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Edwards Howell G M HG Centre for Astrobiology and Extremophiles Research, Chemical and Forensic Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK - - 2014
This paper draws a comparison between the 700-year-old historically reported will-o'-the-wisp phenomenon and the more recent discovery of extremophilic colonization of hostile environments; both have been observed as present in isolated, stressed environmental regions and originating from biological phenomena. However, whereas extremophilic activity can be understood in terms of a ...
Varnali Tereza T Department of Chemistry, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey - - 2014
Raman spectroscopy has been identified as an important first-pass analytical technique for deployment on planetary surfaces as part of a suite of instrumentation in projected remote space exploration missions to detect extant or extinct extraterrestrial life signatures. Aside from the demonstrable advantages of a non-destructive sampling procedure and an ability ...
Beridze George - - 2014
Ability to perform a feasible and reliable computation of thermochemical properties of chemically complex actinide-bearing materials would be of great importance for nuclear engineering. Unfortunately, density functional theory (DFT), which on many instances is the only affordable {\it ab initio} method, often fails for actinides. Among various shortcomings, it leads ...
Nagasree Kurre Purna KP Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research Labs, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003 A.P., India. - - 2014
Thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were recognized recently for their potent antitubercular activity. A total of sixty four thiazolidine derivatives published in the recent times were collected and 3D QSAR models were developed using CoMFA and COMSIA with high predictability. Later, we selected three new molecules synthesized recently in our lab and ...
Zhang X X International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico, - - 2014
One of the most important applications of genomic selection in maize breeding is to predict and identify the best untested lines from biparental populations, when the training and validation sets are derived from the same cross. Nineteen tropical maize biparental populations evaluated in multienvironment trials were used in this study ...
Beheshti Sayyed-Mohsen SM a School of Mechanical Engineering , Iran University of Science and Technology , 16765-163 Tehran , - - 2014
Abstract Gasification is a thermochemical process in which solid or liquid fuels are transformed into synthesis gas through partial oxidation. In this paper, a kinetic model of rice husk gasification has been developed, which is interesting for the applications of the syngas produced. It is a zero dimensional, steady state ...
Montzka Stephen A - - 2014
Global-scale atmospheric measurements are used to investigate the effectiveness of recent adjustments to production and consumption controls on hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) and to assess recent projections of large increases in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and emission. The results show ...
Liu Zhen - - 2014
Current knowledge of daytime HONO sources remains incomplete. A large missing daytime HONO source has been found in many places around the world, including polluted regions in China. Conventional understanding and recent studies attributed this missing source mainly to ground surface processes or gas-phase chemistry, while assuming aerosols to be ...
Hackbarth S S Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Physics, Photobiophysics, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany. hacky@physik.hu-berlin.de - - 2014
In vivo measurement of singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics is affected by the heterogeneity of biological samples. Even though singlet oxygen luminescence detection is technically getting easier, the analysis of signals from biological samples is still far from quantitative real time surveillance as it is aspired by the community. In this ...
Mbuthia Jackson M JM Animal Breeding and Genomics Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, - - 2014
A deterministic bio-economic model was developed and applied to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterize smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Two pig production systems were considered namely, semi-intensive (SI) and extensive (EX). The input variables were categorized into biological variables including production and functional traits, nutritional variables, management ...
Wang Tan - - 2014
This paper investigates the removal characteristics of the multigesture jetting of magnetorheological jet polishing (MJP). It discusses four main jetting models that satisfy precise polishing, which are complemented by an integrated polishing tool. Based on fluid impact dynamics theory, the paper analyzes the characteristics of abrasives in flowing slurry, such ...
Johnson Lee L 1] EastChem, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK [2] Departments of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, - - 2014
When lithium-oxygen batteries discharge, O2 is reduced at the cathode to form solid Li2O2. Understanding the fundamental mechanism of O2 reduction in aprotic solvents is therefore essential to realizing their technological potential. Two different models have been proposed for Li2O2 formation, involving either solution or electrode surface routes. Here, we ...
