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Rubenstein Michael M School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. - - 2014
Self-assembly enables nature to build complex forms, from multicellular organisms to complex animal structures such as flocks of birds, through the interaction of vast numbers of limited and unreliable individuals. Creating this ability in engineered systems poses challenges in the design of both algorithms and physical systems that can operate ...
Wilson Ander A Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, - - 2014
When estimating the effect of an exposure or treatment on an outcome it is important to select the proper subset of confounding variables to include in the model. Including too many covariates increases mean square error on the effect of interest while not including confounding variables biases the exposure effect ...
Yoon Sol Hee SH Dept. of Information and Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of - - 2014
This research proposes an assessment model for quantifying the perceived visual complexity (PVC) of an in-vehicle instrument cluster. An initial study was conducted to investigate the possibility of evaluating the PVC of an in-vehicle instrument cluster by estimating and analyzing the complexity of its individual components. However, this approach was ...
Ngeo Jimson G - - 2014
Surface electromyography (EMG) signals are often used in many robot and rehabilitation applications because these reflect motor intentions of users very well. However, very few studies have focused on the accurate and proportional control of the human hand using EMG signals. Many have focused on discrete gesture classification and some ...
Altini Marco M Body Area Networks, imec The Netherlands, High Tech Campus 31, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Signal Processing Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, Eindhoven, The - - 2014
In this paper we propose a generic approach to reduce inter-individual variability of different physiological signals (HR, GSR and respiration) by automatically estimating normalization parameters (e.g. baseline and range). The proposed normalization procedure does not require a dedicated personal calibration during system setup. On the other hand, normalization parameters are ...
Smolders Roel R VITO, Boeretang 200, Mol B-2400, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
The aim of the current HBM-study is to further the understanding of the impact of inter- and intra-individual variability in HBM surveys as it may have implications for the design and interpretation of the study outcomes. As spot samples only provide a snapshot in time of the concentrations of chemicals ...
Kangas Maarit M Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, - - 2014
Background: About a third of home-dwelling older people fall each year, and institutionalized older people even report a two- or threefold higher rate for falling. Automatic fall detection systems have been developed to support the independent and secure living of the elderly. Even though good fall detection sensitivity and specificity ...
Nielsen Jace C JC Ann Arbor Pharmacometrics Group, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
Vigabatrin is an irreversible inhibitor of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) and is used as an adjunctive therapy for adult patients with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS). The purpose of this investigation was to describe the relationship between vigabatrin dosage and daily seizure rate for adults and children with rCPS and ...
Li Bin - - 2014
Cross-domain collaborative filtering (CF) aims to share common rating knowledge across multiple related CF domains to boost the CF performance. In this paper, we view CF domains as a 2-D site-time coordinate system, on which multiple related domains, such as similar recommender sites or successive time-slices, can share group-level rating ...
Mittal Anuradha A Department of Biomedical Engineering and Center for Biological Systems Engineering and Department of Physics, Washington University in St. Louis One Brookings Drive , Campus Box 1097, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, United - - 2014
There is growing interest in the topic of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Atomistic Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations based on novel implicit solvation models have yielded useful insights regarding sequence-ensemble relationships for IDPs modeled as autonomous units. However, a majority of naturally occurring IDPs are tethered to ordered domains. Tethering ...
Westfall Jacob - - 2014
Researchers designing experiments in which a sample of participants responds to a sample of stimuli are faced with difficult questions about optimal study design. The conventional procedures of statistical power analysis fail to provide appropriate answers to these questions because they are based on statistical models in which stimuli are ...
DeMaris Alfred - - 2014
Unmeasured confounding is the principal threat to unbiased estimation of treatment "effects" (i.e., regression parameters for binary regressors) in nonexperimental research. It refers to unmeasured characteristics of individuals that lead them both to be in a particular "treatment" category and to register higher or lower values than others on a ...
Boef Anna G C AG Department of Clinical Epidemiology, C7-P, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Instrumental variable (IV) analysis is promising for estimation of therapeutic effects from observational data as it can circumvent unmeasured confounding. However, even if IV assumptions hold, IV analyses will not necessarily provide an estimate closer to the true effect than conventional analyses as this depends on the estimates' bias and ...
