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Yu Peng - - 2010
Mouse models serve as relatively new yet powerful research tools to study intimal hyperplasia and wall remodeling of vein bypass graft failure. Several model variations have been reported in the past decade. However, the approach demands thoughtful preparation, selected sophisticated equipment, microsurgical technical expertise, advanced tissue processing, and data acquisition. ...
Auvin Stéphane - - 2010
In many experimental systems, proinflammatory stimuli exhibit proconvulsant properties. There are also accumulating data suggesting that inflammation may contribute to epileptogenesis in experimental models as well as in humans. Using two different models (Lithium-pilocarpine induced-status epilepticus (SE) and rapid kindling), we address this issue in the developing brain. Using P14 ...
Liu Junting - - 2010
Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a new optical molecular imaging modality, which can monitor both physiological and pathological processes by using bioluminescent light-emitting probes in small living animal. Especially, this technology possesses great potential in drug development, early detection, and therapy monitoring in preclinical settings. In the present study, we developed ...
Karlstetter Marcus - - 2010
In contrast to the tremendous amount of research data from the central nervous system, relatively little is known about microglial homeostasis in the retina. This may be explained by a strong research bias towards important brain pathologies including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Multiple Sclerosis. In addition, there are specific ...
Thorup Kasper - - 2010
For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds orient during migration. Despite the difficulties ...
Nicholson Rachel M - - 2010
We have previously used fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography to detect the pattern of metabolic declines in two different transgenic mouse models of fibrillar beta-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the PDAPP mouse, which overexpresses a mutant form of human APP, and the PSAPP mouse, which overexpresses mutant forms of the ...
Tamowski Susan - - 2010
Over the past few decades with the rapid advances in embryo and embryonic stem cell manipulation techniques, transgenic mouse models have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of gene function and complex diseases including male infertility. In this review we give a brief history of the development of ...
Copplestone D - - 2010
A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which ...
Boesch Christophe - - 2010
The quest to understand "what makes us human" has been heading towards an impasse, when comparative psychology compares primarily individuals that are not representative of their species. Captives experience such divergent socioecological niches that they cannot stand for their wild counterparts. Only after removing ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism will we be ...
Li Dong - - 2010
Glioma derived from the neural ectoderm is the most common brain tumor and is of great damage to human health among all lethal tumors. Scientists have been trying their best to find new methods and develop new drugs to treat glioma in recent years. The animal glioma model is of ...
Stahl Andreas A Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2010
The mouse retina has been used extensively over the past decades to study both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Over time, various mouse retina models have evolved into well-characterized and robust tools for in vivo angiogenesis research. This article is a review of the angiogenic development of the mouse retina and ...
Drusano G L GL Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA. - - 2010
We wished to delineate granulocytes' impact on the clearance of different bacterial burdens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in a granulocyte-replete mouse thigh infection model. A mouse thigh model was employed. Bacterial challenges from 10(5) to 3 × 10(7) CFU (S. aureus) and from 3 × 10(4) to 3 ...
Sterniczuk Roxanne - - 2010
Circadian disturbances, including a fragmented sleep-wake pattern and sundowning, are commonly reported early in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These changes are distinctly different from those observed in non-pathological aging. Transgenic models of AD are a promising tool in understanding the underlying mechanisms and cause of disease. A novel ...
Mijares Armand Salvador - - 2010
Documentation of early human migrations through Island Southeast Asia and Wallacea en route to Australia has always been problematic due to a lack of well-dated human skeletal remains. The best known modern humans are from Niah Cave in Borneo (40-42ka), and from Tabon Cave on the island of Palawan, southwest ...
Coxworth J E - - 2010
Mammalian oocyte stocks reach maximum size in early development and begin depletion immediately thereafter. This depletion ends women's fertility by midlife. Here we compare five models proposed to characterize human follicular depletion, highlight underlying variation in atresia, and use oocyte counts from laboratory mice to illustrate possible effects of known ...
Singh Mallika - - 2010
The low rate of approval of novel anti-cancer agents underscores the need for better preclinical models of therapeutic response as neither xenografts nor early-generation genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) reliably predict human clinical outcomes. Whereas recent, sporadic GEMMs emulate many aspects of their human disease counterpart more closely, their ability ...
Timmer Nienke M - - 2010
Abstract Aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide in brain parenchyma and vasculature. Several proteins co-deposit with Abeta, including heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPG have been suggested to contribute to Abeta aggregation and deposition, and may influence plaque formation and persistence by stimulating ...
Kislinger Thomas - - 2010
The molecular dissections of the mechanistic pathways involved in human disease have always relied on the use of model organisms. Among the higher mammalian organisms, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) is the most widely used model. A large number of commercially-available, inbred strains are available to the community, including an ...