Concu Riccardo - - 2014
The main objective of this study was to simulate for the first time a complex sol-gel system aimed at preparing the S-Naproxen imprinted xerogel with an explicit representation of all the ionic species at pH 9. To this purpose, a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of different mixtures, including ...
Noordally Zeenat B - - 2014
As major contributors to global oxygen levels and producers of fatty acids, carotenoid, sterols and phycocolloids, algae have significant ecological and commercial roles. Early algal models have contributed much to our understanding of circadian clocks at physiological and biochemical levels. The genetic and molecular approaches that identified clock components in ...
Nganai Shadrack - - 2014
The discrepancies between polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin to polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD to PCDF) ratios in laboratory and field studies in the exhaust of combustion sources are not fully explained by available formation models. In this paper we present the results of experimental studies of the surface mediated formation of PCDD/F at the ...
Béchet Quentin - - 2014
While modeling algal productivity outdoors is crucial to assess the economic and environmental performance of full-scale cultivation, most of the models hitherto developed for this purpose have not been validated under fully relevant conditions, especially with regard to temperature variations. The objective of this study was to independently validate a ...
Lim Yi Chung YC Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, 70 Symonds St, Auckland, 1010, New - - 2014
In endothelial cells (ECs), the mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress is partially dependent on the transmission of force from the fluid into the cell (mechanotransmission). The role of the primary cilium in EC mechanotransmission is not yet known. To motivate a framework towards quantifying cilia contribution to EC mechanotransmission, we ...
Hassan Junaid J Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, - - 2014
In response to impending anoxic conditions, denitrifying bacteria sustain respiratory metabolism by producing enzymes for reducing nitrogen oxyanions/-oxides (NOx) to N2 (denitrification). Since denitrifying bacteria are non-fermentative, the initial production of denitrification proteome depends on energy from aerobic respiration. Thus, if a cell fails to synthesise a minimum of denitrification ...
Planavsky Noah J NJ Department Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, CT, USA. noah.planavsky@yale.edu - - 2014
The oxygenation of Earth's surface fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles and ultimately paved the way for the rise of metazoans at the end of the Proterozoic. However, current estimates for atmospheric oxygen (O2) levels during the billion years leading up to this time vary widely. On the basis of chromium ...
Dulin Fabienne F University of Caen Basse-Normandie, Caen, France, - - 2014
Varroa destructor is the main concern related to the gradual decline of honeybees. Nowadays, among the various acaricides used in the control of V. destructor, most presents increasing resistance. An interesting alternative could be the identification of existent molecules as new acaricides with no effect on honeybee health. We have ...
Hari Taylor P A TP Departments of Chemistry and Biology, Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 - - 2014
Bacterial polyketides are a rich source of chemical diversity and pharmaceutical agents. Understanding the biochemical basis for their biosynthesis and the evolutionary driving force leading to this diversity is essential to take advantage of the enzymes as biocatalysts and to access new chemical diversity for drug discovery. Biochemical characterization of ...
Samsonidze Georgy G Research and Technology Center, Robert Bosch LLC, Cambridge, MA 02142, - - 2014
The ab initio GW method is considered as the most accurate approach for calculating the band gaps of semiconductors and insulators. Yet its application to transition metal oxides (TMOs) has been hindered by the failure of traditional approximations developed for conventional semiconductors. In this work, we examine the effects of ...
Sebastian-Leon Patricia - - 2014
BackgroundUnderstanding the aspects of the cell functionality that account for disease or drug action mechanisms is one of the main challenges in the analysis of genomic data and is on the basis of the future implementation of precision medicine.ResultsHere we propose a simple probabilistic model in which signaling pathways are ...
Silveira Jefferson E JE Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, R. Paschoal Marmo, 1888, 13484-332, Limeira, SP, Brazil, - - 2014
Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken (BBD) design was successfully applied to the optimization in the operating conditions of the electrochemical oxidation of sanitary landfill leachate aimed for making this method feasible for scale up. Landfill leachate was treated in continuous batch-recirculation system, where a dimensional stable anode (DSA(©)) coated ...