Bouchaffra Djamel - - 2014
We introduce a novel formalism that performs dimensionality reduction and captures topological features (such as the shape of the observed data) to conduct pattern classification. This mission is achieved by: 1) reducing the dimension of the observed variables through a kernelized radial basis function technique and expressing the latent variables ...
Malcata Rita M RM High Performance Sport New Zealand, 17 Antares Place, Mairangi Bay, 0632, Auckland, New Zealand, - - 2014
Estimates of the variability that athletes show from competition to competition provide information about the relative contributions of environmental and other factors affecting competitive performance. Smallest and other important thresholds for assessing changes in performance in competitions and field or laboratory tests can also be derived from estimates of variability. ...
Vegezzi Gaia G Department of Pharmacy - University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 27/A, 43124 Parma - - - 2014
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders include many clinical manifestations associated with various pathologies. They are widespread and can be considered a primary symptom or can be associated to other diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. Understanding the type and site of GI dysmotility is crucial to identify the functional abnormality and to ...
Sampaio Pedro N PN Faculty of Engineering, Catholic University of Portugal Estrada Octávio Pato2635-631 Rio de MouroPortugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used to in situ monitoring the cultivation of two recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing heterologous cyprosin B. NIR spectroscopy is a fast and non-destructive technique, that by being based on overtones and combinations of molecular vibrations requires chemometrics tools, such as partial least squares (PLS) ...
Linzner Roland R Institute of Waste Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria - - 2014
The informal sector is active in the collection, processing and trading of recyclable materials in urban China. Formal waste management organisations have established pilot schemes for source separation of recyclables, but this strategy is still in its infancy. The amounts of recyclables informally picked out of the municipal solid waste ...
Zhang Hongbo H a Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering , Virginia Tech , 250 Durham Hall (0118), Blacksburg , VA 24061 , - - 2014
The critical time interval (CTI) is a parameter that has been used to distinguish open-loop from closed-loop control during upright stance. The aim of this study was to develop a new method to determine CTIs. The new approach, termed the intermittent critical time interval (ICTI) method, was motivated from evidence ...
Kong Jude D JD Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G1, Canada, - - 2014
Cholera remains epidemic and endemic in the world, causing thousands of deaths annually in locations lacking adequate sanitation and water infrastructure. Yet, its dynamics are still not fully understood. In this paper, we simplify and improve Jensen et al.'s model (PNAS 103:4652-4657, 2006) by incorporating a Minimum Infection Dose (MID) ...
Principe Jose C JC Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116130, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper reviews methodologies for analyzing neural potentials via frequency, time-frequency, or wavelet representations, and adaptive models that estimate the signal's spatial or temporal structure. The fundamental assumptions of each method are discussed. In particular, the Fourier transform is contrasted with overcomplete representations, which are able to precisely delineate the ...
Viglione Donald J DJ California School of Professional Psychology, Alliant International University, San Diego, CA, - - 2014
Variability in the number of Rorschach responses (R) has stimulated controversy among clinicians and researchers for many years, and recent research reveals that R is much more variable than previously thought. Because R is correlated with other scores, its excessive variability may reduce the reliability, validity and clinical utility of ...
Wilcox Chris C CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Castray Esplanade, Hobart, 7000, Tasmania, Australia. - - 2014
Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ...
Kennedy David A DA Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois - - 2014
Abstract Pathogen population dynamics within individual hosts can alter disease epidemics and pathogen evolution, but our understanding of the mechanisms driving within-host dynamics is weak. Mathematical models have provided useful insights, but existing models have only rarely been subjected to rigorous tests, and their reliability is therefore open to question. ...
Kokalj Meta M Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, - - 2014
Herbal teas and other herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular, and it is essential to ensure their quality. Quality control methods that are simple, fast, and of low cost are needed by the producers and by inspections. Infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate mathematical methods has been shown to ...
Germanaud D D INSERM UMR 1129, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; CEA, Gif sur Yvette, France; UNIACT, Neurospin, I2BM, DSV, CEA-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France; AP-HP, Hôpital Robert Debré, Service de Neuropédiatrie et Pathologie Métabolique, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine Paris Diderot, Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
The strong positive-allometric relationship between brain size, cortical extension and gyrification complexity, recently highlighted in the general population, could be modified by brain developmental disorders. Indeed, in case of brain growth insufficiency, the pathophysiological relevance of the "simplified gyral pattern" phenotype is strongly disputed since almost no genotype-phenotype correlations have ...
