(7) CFU (S. aureus) and from 3 × 10(4) to 3 ...
Sterniczuk Roxanne - - 2010
Circadian disturbances, including a fragmented sleep-wake pattern and sundowning, are commonly reported early in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These changes are distinctly different from those observed in non-pathological aging. Transgenic models of AD are a promising tool in understanding the underlying mechanisms and cause of disease. A novel ...
Mijares Armand Salvador - - 2010
Documentation of early human migrations through Island Southeast Asia and Wallacea en route to Australia has always been problematic due to a lack of well-dated human skeletal remains. The best known modern humans are from Niah Cave in Borneo (40-42ka), and from Tabon Cave on the island of Palawan, southwest ...
Coxworth J E - - 2010
Mammalian oocyte stocks reach maximum size in early development and begin depletion immediately thereafter. This depletion ends women's fertility by midlife. Here we compare five models proposed to characterize human follicular depletion, highlight underlying variation in atresia, and use oocyte counts from laboratory mice to illustrate possible effects of known ...
Singh Mallika - - 2010
The low rate of approval of novel anti-cancer agents underscores the need for better preclinical models of therapeutic response as neither xenografts nor early-generation genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) reliably predict human clinical outcomes. Whereas recent, sporadic GEMMs emulate many aspects of their human disease counterpart more closely, their ability ...
Timmer Nienke M - - 2010
Abstract Aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide in brain parenchyma and vasculature. Several proteins co-deposit with Abeta, including heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPG have been suggested to contribute to Abeta aggregation and deposition, and may influence plaque formation and persistence by stimulating ...
Kislinger Thomas - - 2010
The molecular dissections of the mechanistic pathways involved in human disease have always relied on the use of model organisms. Among the higher mammalian organisms, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) is the most widely used model. A large number of commercially-available, inbred strains are available to the community, including an ...
Devuyst Olivier - - 2010
The development of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a successful therapy has and still depends on experimental models to test and understand critical pieces of pathophysiology. To date, the majority of studies performed in rat and rabbit models derive mechanistic insights primarily on the basis of interventional pharmacologic agents, blocking antibodies, ...
Kathman Steven J - - 2010
The mouse dermal assay has long been used to assess the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This mouse skin model has been developed for use in carcinogenicity testing utilizing the SENCAR mouse as the standard strain. Though the model has limitations, it remains as the most relevant method ...
Ueno Yoshiyuki - - 2010
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a human autoimmune liver disease whose molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood because of the difficulty in accessing human tissue and the absence of appropriate animal models. Recently, several unique murine models of human PBC have been discovered. These models have great potential for illustrating the ...
Schofield Paul N PN Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2010
A major challenge of the post-genomic era is coding phenotype data from humans and model organisms such as the mouse, to permit the meaningful translation of phenotype descriptions between species. This ability is essential if we are to facilitate phenotype-driven gene function discovery and empower comparative pathobiology. Here, we review ...
Bonnet M - - 2010
Targeted internal radionuclide therapy (TRT) could be an efficient, specific way to treat disseminated melanoma. Based on a previous pharmacomodulation study, we selected a quinoxaline-derived molecule (ICF01012) for its melanin specificity and kinetic properties suitable for TRT. Here, we determined the efficacy of [(131)I]ICF01012 radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo ...
Curran Allison M - - 2010
In this study it is demonstrated that human odor collected from items recovered at a post-blast scene can be evaluated using human scent specific canine teams to locate and identify individuals who have been in contact with the improvised explosive device (IED) components and/or the delivery vehicle. The purpose of ...
Wu Hsin-Chieh - - 2010
This study utilized an external logger system for onsite measurements of computer activities of two professional groups-twelve university administrators and twelve computer-aided design (CAD) draftsmen. Computer use of each participant was recorded for 10 consecutive days-an average of 7.9+/-1.8 workdays and 7.8+/-1.5 workdays for administrators and draftsmen, respectively. Quantitative parameters ...