Brock Kinsey M KM University of Michigan - Ann Arbor. - - 2014
Organisms generally have many defenses against predation yet may lack effective defenses if from populations without predators. Evolutionary theory predicts that 'costly' antipredator behaviors will be selected against when predation risk diminishes. We examined antipredator behaviors in Aegean wall lizards, Podarcis erhardii, across an archipelago of land-bridge islands that vary ...
Frontistis Zacharias Z Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras, Greece. mantzavinos@chemeng.upatras.gr - - 2014
In this work, the degradation of the azo dye methyl orange in model aqueous solutions by UVC light-induced persulfate oxidation was studied. Five operating parameters that may influence the decolorization kinetics were evaluated, namely, methyl orange (MO) (5-50 mg L(-1)) and sodium persulfate (SPS) (50-150 mg L(-1)) concentration, reaction time ...
Lendrem Dennis D Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, - - 2014
A recent analysis of R&D productivity suggests that there are grounds for 'cautious optimism' that the industry 'turned the corner' in 2008 and is 'on the comeback trail'. We believe that this analysis is flawed and most probably wrong. We present an alternative analysis of these same data to suggest ...
Rauniyar Navin - - 2014
Mass spectrometry plays a key role in relative quantitative comparisons of proteins in order to understand their functional role in biological systems upon perturbation. In this article, we review studies that examine different aspects of isobaric labeling-based relative quantification for shotgun proteomic analysis. In particular, we focus on different types ...
Norström Thor T Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, - - 2014
How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present ...
Barr John T JT Washington State University College of - - 2014
The mechanistic understanding of interactions between diet-derived substances and conventional medications in humans is nascent. Most investigations have examined cytochrome P450-mediated interactions. Interactions mediated by other phase I enzymes are understudied. Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a phase I hydroxylase that is gaining recognition in drug design and development programs. Taken ...
Rittner Alexander A Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Cluster of Excellence "Macromolecular Complexes", Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt/Main - - 2014
Step-by-step to great diversity: With the potential to synthesize multi-millions of bioactive compounds, modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) are of great importance. In this Highlight, new developments in the understanding of the structure and function of these proteins are reviewed.
Huang Yen-Tsung YT Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, 121 S. Main St., Box G-S121-2, Providence, RI, 02912, - - 2014
Given the availability of genomic data, there have been emerging interests in integrating multi-platform data. Here, we propose to model genetics (single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)), epigenetics (DNA methylation), and gene expression data as a biological process to delineate phenotypic traits under the framework of causal mediation modeling. We propose a ...
Montagnon Tamsyn T Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, 71003 Iraklion, Crete, Greece. - - 2014
The purpose of this article is to give a taste of just how powerful the union between furans and photochemically-generated singlet oxygen is proving to be as a synthetic tool and to suggest that this chemistry is only now really coming of age. In attempting to achieve this goal, its ...
Sizochenko Natalia N I. I. Mechnikov Odessa National University, Department of Chemistry, Dvoryanskaya str., 2, 65082, Odessa, - - 2014
Many metal oxide nanoparticles are able to cause persistent stress to live organisms, including humans, when discharged to the environment. To understand the mechanism of metal oxide nanoparticles' toxicity and reduce the number of experiments, the development of predictive toxicity models is important. In this study, performed on a series ...
Csambalik László L Divéky-Ertsey are with Faculty of Horticulture, Dept. of Ecological and Sustainable Production Systems, Corvinus Univ. Budapest, Villányi st. 29-43, 1118, Budapest, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, ...
Ng Yan Cheng YC Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, - - 2014
Despite the significant roles of the cell-free layer (CFL) in balancing nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2) bioavailability in arteriolar tissue, many previous numerical approaches have relied on a one-dimensional (1-D) steady-state model for simplicity. However, these models are unable to demonstrate the influence of spatiotemporal variations in the CFL ...
Kesheri Minu M Laboratory of Photobiology and Molecular Microbiology, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, - - 2014
Cyanobacteria are known to endure various stress conditions due to the inbuilt potential for oxidative stress alleviation owing to the presence of an array of antioxidants. The present study shows that Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune possesses two antioxidative enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase that jointly cope with environmental ...