Irschick D J DJ Department of Biology, 221 Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003, U.S.A.; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003, - - 2014
A simple metric (span condition analysis; SCA) is presented for quantifying the condition of sharks based on four measurements of body girth relative to body length. Data on 104 live sharks from four species that vary in body form, behaviour and habitat use (Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus limbatus, Ginglymostoma cirratum and ...
Buchheit Martin M a Football Performance & Science Department , Aspire , Doha , - - 2014
Abstract During the past decade substantial development of computer-aided tracking technology has occurred. Therefore, we aimed to provide calibration equations to allow the interchangeability of different tracking technologies used in soccer. Eighty-two highly trained soccer players (U14-U17) were monitored during training and one match. Player activity was collected simultaneously with ...
Abramic Andrej A Department of Hydraulic Engineering and the Environment, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain; Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical, and Environmental Safety, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study focuses on the coastal monitoring network established in the scope of WFD implementation. The objective of this network was to provide an ecological assessment of Valencian coastal waters. After three years, sufficient data had been collected to enable us to analyse and explore ways to increase the network's ...
Couceiro Sheyla Regina Marques SR Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologia das Águas. Laboratório de Ecologia de Ictioplâncton e Invertebrados aquáticos. Anexo ao Campus Amazônia Boulevard. Av. Mendonça Furtado, 2946, Fátima. CEP 68040-470. Santarém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Black flies (Simuliidae) are considered to be pests in rural and in some urban areas in the south of Brazil due to the bites of females. Little information exists on the factors that contribute to Simuliidae distribution in these areas. We sampled 39 streams in the state of Rio Grande ...
Konur Savas - - 2014
Computational models are perceived as an attractive alternative to mathematical models, e.g. ordinary differential equations. These models incorporate a set of methods for specifying, modelling, testing and simulating biological systems. In addition, they can be analysed using algorithmic techniques, e.g. formal verification. This paper shows how formal verification is utilised ...
Xu Shu - - 2014
Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate interrater agreement statistics (IRAS) for use in research on low base rate clinical diagnoses or observed behaviors. Establishing and reporting sufficient interrater agreement is essential in such studies. Yet the most commonly applied agreement statistic, Cohen's κ, has a well known sensitivity ...
Toscano Joseph C - - 2014
A critical issue in assessing speech recognition involves understanding the factors that cause listeners to make errors. Models like the articulation index show that average error decreases logarithmically with increases in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We investigated whether (1) this log-linear relationship holds across consonants and for individual tokens, and (2) ...
Charlwood J D JD DBL Centre for Health Research and Development, Faculty of Life, University of Copenhagen, Fredriksberg, Denmark; Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique; MOZDAN (Mozambican-Danish Rural Malaria Project), Morrumbene, Mozambique; Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, - - 2014
Comparisons were undertaken to investigate cost-effective methods of implementing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for sporozoite determination in anophelines when large numbers require processing. Comparisons between ELISA plate reader and visual assessments were performed with Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae), as were comparisons between whole-body mosquito samples, ...
Rastija Vesna - - 2014
In order to find quantitative-structure relationship for the antitrypanosomal activities (against Trypanosma brucei rhodesiense) of polyphenols that belong to the different structural groups, the multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were employed. Analysis was performed on the two different size of training set (59 % and 78 ...
Li Na N School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA - - 2014
The correlation of healthy states with heart rate variability (HRV) using time series analyses is well documented. Whereas these studies note the accepted proximal role of autonomic nervous system balance in HRV patterns, the responsible deeper physiological, clinically relevant mechanisms have not been fully explained. Using mathematical tools from control ...
Sáez Carlos C Grupo de Informática Biomédica (IBIME), Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologías de la Información y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas (ITACA), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València, Spain Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, 4200-450, Porto, Portugal - - 2014
Biomedical data may be composed of individuals generated from distinct, meaningful sources. Due to possible contextual biases in the processes that generate data, there may exist an undesirable and unexpected variability among the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the source subsamples, which, when uncontrolled, may lead to inaccurate or unreproducible ...
