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Chi Eric C EC Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Texas, - - 2014
Estimation of a covariance matrix or its inverse plays a central role in many statistical methods. For these methods to work reliably, estimated matrices must not only be invertible but also well-conditioned. The current paper introduces a novel prior to ensure a well-conditioned maximum a posteriori (MAP) covariance estimate. The ...
Solberg Svein S Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, - - 2014
There is a need for new satellite remote sensing methods for monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks. Advanced RADAR instruments on board satellites can contribute with novel methods. RADARs can see through clouds, and furthermore, by applying stereo RADAR imaging we can measure forest height and its changes. Such height changes ...
Beck Robin M D RM School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia - - 2014
Analyses of a comprehensive morphological character matrix of mammals using 'relaxed' clock models (which simultaneously estimate topology, divergence dates and evolutionary rates), either alone or in combination with an 8.5 kb nuclear sequence dataset, retrieve implausibly ancient, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous estimates for the initial diversification of Placentalia (crown-group Eutheria). These ...
Faller James E JE JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80309, USA Institute for Gravitational Research, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK - - 2014
Determinations of the Newtonian constant of gravitation (big G) fit into the oftentimes-unappreciated area of physics called precision measurement-an area which includes precision measurements, null experiments and determinations of the fundamental constants. The determination of big G-a measurement which on the surface appears deceptively simple-continues to be one of Nature's ...
Wood Barry M BM National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, ON K1A 0R6 Canada - - 2014
The primary objective of the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants is 'to periodically provide the scientific and technological communities with a self-consistent set of internationally recommended values of the basic constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry based on all of the relevant data available at a given ...
- - 2014
The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopic techniques combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression (PLSR) to predict concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) in fish oil supplements was investigated. FT-IR spectroscopy predicted EPA (coefficient of ...
Gonzalez Martha M Janssen PRD, Clinical Pharmacology , 920 Route 202 South, Raritan, NJ 08869 , USA - - 2014
The liver is one of the most important organs responsible for the elimination of xenobiotics and there is considerable regulatory pressure to characterize the in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) changes in subjects with liver disease (LD). Despite this, predictions of the potential effect of LD on the PK of compounds present ...
Riccardi Annalisa - - 2014
In this paper, the well known stagewise additive modeling using a multiclass exponential (SAMME) boosting algorithm is extended to address problems where there exists a natural order in the targets using a cost-sensitive approach. The proposed ensemble model uses an extreme learning machine (ELM) model as a base classifier (with ...
Sampson Mario R MR *Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham; †Department of Pharmacotherapy and Experiment Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ‡Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA; §Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; ¶Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of California San Diego, La Jolla; and ‖Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San - - 2014
Population pharmacokinetic (popPK) models derived from small pharmacokinetics (PK) studies in neonates are often underpowered to detect clinically important characteristics that drive dosing. External validation of such models is crucial. In this study, the predictive performance of a gentamicin popPK model in neonates receiving hypothermia was evaluated. A previously published ...
McGill D M DM 1School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences,Charles Sturt University,Wagga Wagga,NSW - - 2014
This study aimed to identify genetic evaluation models (GEM) to accurately select cattle for milk production when only limited data are available. It is based on a data set from the Pakistani Sahiwal progeny testing programme which includes records from five government herds, each consisting of 100 to 350 animals, ...
Callaghan P D PD ANSTO LifeSciences, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, 2232, NSW, Australia, - - 2014
The in vivo binding parameters of the novel imidazopyridine TSPO ligand [(18)F]PBR102 were assessed and compared with those of [(18)F]PBR111 in a rodent model of neuroinflammation. The validity of the key assumptions of the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) for estimation of binding potential (BP) was determined, with validation against ...
Farshad-Amacker Nadja A NA Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 101, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland, - - 2014
Assessment of scoliotic curve flexibility and stiffness is essential for planning surgical treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Measurement of curve flexibility is currently insufficiently precise. The purpose of this study was to introduce and validate a novel method of superimposing radiographs for more reliable measurement of curve flexibility. Two ...
