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Langlois Dominic D School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, 136 Jean Jacques Lussier, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N - - 2014
The coordination of activity amongst populations of neurons in the brain is critical to cognition and behavior. One form of coordinated activity that has been widely studied in recent years is the so-called neuronal avalanche, whereby ongoing bursts of activity follow a power-law distribution. Avalanches that follow a power law ...
Yang Shanshan S School of Information Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, - - 2014
Detection of dysphonia is useful for monitoring the progression of phonatory impairment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and also helps assess the disease severity. This paper describes the statistical pattern analysis methods to study different vocal measurements of sustained phonations. The feature dimension reduction procedure was implemented by using ...
Ding Hang H The Australian e-Health Research Centre, CSIRO. Level 5, UQ Health Sciences Building 901/16, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland 4029, - - 2014
Structures in recurrence plots (RPs), preserving the rich information of nonlinear invariants and trajectory characteristics, have been increasingly analyzed in dynamic discrimination studies. The conventional analysis of RPs is mainly focused on quantifying the overall diagonal and vertical line structures through a method, called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). This study ...
Bolea Juan J Communications Technology Group (GTC), Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), IIS Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain ; CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza, - - 2014
This paper presents a methodological framework for robust estimation of the correlation dimension in HRV signals. It includes (i) a fast algorithm for on-line computation of correlation sums; (ii) log-log curves fitting to a sigmoidal function for robust maximum slope estimation discarding the estimation according to fitting requirements; (iii) three ...
Nathan Dominic E DE Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, 1515W Wisconsin Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53233, - - 2014
A key challenge in upper extremity neuroprosthetics is variable levels of skill and inconsistent functional recovery. We examine the feasibility and benefits of using natural neuromotor strategies through the design and development of a proof-of-concept model for a feed-forward upper extremity neuroprosthetic controller. Developed using Artificial Neural Networks, the model ...
Ba Demba D Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital Charlestown, MA, USA ; Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, - - 2014
Understanding how ensembles of neurons represent and transmit information in the patterns of their joint spiking activity is a fundamental question in computational neuroscience. At present, analyses of spiking activity from neuronal ensembles are limited because multivariate point process (MPP) models cannot represent simultaneous occurrences of spike events at an ...
Chen Yuxin Y Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, , Evanston, IL, - - 2014
We propose a minimal model of predator-swarm interactions which captures many of the essential dynamics observed in nature. Different outcomes are observed depending on the predator strength. For a 'weak' predator, the swarm is able to escape the predator completely. As the strength is increased, the predator is able to ...
Lafaye de Micheaux Pierre P a Department of Mathematics and Statistics , Université of Montréal , Quebec , - - 2014
The use of two or more primary correlated endpoints is becoming increasingly common. A mandatory approach when analyzing data from such clinical trials is to control the family-wise error rate (FWER). In this context, we provide formulas for computation of sample size and for data analysis. Two approaches are discussed: ...
Gröger Joachim P JP Thünen Institute of Sea Fisheries, Hamburg, Germany ; Institute for Bio-Sciences, Rostock University, Rostock, - - 2014
Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study ...
Filosi Michele M MPBA/Center for Information and Communication Technology, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy ; CIBIO, University of Trento, Trento, - - 2014
The number of available algorithms to infer a biological network from a dataset of high-throughput measurements is overwhelming and keeps growing. However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a 'gold standard' is available to measure how close the reconstructed network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is ...
Werner Jan J Department of Ecology, Zoological Institute, University of Mainz, Mainz, - - 2014
We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, ...
Xing Guodong G School of Mathematics and Statistics, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, - - 2014
The exponential inequality for weighted sums of a class of linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables is established, which extends and improves the corresponding ones obtained by Ko et al. (2007) and Jabbari et al. (2009). In addition, we also give the relevant precise asymptotics.
Zhang Peng P School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, P. R. - - 2014
Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by ...
Huang Ya-Li YL Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, - - 2014
The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV) has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM) and household activities. We performed ...
Soliven Betty - - 2014
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises the cranial nerves, the spinal nerves with their roots and rami, dorsal root ganglia neurons, the peripheral nerves, and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system. Cell-mediated or antibody-mediated immune attack on the PNS results in distinct clinical syndromes, which are classified based on ...
Wearmouth Victoria J VJ Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, , Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK, European Institute of Marine Studies (IUEM), University of Western Britanny, , Place Nicolas Copernic 29280, Plouzané, France, School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Plymouth, , Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK, Rothamsted Research, , Harpenden AL5 2JQ, UK, Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, , Waterfront Campus, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK, Centre for Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, , Building 85, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ, - - 2014
The decisions animals make about how long to wait between activities can determine the success of diverse behaviours such as foraging, group formation or risk avoidance. Remarkably, for diverse animal species, including humans, spontaneous patterns of waiting times show random 'burstiness' that appears scale-invariant across a broad set of scales. ...
Smith Kyle S KS Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College Hanover, NH, - - 2014
Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to ...