King Andrew J - - 2010
Postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations have recently been identified as a major, independent risk factor for future cardiovascular events. As a result, postprandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was two-fold. Firstly, to describe and characterize a standardized model of postprandial hyperlipidemia in multiple ...
Lim Hyunjung Jade - - 2010
Much of our knowledge of human uterine physiology and pathology has been extrapolated from the study of diverse animal models, as there is no ideal system for studying human uterine biology in vitro. Although it remains debatable whether mouse models are the most suitable system for investigating human uterine function(s), ...
Beachy Sarah H - - 2010
Three general approaches have been used to model myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in mice, including treatment with mutagens or carcinogens, xenotransplantation of human MDS cells, and genetic engineering of mouse hematopoietic cells. This article discusses the phenotypes observed in available mouse models for MDS with a concentration on a model that ...
Lincecum John M - - 2010
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. Using unbiased transcript profiling in an ALS mouse model, we identified a role for the co-stimulatory pathway, a key regulator of immune responses. Furthermore, we observed that this pathway is upregulated in the blood ...
Ong Henry H - - 2010
Q-space magnetic resonance imaging (QSI) can quantify white matter (WM) axonal architecture at the cellular level non-destructively, unlike histology, but currently has several limitations. First, current methodology does not differentiate between diffusing molecules occupying extra- or intra-cellular spaces (ECS and ICS, respectively). Second, accurate assessment of axonal architecture requires high-gradient ...
Telfer W R - - 2010
Collagen VI is an integral part of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stability and facilitating matrix-dependent cell signaling. Mutations in collagen VI result in either Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) or Bethlem myopathy (BM), with UCMD being clinically more severe. Recent studies demonstrating increased apoptosis and abnormal mitochondrial ...
Jaworski Tomasz - - 2010
Alzheimer's dementia is developing ever more as a complex syndrome with various unknown genetic and epigenetic contributions. These are compounded on and exacerbating the underlying amyloid and tau pathology that remain the basis of the pathological definition of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we present a selection of aspects of recent bigenic ...
Hod E A - - 2010
Mice provide tractable animal models for studying the pathophysiology of various human disorders. This review discusses the use of mouse models for understanding red-blood-cell (RBC) clearance. These models provide important insights into the pathophysiology of various clinically relevant entities, such as autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, haemolytic transfusion reactions, other complications of ...
de Jong Marion - - 2010
Animal models have been instrumental in elucidating key biochemical and physiologic processes of cancer onset and propagation in a living organism. Most importantly, they have served as a surrogate for patients in the evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drugs, including radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental tumors raised in rodents constitute the ...
Cao Songsong - - 2010
Movement disorders represent a significant societal burden for which therapeutic options are limited and focused on treating disease symptomality. Early-onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is one such disorder characterized by sustained and involuntary muscle contractions that frequently cause repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner with reduced ...
Ortega Zaira - - 2010
The presence of intracellular ubiquitylated inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders and the role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in degrading abnormal hazardous proteins have given rise to the hypothesis that UPS-impairment underlies neurodegenerative processes. However, this remains controversial for polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington disease (HD). Whereas studies in cellular models ...
Patton E Elizabeth EE Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, MRC Human Genetics Unit and Division of Cancer Research, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. - - 2010
Experimental animal models are extremely valuable for the study of human diseases, especially those with underlying genetic components. The exploitation of various animal models, from fruitflies to mice, has led to major advances in our understanding of the etiologies of many diseases, including cancer. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a form ...
Taylor Tonya N TN Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, United - - 2010
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder afflicting millions of people in the United States. The advent of transgenic technologies has contributed to the development of several new mouse models, many of which recapitulate some aspects of the disease; however, no model has been demonstrated to faithfully reproduce ...
Dubois Albertine - - 2010
Biomarkers and technologies similar to those used in humans are essential for the follow-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models, particularly for the clarification of mechanisms and the screening and validation of new candidate treatments. In humans, changes in brain metabolism can be detected by 1-deoxy-2-[(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET) and ...
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