Allen Lee R LR Robert Wicks Pest Animal Research Centre, Biosecurity Queensland, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, PO Box 102, Toowoomba, Queensland, 4350, Australia, - - 2014
Rarely is it possible to obtain absolute numbers in free-ranging populations and although various direct and indirect methods are used to estimate abundance, few are validated against populations of known size. In this paper, we apply grounding, calibration and verification methods, used to validate mathematical models, to methods of estimating ...
Liu Bing B Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, - - 2014
In the study, four different semi-empirical algorithms, Modified Neglect of Diatomic Overlap, a reparameterization of Austin Model 1, Complete Neglect of Differential Overlap and Typed Neglect of Differential Overlap, have been applied for energy optimization of template, monomer and template-monomer complexes of imprinted polymers. For phosmet-, estrone- and metolcarb-imprinted polymers, ...
Sage J P JP Department of Clinical Physics and Bioengineering, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry, - - 2014
Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is presented as a statistical tool to evaluate the contribution of measurement error to any measurement series where the same quantity is measured using different independent methods. The technique was tested against artificial data sets; generated for values of underlying variation in the quantity and measurement ...
Durairaj Chandrasekar C Alkermes, Inc., 852 Winter Street, Waltham, MA, 02451, USA, - - 2014
Effective control of intraocular pressure (IOP) is essential for the successful management of glaucoma. IOP exhibits diurnal variation, yet continuous monitoring is impractical. To date, no clear evidence exists on the number of sampling timepoints required to characterize diurnal IOP and when those measurements should be collected. The objective of ...
Mehrotra Devan V DV Merck Research Laboratories, 351 N. Sumneytown Pike, North Wales, PA 19454, - - 2014
In many two-period, two-treatment (2 × 2) crossover trials, for each subject, a continuous response of interest is measured before and after administration of the assigned treatment within each period. The resulting data are typically used to test a null hypothesis involving the true difference in treatment response means. We ...
Caldas Giovana Baptista GB Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
Four-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (4D-QSAR) analysis was applied to a series of 52 benzothiophene analogs synthesized by Hiroshi Yamashita et al. (2011, United Sates Patent no. US8,349,840) and evaluated as dopamine D2 receptor inhibitors. The QSAR equations, generated by a combined scheme of genetic algorithms (GA) and partial least squares ...
Shoben Abigail B AB Division of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, - - 2014
In phase 3 clinical trials, ethical and financial concerns motivate sequential analyses in which the data are analyzed prior to completion of the entire planned study. Existing group sequential software accounts for the effects of these interim analyses on the sampling density by assuming that the contribution of subsequent increments ...
Brain P P School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, - - 2014
We consider fitting the so-called Emax model to continuous response data from clinical trials designed to investigate the dose-response relationship for an experimental compound. When there is insufficient information in the data to estimate all of the parameters because of the high dose asymptote being ill defined, maximum likelihood estimation ...
Bandos Andriy I AI Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA - - 2014
Receiver operating characteristic analysis provides an important methodology for assessing traditional (e.g., imaging technologies and clinical practices) and new (e.g., genomic studies, biomarker development) diagnostic problems. The area under the clinically/practically relevant part of the receiver operating characteristic curve (partial area or partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) ...
Pujades M C MC National Centre of Dosimetry (CND), Valencia, - - 2014
In the absence of procedures for evaluating the design of brachytherapy (BT) facilities for radiation protection purposes, the methodology used for external beam radiotherapy facilities is often adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the NCRP 151 methodology for estimating the air-kerma rate at the door in BT ...
Chen Haoyuan H Center for Integrative Proteomics Research, BioMaPS, Institute for Quantitative Biology and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 - - 2014
Phosphoryl transfer reactions are ubiquitous in biology and the understanding of the mechanisms whereby these reactions are catalyzed by protein and RNA enzymes is central to reveal design principles for new therapeutics. Two of the most powerful experimental probes of chemical mechanism involve the analysis of linear free energy relations ...
Gao Daozhou D F.I. Proctor Foundation for Ophthalmological Research, University of California, San Francisco, California; Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cécité, Niamey, Niger; Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California; Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, - - 2014
Mass administration of azithromycin for trachoma has been shown to reduce malarial parasitemia. However, the optimal seasonal timing of such distributions for antimalarial benefit has not been established. We performed numerical analyses on a seasonally forced epidemic model (of Ross-Macdonald type) with periodic impulsive annual mass treatment to address this ...