Devuyst Olivier - - 2010
The development of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a successful therapy has and still depends on experimental models to test and understand critical pieces of pathophysiology. To date, the majority of studies performed in rat and rabbit models derive mechanistic insights primarily on the basis of interventional pharmacologic agents, blocking antibodies, ...
Kathman Steven J - - 2010
The mouse dermal assay has long been used to assess the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This mouse skin model has been developed for use in carcinogenicity testing utilizing the SENCAR mouse as the standard strain. Though the model has limitations, it remains as the most relevant method ...
Ueno Yoshiyuki - - 2010
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a human autoimmune liver disease whose molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood because of the difficulty in accessing human tissue and the absence of appropriate animal models. Recently, several unique murine models of human PBC have been discovered. These models have great potential for illustrating the ...
Schofield Paul N PN Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2010
A major challenge of the post-genomic era is coding phenotype data from humans and model organisms such as the mouse, to permit the meaningful translation of phenotype descriptions between species. This ability is essential if we are to facilitate phenotype-driven gene function discovery and empower comparative pathobiology. Here, we review ...
Bonnet M - - 2010
Targeted internal radionuclide therapy (TRT) could be an efficient, specific way to treat disseminated melanoma. Based on a previous pharmacomodulation study, we selected a quinoxaline-derived molecule (ICF01012) for its melanin specificity and kinetic properties suitable for TRT. Here, we determined the efficacy of [(131)I]ICF01012 radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo ...
Curran Allison M - - 2010
In this study it is demonstrated that human odor collected from items recovered at a post-blast scene can be evaluated using human scent specific canine teams to locate and identify individuals who have been in contact with the improvised explosive device (IED) components and/or the delivery vehicle. The purpose of ...
Wu Hsin-Chieh - - 2010
This study utilized an external logger system for onsite measurements of computer activities of two professional groups-twelve university administrators and twelve computer-aided design (CAD) draftsmen. Computer use of each participant was recorded for 10 consecutive days-an average of 7.9+/-1.8 workdays and 7.8+/-1.5 workdays for administrators and draftsmen, respectively. Quantitative parameters ...
King Andrew J - - 2010
Postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations have recently been identified as a major, independent risk factor for future cardiovascular events. As a result, postprandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was two-fold. Firstly, to describe and characterize a standardized model of postprandial hyperlipidemia in multiple ...
Lim Hyunjung Jade - - 2010
Much of our knowledge of human uterine physiology and pathology has been extrapolated from the study of diverse animal models, as there is no ideal system for studying human uterine biology in vitro. Although it remains debatable whether mouse models are the most suitable system for investigating human uterine function(s), ...
Beachy Sarah H - - 2010
Three general approaches have been used to model myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in mice, including treatment with mutagens or carcinogens, xenotransplantation of human MDS cells, and genetic engineering of mouse hematopoietic cells. This article discusses the phenotypes observed in available mouse models for MDS with a concentration on a model that ...
Lincecum John M - - 2010
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. Using unbiased transcript profiling in an ALS mouse model, we identified a role for the co-stimulatory pathway, a key regulator of immune responses. Furthermore, we observed that this pathway is upregulated in the blood ...
Ong Henry H - - 2010
Q-space magnetic resonance imaging (QSI) can quantify white matter (WM) axonal architecture at the cellular level non-destructively, unlike histology, but currently has several limitations. First, current methodology does not differentiate between diffusing molecules occupying extra- or intra-cellular spaces (ECS and ICS, respectively). Second, accurate assessment of axonal architecture requires high-gradient ...
Telfer W R - - 2010
Collagen VI is an integral part of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stability and facilitating matrix-dependent cell signaling. Mutations in collagen VI result in either Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) or Bethlem myopathy (BM), with UCMD being clinically more severe. Recent studies demonstrating increased apoptosis and abnormal mitochondrial ...
Jaworski Tomasz - - 2010
Alzheimer's dementia is developing ever more as a complex syndrome with various unknown genetic and epigenetic contributions. These are compounded on and exacerbating the underlying amyloid and tau pathology that remain the basis of the pathological definition of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we present a selection of aspects of recent bigenic ...
Hod E A - - 2010
Mice provide tractable animal models for studying the pathophysiology of various human disorders. This review discusses the use of mouse models for understanding red-blood-cell (RBC) clearance. These models provide important insights into the pathophysiology of various clinically relevant entities, such as autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, haemolytic transfusion reactions, other complications of ...
de Jong Marion - - 2010
Animal models have been instrumental in elucidating key biochemical and physiologic processes of cancer onset and propagation in a living organism. Most importantly, they have served as a surrogate for patients in the evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drugs, including radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental tumors raised in rodents constitute the ...