Fock Eric - - 2014
A new algorithm for the selection of input variables of neural network is proposed. This new method, applied after the training stage, ranks the inputs according to their importance in the variance of the model output. The use of a global sensitivity analysis technique, extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, gives ...
Friesen Melissa C MC Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Rockville, - - 2014
A systematic, transparent, and data-driven approach was developed to estimate frequency and intensity of exposure to straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic metalworking fluids (MWFs) within a case-control study of bladder cancer in New England. We assessed frequency using individual-level information from job-specific questionnaires wherever possible, then derived and applied job group-level ...
Lü Chengxu C China Agricultural University, College of Engineering, Beijing 100083, - - 2014
This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because ...
Shi Tiezhu T School of Resource and Environmental Science and Key Laboratory of Geographic Information System of the Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, 430079, Wuhan, - - 2014
This study, with Yixing (Jiangsu Province, China) and Honghu (Hubei Province, China) as study areas, aimed to compare the successive projection algorithm (SPA) and the genetic algorithm (GA) in spectral feature selection for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) contents with visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy and further to assess whether the ...
Deng Bai-Chuan BC Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, Bergen N-5007, - - 2014
In this study, a new optimization algorithm called the Variable Iterative Space Shrinkage Approach (VISSA) that is based on the idea of model population analysis (MPA) is proposed for variable selection. Unlike most of the existing optimization methods for variable selection, VISSA statistically evaluates the performance of variable space in ...
Trendafilov Nickolay T NT Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK, - - 2014
The component loadings are interpreted by considering their magnitudes, which indicates how strongly each of the original variables relates to the corresponding principal component. The usual ad hoc practice in the interpretation process is to ignore the variables with small absolute loadings or set to zero loadings smaller than some ...
Brouwer Maartje M Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Retrospective assessment of environmental pesticide exposure is challenging. Exposure measurements or information on crop-specific pesticide use are often lacking historically. We applied expert assessment to reconstruct historical pesticide use patterns in the Netherlands, and evaluated reliability and accuracy of this procedure. For six main crops in the Netherlands, two experts ...
Zhou Qingping Q School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, - - 2014
Exposure to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause serious health problems because PM2.5 contains microscopic solid or liquid droplets that are sufficiently small to be ingested deep into human lungs. Thus, daily prediction of PM2.5 levels is notably important for regulatory plans that inform the public and ...
Ferreira Danton Diego DD Engineering Department, Federal University of Lavras, P. O. Box 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) leads to phase- and time-locked activities in the electroencephalogram (EEG). While the first are easily obtained by means of averaging techniques (the evoked response), this latter reflects changes in the ongoing EEG that are important in Event-Related Synchronization/Desynchronization (ERS/ERD) studies. Techniques have been proposed for assessing ...
Haynes Erin F EF American Institutes for Research, Waltham, Massachusetts - - 2014
An alternative to the spectral overlap assessment metric (SOAM), first introduced by Wassink [(2006). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119(4), 2334-2350], is introduced. The SOAM quantifies the intra- and inter-language differences between long-short vowel pairs through a comparison of spectral (F1, F2) and temporal properties modeled with best fit ellipses (F1 × F2 ...
Cao R - - 2014
Two psychophysical experiments were conducted at North Carolina State University (NCSU) and Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) to obtain replicated perceived saturation data from color normal observers on the order of one unit of saturation. The same 37 Munsell sample sheets, including up to four references that had similar perceived ...
Benzekry Sébastien S Inria Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Center of Cancer Systems Biology, GRI, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
Despite internal complexity, tumor growth kinetics follow relatively simple laws that can be expressed as mathematical models. To explore this further, quantitative analysis of the most classical of these were performed. The models were assessed against data from two in vivo experimental systems: an ectopic syngeneic tumor (Lewis lung carcinoma) ...
Gaye Amadou A Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK and UK Biobank and University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2014
Errors, introduced through poor assessment of physical measurement or because of inconsistent or inappropriate standard operating procedures for collecting, processing, storing or analysing haematological and biochemistry analytes, have a negative impact on the power of association studies using the collected data. A dataset from UK Biobank was used to evaluate ...
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