Shinmoto Hiroshi H Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, - - 2014
To assess the adequacy of a statistical model based on the gamma distribution for diffusion signal decays of prostate cancer (PCa) using b-values ranging up to 2000 sec/mm(2) , and to evaluate the differences in gamma model parameters for PCa, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and peripheral zone (PZ). Twenty-six patients ...
Dosen Strahinja - - 2014
Restoring sensory feedback in myoelectric prostheses is still an open challenge. Closing the loop might lead to a more effective utilization and better integration of these systems into the body scheme of the user. Electrotactile stimulation can be employed to transmit the feedback information to the user, but it represents ...
Lafuente Victoria V Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientifcias (CSIC), Nutrición Vegetak, - - 2014
In this work, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and an acoustic measure (AWETA) (two non-destructive methods) were applied in Prunus persica fruit 'Calrico' (n = 260) to predict Magness-Taylor (MT) firmness. Separate and combined use of these measures was evaluated and compared using PLS and LS-SVM regression methods. Also, a Mutual Information (MI)-based ...
Rostron Peter D PD University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
High-coverage in situ surveys with gamma detectors are the best means of identifying small hotspots of activity, such as radioactive particles, in land areas. Scanning surveys can produce rapid results, but the probabilities of obtaining false positive or false negative errors are often unknown, and they may not satisfy other ...
Sugaya Nobuyoshi - - 2014
The concept of ligand efficiency (LE) indices is widely accepted throughout drug design community and is frequently used in a retrospective manner in drug development process. For example, LE indices are used to investigate LE optimization processes of already-approved drugs and to re-evaluate hit compounds obtained from structure-based virtual screening ...
Schmitz Gunnar G Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44801 Bochum, Germany. gunnar.schmitz@rub.de - - 2014
We present our current progress on the combination of explicit electron correlation with the pair natural orbital (PNO) representation. In particular we show cubic scaling PNO-MP2-F12, and PNO-CCSD[F12] implementations. The PNOs are constructed using a hybrid scheme, where the PNOs are generated in a truncated doubles space, spanned by orbital ...
Vemer Pepijn P Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA), Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands (PV, LMAG, MPMHRvM) - - 2014
In cost-effectiveness (CE) Markov models, heterogeneity in the patient population is not automatically taken into account. We aimed to compare methods of dealing with heterogeneity on estimates of CE, using a case study in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We first present a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) in which we ...
Cheng Yu-Huei - - 2014
Primers plays important role in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) experiments, thus it is necessary to select characteristic primers. Unfortunately, manual primer design manners are time-consuming and easy to get human negligence because many PCR constraints must be considered simultaneously. Automatic programs for primer design were developed urgently. In this study, ...
Shrivastava R R Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
The TRMM rainfall product 3B42 is compared with rain gauge observations for Kaiga, India on monthly and seasonal time scales. This comparison is carried out for the years 2004-2007 spanning four monsoon seasons. A good correlation is obtained between the two data sets however; magnitude wise, the cumulative precipitation of ...
Mori Yuki Y Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, - - 2014
(11)C-acetate has been applied for evaluation of myocardial oxidative metabolism and can simultaneously estimate myocardial blood flow (MBF). We developed a new method using two-parameter spillover correction to estimate regional MBF (rMBF) with (11)C-acetate PET in reference to MBF derived from (15)O-H2O PET. The usefulness of our new approach was ...
Carnevale Vincenzo V Unit of Internal Medicine, IRCCS, "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza" Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo, FG, - - 2014
We investigated how the Hume's equation, using the antipyrine space, could perform in estimating fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM). In 100 (40 male ad 60 female) subjects, we estimated FM and LBM by the equation and compared these values with those measured by a last generation DXA ...
Hao Jifu J Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xilu, Jinan, 250012, People's Republic of - - 2014
Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic component, has inspired considerable interest for its extensive physiological activities. However, the poor solubility of resveratrol circumscribes its therapeutic applications. The purpose of this study was to optimize and prepare resveratrol nanosuspensions using the antisolvent precipitation method. The effects of crucial formulation and process variables (drug ...
Frey K K Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, - - 2014
We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced β(+)-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in ...