Ho Shih-Hsin SH Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, - - 2014
Although the potential for biofuel production from microalgae via photosynthesis has been intensively investigated, information on the selection of a suitable operation strategy for microalgae-based biofuel production is lacking. Many published reports describe competitive strains and optimal culture conditions for use in biofuel production; however, the major impediment to further ...
da Silva Cinthia R U CR Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, Unicamp. Rua Mendeleyev 200, Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz" , Campinas, SP, Brazil , - - 2014
This work assessed the environmental impacts of the production and use of 1 MJ of hydrous ethanol (E100) in Brazil in prospective scenarios (2020-2030), considering the deployment of technologies currently under development and better agricultural practices. The life cycle assessment technique was employed using the CML method for the life ...
Ni Bing-Jie BJ Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Full-scale application of partial nitritation and anammox in a single floc-based sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been achieved for high-rate nitrogen (N) removal, but mechanisms resulting in reliable operation are not well understood. In this work, a mathematical model was calibrated and validated to evaluate operating conditions that lead to ...
Minoarivelo H O HO H. O. Minoarivelo and K. Scheffler ( kscheffler@ucsd.edu ), Computer Science Division, Dept of Mathematical Sciences, Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland 7602, South Africa. - HOM and C. Hui, Centre for Invasion Biology, Dept of Mathematical Sciences, Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland 7602, South Africa. - KS and S. L. Kosakovsky Pond, Dept of Medicine, Univ. of California, San Diego, USA. - J. S. Terblanche, Centre for Invasion Biology, Dept of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland 7602, South - - 2014
Ecological interaction networks, such as those describing the mutualistic interactions between plants and their pollinators or between plants and their frugivores, exhibit non-random structural properties that cannot be explained by simple models of network formation. One factor affecting the formation and eventual structure of such a network is its evolutionary ...
Djeradi Houria H Phytochemistry & Organic Synthesis Laboratory, University of Bechar, 08000, Bechar, Algeria, - - 2014
A QSAR model to predict the antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds was developed. New electronic structure descriptors which are Fukui indices are correlated to the radical scavenging of flavonoids. These indices are obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of chemical quantum theory. The logIC50 experimental values of antioxidant activity are taken from ...
Snip L J P LJ Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 229, Søltofts Plads, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark E-mail: - - 2014
It is common practice in wastewater engineering to extend standard activated sludge models (ASMs) with extra process equations derived from batch experiments. However, such experiments have often been performed under conditions different from the ones normally found in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As a consequence, these experiments might not be ...
Mu Yang - - 2014
Physical activity consists complex behavior, typically structured in bouts which can consist of one continuous movement (e.g. exercise) or many sporadic movements (e.g. household chores). Each bout can be represented as a block of feature vectors corresponding to the same activity type. This paper introduces a general distance metric technique ...
Nicholls Adam R AR Department of Sport, Health, and Exercise Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, - - 2014
Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the ...
Oquendo Maria A - - 2014
Suicide, a major cause of death worldwide, has distinct biological underpinnings. The authors review and synthesize the research literature on biomarkers of suicide, with the aim of using the findings of these studies to develop a coherent model for the biological diathesis for suicide. The authors examined studies covering a ...
Frajka-Williams E E University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK - - 2014
Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods ...
Masoori Mohammad M Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881, - - 2014
Asphalt is an amorphous or semi-crystalline material whose mechanical performance relies on viscoelastic responses to applied strain or stress. Chemical composition and its effect on the viscoelastic properties of model asphalts have been investigated here by computing complex modulus from molecular dynamics simulation results for two different model asphalts whose ...
Spector June T JT 1.Departments of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA - - 2014
The potential consequences of occupational heat stress in a changing climate on workers, workplaces, and global economies are substantial. Occupational heat stress risk is projected to become particularly high in middle- and low-income tropical and subtropical regions, where optimal controls may not be readily available. This commentary presents occupational heat ...
Matchin William W Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine, United - - 2014
Accounts of the role of Broca's area in sentence comprehension range from specific syntactic operations to domain-general processes. The present study was designed to tease apart these two general accounts by measuring the BOLD response to two syntactically distinct long-distance dependencies that invoke abstractly similar predictive processes: backward anaphora and ...
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