Cao Songsong - - 2010
Movement disorders represent a significant societal burden for which therapeutic options are limited and focused on treating disease symptomality. Early-onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is one such disorder characterized by sustained and involuntary muscle contractions that frequently cause repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner with reduced ...
Ortega Zaira - - 2010
The presence of intracellular ubiquitylated inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders and the role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in degrading abnormal hazardous proteins have given rise to the hypothesis that UPS-impairment underlies neurodegenerative processes. However, this remains controversial for polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington disease (HD). Whereas studies in cellular models ...
Patton E Elizabeth EE Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, MRC Human Genetics Unit and Division of Cancer Research, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. - - 2010
Experimental animal models are extremely valuable for the study of human diseases, especially those with underlying genetic components. The exploitation of various animal models, from fruitflies to mice, has led to major advances in our understanding of the etiologies of many diseases, including cancer. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a form ...
Taylor Tonya N TN Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, United - - 2010
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder afflicting millions of people in the United States. The advent of transgenic technologies has contributed to the development of several new mouse models, many of which recapitulate some aspects of the disease; however, no model has been demonstrated to faithfully reproduce ...
Dubois Albertine - - 2010
Biomarkers and technologies similar to those used in humans are essential for the follow-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models, particularly for the clarification of mechanisms and the screening and validation of new candidate treatments. In humans, changes in brain metabolism can be detected by 1-deoxy-2-[(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET) and ...
Yergeau Donald A - - 2010
Transposon-mediated integration strategies in Xenopus offer simple and robust methods for the generation of germline transgenic animals. Co-injection of fertilized one-cell embryos with plasmid DNA harboring a transposon transgene and synthetic mRNA encoding the cognate transposase enzyme results in mosaic integration of the transposon at early cleavage stages that are ...
Frautschy Sally A - - 2010
This article from Coma et al. shows that a salicylic acid derivative Triflusal, a platelet aggregation inhibitor and irreversible inhibitor of COX-1, can correct defects in axonal curvature and cognition in an AD transgenic mouse model (Tg2576) (Coma et al., 2010). Here we discuss the controversy over the role of ...
Taguchi Akihiko - - 2010
In order to evaluate novel stroke therapies, it is essential to utilize a highly reproducible model of focal cerebral ischemia. Though a range of rodent stroke models has been employed in the literature, there are persistent issues regarding reproducibility of the ischemic zone, as there is considerable inter-animal and inter-laboratory ...
Jeet Varinder - - 2010
Despite considerable success in treatment of early stage localized prostate cancer (PC), acute inadequacy of late stage PC treatment and its inherent heterogeneity poses a formidable challenge. Clearly, an improved understanding of PC genesis and progression along with the development of new targeted therapies are warranted. Animal models, especially, transgenic ...
Tanaka Nobuhiko - - 2010
This article reports the development of SDOP-DB, which can provide definite, detailed and easy comparison of experimental protocols used in mouse phenotypic analyses among institutes or laboratories. Because SDOP-DB is fully compliant with international standards, it can act as a practical foundation for international sharing and integration of mouse phenotypic ...
Lawson Heather A - - 2010
Animal models have enriched understanding of the physiological basis of metabolic disorders and advanced identification of genetic risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Murine models are especially appropriate for this type of research, and are an excellent resource not only for identifying candidate genomic regions, but also for illuminating ...
Cacho N Ivalú - - 2010
The study of traits that play a key role in promoting diversification is central to evolutionary biology. Floral nectar spurs are among the few plant traits that correlate with an enhanced rate of diversification, supporting the claim that they are key innovations. Slight changes in spur morphology could confer some ...
Liu Kai - - 2010
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) makes it possible to elucidate molecular and cellular signatures to better understand the effects of human disease in small animal models in vivo. The unambiguous three-dimensional bioluminescent source information obtained by bioluminescence tomography (BLT) could further facilitate its applications in biomedicine. However, to the best of our ...
Watts Christopher R - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to identify the presence and characteristics of the distribution patterns of elastic fibers in a 15-week-old C57BL/6J mouse vocal fold, to confirm the presence and distribution of collagen fibers, and to describe potential gender differences in staining patterns, with the aim of further developing ...
Smith Phillip P Department of Psychology, American University, Washington, DC 20016, - - 2010
In the human mini-ultimatum game, a proposer splits a sum of money with a responder. If the responder accepts, both are paid. If not, neither is paid. Typically, responders reject inequitable distributions, favoring punishing over maximizing. In Jensen et al.'s (Science 318:107-109, 2007) adaptation with apes, a proposer selects between ...
Fausto Nelson - - 2010
The etiology of liver cancer is well known, but despite recent progress in the application of molecular techniques for the analysis of the development of these tumors, we still lack precise knowledge about pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Animal models can provide essential knowledge about HCC pathogenesis, particularly if they ...
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