Oaks Jamie R JR Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 66045; Current address: Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195. - - 2014
Establishing that a set of population splitting events occurred at the same time can be a potentially persuasive argument that a common process affected the populations. Recently, Oaks et al. (2013) assessed the ability of an approximate-Bayesian model choice method (msBayes) to estimate such a pattern of simultaneous divergence across taxa, ...
Xu Guangjian G College of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to measure α-, β- and γ-diversity of microfaunas with different ages in colonization surveys using rarefaction-modeling methods. A dataset was complied based on a microperiphyton survey in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, near Qingdao. The analyses showed that: (1) there was a strong ...
Eitelberg David A DA Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
The world's population is growing and demand for food, feed, fiber, and fuel is increasing, placing greater demand on land and its resources for crop production. We review previously published estimates of global scale cropland availability, discuss the underlying assumptions that lead to differences between estimates, and illustrate the consequences ...
Emich Bas B University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands, - - 2014
Background Several medicines are known to potentially impair patients' driving fitness. Appropriate communication towards patients about this risk can be supported by the use of package warning labels. Objective To compare the effectiveness of a standing practice yellow/black label-with written warning-with a newly developed rating model in communicating risk on ...
Trondman A-K AK Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Barlastgatan 11, SE-39182, Kalmar, - - 2014
We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene (around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (BP)) at a 1° x 1° spatial scale with the objective of ...
Sheng Wen-Bo - - 2014
BackgroundAccurate estimation of a burned area is crucial to decisions about fluid resuscitation, surgical options, nutritional support, and prognosis. Widely used clinical methods to estimate a burn area are two-dimensional. They do not consider age, sex, body mass, physical deformities, or other relevant factors. Computer-aided methods have improved the accuracy ...
Blake Glen M GM aNuclear Medicine Department, Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, King's College Academic Health Partners bNuclear Medicine Department, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust cDivision of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hospital, London dMedical Physics Department, St James University Hospital, Leeds eDepartment of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton fNuclear Medicine Department, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston, - - 2014
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is frequently assessed using the slope-intercept method by fitting a single exponential to plasma samples obtained 2-5 h after injection. The body surface area (BSA)-corrected one-pool clearance (CO,BSA) overestimates true GFR (CT,BSA) because it fails to sample the full plasma curve, and values of CT,BSA are usually ...
Dolores Gómez M M Department of Agro-Forestry Sciences, ETSIA, University of Seville, Seville, - - 2014
The performance results of Spanish Trotter Horses were merged with the information from the nearest official weather stations, to estimate the effects of temperature (T) on speed during the day of the race. The resulting data set included: 104 125 individual results from 7653 races with 3772 participant horses and driven ...
Lacerda Miguel M University of Cape Town; - - 2014
Longitudinal allele frequency data is becoming increasingly prevalent. Such samples permit statistical inference of the population genetics parameters that influence the fate of mutant variants. To infer these parameters by maximum likelihood, the mutant frequency is often assumed to evolve according to the Wright-Fisher model. For computational reasons, this discrete ...
Soares André E R AE Department of Genetics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-590 Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Although taxon sampling is commonly considered an important issue in phylogenetic inference, it is rarely considered in the Bayesian estimation of divergence times. In fact, the studies conducted to date have presented ambiguous results, and the relevance of taxon sampling for molecular dating remains unclear. In this study, we developed ...
Walker Martin M Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine (St Mary's Campus), Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Anthelmintic drug efficacy (ADE) is generally estimated as a population average effect, despite drug responses varying among individuals according to a variety of measurable and non-measurable factors. Model-based and/or individual-level analyses are scarce and often methodologically frail. We propose that wider application of marginal and mixed models would offer benefits ...
Miyano Takuya T Formulation Technology Research Laboratories, Pharmaceutical Technology Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-12-1, Shinomiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 254 0014, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
In process analytical technology (PAT) based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, wavenumber selection is crucial to develop an accurate and robust calibration model. The present research proposes new efficient spectral dividing and wavenumber selection methods to significantly reduce the computational load required by conventional wavenumber selection methods such as interval ...
Crouter Scott E SE The University of Tennessee, Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, Knoxville, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate methods for analyzing wrist accelerometer data in youth. 181 youth (mean±SD; age, 12.0±1.5 yrs) completed 30-min of supine rest and 8-min each of 2 to 7 structured activities (selected from a list of 25). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and ...
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