Ielpo Pierina P Water Research Institute - National Research Council, Bari division, viale de Blasio, 5 70132 Bari, Italy. - - 2014
The chemical composition of aerosols and particle size distributions are the most significant factors affecting air quality. In particular, the exposure to finer particles can cause short and long-term effects on human health. In the present paper PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm), CO, NOx (NO and ...
Agnihotri Samira S Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, - - 2014
Objective identification and description of mimicked calls is a primary component of any study on avian vocal mimicry but few studies have adopted a quantitative approach. We used spectral feature representations commonly used in human speech analysis in combination with various distance metrics to distinguish between mimicked and non-mimicked calls ...
Cerchio Salvatore S Wildlife Conservation Society, Global Conservation Program, Bronx, New York, United States of America; American Museum of Natural History, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, New York, New York, United States of - - 2014
Passive acoustic monitoring was used to document the presence of singing humpback whales off the coast of Northern Angola, and opportunistically test for the effect of seismic survey activity in the vicinity on the number of singing whales. Two Marine Autonomous Recording Units (MARUs) were deployed between March and December ...
Sperandei Sandro S School of Physical Education and Sports - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, - - 2014
Logistic regression is used to obtain odds ratio in the presence of more than one explanatory variable. The procedure is quite similar to multiple linear regression, with the exception that the response variable is binomial. The result is the impact of each variable on the odds ratio of the observed ...
da Silva Fabiano Mello FM Federal University of Santa Maria, Department of Business, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, - - 2014
The aim of this study is to analyze the causality relationship among a set of macroeconomic variables, represented by the exchange rate, interest rate, inflation (CPI), industrial production index as a proxy for gross domestic product in relation to the index of the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa). The period ...
Berthet Pierre P Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, - - 2014
Optogenetic stimulation of specific types of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum has been shown to bias the selection of mice in a two choices task. This shift is dependent on the localisation and on the intensity of the stimulation but also on the recent reward history. We have ...
Rabosky Daniel L DL Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of - - 2014
A number of methods have been developed to infer differential rates of species diversification through time and among clades using time-calibrated phylogenetic trees. However, we lack a general framework that can delineate and quantify heterogeneous mixtures of dynamic processes within single phylogenies. I developed a method that can identify arbitrary ...
Namboodiri Vijay M K VM Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Animals and humans make decisions based on their expected outcomes. Since relevant outcomes are often delayed, perceiving delays and choosing between earlier vs. later rewards (intertemporal decision-making) is an essential component of animal behavior. The myriad observations made in experiments studying intertemporal decision-making and time perception have not yet been ...
Stone James V JV Psychology Department, Sheffield University Sheffield, - - 2014
As the strength of a stimulus increases, the proportions of correct binary responses increases, which define the psychometric function. Simultaneously, mean reaction times (RT) decrease, which collectively define the chronometric function. However, RTs are traditionally ignored when estimating psychophysical parameters, even though they may provide additional Shannon information. Here, we ...
Olson Hunt Megan J MJ Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, - - 2014
When data are sparse and/or predictors multicollinear, current implementation of sparse partial least squares (SPLS) does not give estimates for non-selected predictors nor provide a measure of inference. In response, an approach termed "all-possible" SPLS is proposed, which fits a SPLS model for all tuning parameter values across a set ...
Goyal Daniel K DK Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester , Manchester , - - 2014
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition affecting an individual's ability to communicate and socialize and often presents with repetitive movements or behaviors. It tends to be severe with less than 10% achieving independent living with a marked variation in the progression of the condition. To date, the literature ...
Börger Luca - - 2014
Understanding the effects of landscape change and environmental variability on ecological processes is important for evaluating resource management policies, such as the emulation of natural forest disturbances. We analyzed time series of detection/nondetection data using hierarchical models in a Bayesian multi-model inference framework to decompose the dynamics of species distributions ...
Hurvitz Philip M PM Urban Form Laboratory, Department of Urban Design and Planning, University of Washington , Seattle, WA , - - 2014
Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time ...
Zweig Christa L - - 2014
Historical vegetation data are important to ecological studies, as many structuring processes operate at long time scales, from decades to centuries. Capturing the pattern of variability within a system (enough to declare a significant change from past to present) relies on correct assumptions about the temporal scale of the processes ...
Menden-Deuer Susanne S Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, , Narragansett, RI, - - 2014
In apparent contradiction to competition theory, the number of known, coexisting plankton species far exceeds their explicable biodiversity-a discrepancy termed the Paradox of the Plankton. We introduce a new game-theoretic model for competing microorganisms in which one player consists of all organisms of one species. The stable points for the ...
Jiang Liewen L Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, - - 2014
Examination of multiple conditional quantile functions provides a comprehensive view of the relationship between the response and covariates. In situations where quantile slope coefficients share some common features, estimation efficiency and model interpretability can be improved by utilizing such commonality across quantiles. Furthermore, elimination of irrelevant predictors will also aid ...
Arula Timo T Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Pärnu, - - 2014
Because of the high management relevance, commercial fish related aspects have often been central in marine ecosystem investigations. The iterative shiftogram method was applied to detect occurrence, type and timing of shifts in the single and multivariate time series linked to the spring spawning herring larvae in the Gulf of ...
Viorica Daniela D Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, - - 2014
The objective of this paper is to verify the hypotheses presented in the literature on the causal relationship between inflation and its uncertainty, for the newest EU countries. To ensure the robustness of the results, in the study four models for inflation uncertainty are estimated in parallel: ARCH (1), GARCH ...
Gago-Benítez Ana A Systems Engineering and Automation Department, University of Málaga, Campus Teatinos, Boulevard Luis Pasteur s/n, Málaga 29071, Spain. - - 2014
Networked telerobots are remotely controlled through general purpose networks and components, which are highly heterogeneous and exhibit stochastic response times; however their correct teleoperation requires a timely flow of information from sensors to remote stations. In order to guarantee these time requirements, a good on-line probabilistic estimation of the sensory ...
Knowlden Adam P AP Department of Health Science, University of Alabama, Russell Hall 472, P.O. Box 870311, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0311, - - 2014
Pediatric obesity is a pertinent public health challenge. Child physical activity and screen time behaviors enacted within the context of the family and home environment are important determinants of pediatric obesity. The purpose of this study was to operationalize five, maternal-facilitated, social cognitive theory constructs for predicting physical activity and ...
Dong Haiwei H School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Ottawa, 800 King Edward, K1N 6N5, Ottawa, ON, Canada. - - 2014
This paper proposes a method to assess the overall fatigue of human body movement. First of all, according to previous research regarding localized muscular fatigue, a linear relation is assumed between the mean frequency and the muscular working time when the muscle is experiencing fatigue. This assumption is verified with ...
Hirsch Jana A JA Department of Epidemiology, Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Michigan School of Public Health , Ann Arbor, MI , - - 2014
It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or ...
Eglen Stephen John SJ Cambridge Computational Biology Institute, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, CB3 0WA Cambridge, UK. - - 2014
During early development, neural circuits fire spontaneously, generating activity episodes with complex spatiotemporal patterns. Recordings of spontaneous activity have been made in many parts of the nervous system over the last 25 years, reporting developmental changes in activity patterns and the effects of various genetic perturbations. We present a curated ...
Ullsperger Markus - - 2014
Successful goal-directed behavior requires not only correct action selection, planning, and execution but also the ability to flexibly adapt behavior when performance problems occur or the environment changes. A prerequisite for determining the necessity, type, and magnitude of adjustments is to continuously monitor the course and outcome of one's actions. ...
Rozenstein Offer O The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 84990, Israel. - - 2014
Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most important variables measured by satellite remote sensing. Public domain data are available from the newly operational Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). This paper presents an adjustment of the split window algorithm (SWA) for TIRS that uses atmospheric transmittance and land surface ...
Zigler Corwin Matthew CM Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA - - 2014
Causal inference with observational data frequently relies on the notion of the propensity score (PS) to adjust treatment comparisons for observed confounding factors. As decisions in the era of "big data" are increasingly reliant on large and complex collections of digital data, researchers are frequently confronted with decisions regarding which ...
Ghassempour Shima S School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW 2751 , Australia. - - 2014
In this paper we describe an algorithm for clustering multivariate time series with variables taking both categorical and continuous values. Time series of this type are frequent in health care, where they represent the health trajectories of individuals. The problem is challenging because categorical variables make it difficult to define ...
Ahnert Sebastian E SE Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, United - - 2014
We introduce a framework for the discovery of dominant relationship patterns in complex networks, by compressing the networks into power graphs with overlapping power nodes. When paired with enrichment analysis of node classification terms, the most compressible sets of edges provide a highly informative sketch of the dominant relationship patterns ...
Campos Inocencio Leonardo L VIZLab, Advanced Visualization Laboratory, UNISINOS, 93022-000 São Leopoldo, RS, - - 2014
The present study aimed to develop and implement a method for detection and classification of spectral signatures in point clouds obtained from terrestrial laser scanner in order to identify the presence of different rocks in outcrops and to generate a digital outcrop model. To achieve this objective, a software based ...
Williams R R Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 8LB, - - 2014
Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships ...
Serang Oliver O Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, - - 2014
Exact Bayesian inference can sometimes be performed efficiently for special cases where a function has commutative and associative symmetry of its inputs (called "causal independence"). For this reason, it is desirable to exploit such symmetry on big data sets. Here we present a method to exploit a general form of ...
Marateb Hamid Reza HR Department of Biomedical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, the University of Isfahan, Isfahan, - - 2014
selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have ...
Rath J J JJ School of Electronics Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of - - 2014
The estimation of road excitation profile is important for evaluation of vehicle stability and vehicle suspension performance for autonomous vehicle control systems. In this work, the nonlinear dynamics of the active automotive system that is excited by the unknown road excitation profile are considered for modeling. To address the issue ...
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