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Chi Eric C EC Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Texas, - - 2014
Estimation of a covariance matrix or its inverse plays a central role in many statistical methods. For these methods to work reliably, estimated matrices must not only be invertible but also well-conditioned. The current paper introduces a novel prior to ensure a well-conditioned maximum a posteriori (MAP) covariance estimate. The ...
Beck Robin M D RM School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia - - 2014
Analyses of a comprehensive morphological character matrix of mammals using 'relaxed' clock models (which simultaneously estimate topology, divergence dates and evolutionary rates), either alone or in combination with an 8.5 kb nuclear sequence dataset, retrieve implausibly ancient, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous estimates for the initial diversification of Placentalia (crown-group Eutheria). These ...
Wang Y Y wang.yanpin@scrippshealth.org , Scripps Health, La Jolla, CA - - 2014
In this article, we propose a computationally efficient approach to estimate (large) p-dimensional covariance matrices of ordered (or longitudinal) data based on an independent sample of size n. To do this, we construct the estimator based on a k-band partial autocorrelation matrix with the number of bands chosen using an ...
Schulz Marcel H MH 'Multimodal Computing and Interaction', Saarland University & Department for Computational Biology and Applied Computing, Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarbrücken, 66123 Saarland, Germany, Ray and Stephanie Lane Center for Computational Biology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, 15206 PA, USA, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR7238, CNRS-UPMC, Paris, France and CNRS, UMR7238, Laboratory of Computational and Quantitative Biology, Paris, France 'Multimodal Computing and Interaction', Saarland University & Department for Computational Biology and Applied Computing, Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarbrücken, 66123 Saarland, Germany, Ray and Stephanie Lane Center for Computational Biology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, 15206 PA, USA, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR7238, CNRS-UPMC, Paris, France and CNRS, UMR7238, Laboratory of Computational and Quantitative Biology, Paris, - - 2014
Automatic error correction of high-throughput sequencing data can have a dramatic impact on the amount of usable base pairs and their quality. It has been shown that the performance of tasks such as de novo genome assembly and SNP calling can be dramatically improved after read error correction. While a ...
Nielsen Jace C JC Ann Arbor Pharmacometrics Group, Inc., 110 Miller Avenue, Garden Suite, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104, USA, - - 2014
Vigabatrin is an inhibitor of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase. The purpose of these analyses was to develop a population pharmacokinetics model to characterize the vigabatrin concentration-time profile for adults and children with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) and for children with infantile spasms (IS); to identify covariates that affect its disposition, ...
McInnes Allison S AS Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA - - 2014
Understanding the inter-connectivity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically carbon and nitrogen fixation, is essential in elucidating the fate and distribution of carbon in the ocean. Traditional techniques measure either organism abundance or biochemical rates. As such, measurements are performed on separate samples and at different time scales. Here ...
Ozkan Huseyin - - 2014
We analyze an online learning algorithm that adaptively combines outputs of two constituent algorithms (or the experts) running in parallel to estimate an unknown desired signal. This online learning algorithm is shown to achieve and in some cases outperform the mean-square error (MSE) performance of the best constituent algorithm in ...
Lawson Adam M AM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4, - - 2014
Despite the importance of divergent selection to the speed of evolution, it remains poorly understood if divergent selection is more prevalent in the tropics (where species richness is highest), or at high latitudes (where paleoclimate change has been most intense). We tested whether the rate of climatic-niche evolution - one ...
Shankar Viswanathan - - 2014
Various measures of observer agreement have been proposed for 2x2 tables. We examine the behavior of alternative measures of observer agreement for 2x2 tables. The alternative measures of observer agreement and the corresponding agreement chart were calculated under various scenarios of marginal distributions (symmetrical or not, balanced or not) and ...
Wagner Daniel D Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50924, Cologne, - - 2014
It still remains unclear whether psychopathological abnormalities described in human 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users (MDMA users) and d-amphetamine users (AMPH users) existed before the beginning of regular use or if they develop with ongoing use. The present study was conducted in order to assess this relationship and to overcome previous methodological shortcomings. ...
Arshad Talha A TA McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 200 East Dean Keeton Street, Austin, Texas 78712, USA. - - 2014
A Marangoni flow is shown to occur when a polymer film possessing a spatially-defined surface energy pattern is heated above its glass transition to the liquid state. This can be harnessed to rapidly manufacture polymer films possessing prescribed height profiles. To quantify and verify this phenomenon, a model is described ...
Li Jiahui J Department of Mathematical Sciences, SUNY, Binghamton, NY, 13902, USA, - - 2014
Dinse (Biometrics, 38:417-431, 1982) provides a special type of right-censored and masked competing risks data and proposes a non-parametric maximum likelihood estimator (NPMLE) and a pseudo MLE of the joint distribution function [Formula: see text] with such data. However, their asymptotic properties have not been studied so far. Under the ...
Bai Xiao - - 2014
The p-stable distribution is traditionally used for data-independent hashing. In this paper, we describe how to perform data-dependent hashing based on p-stable distribution. We commence by formulating the Euclidean distance preserving property in terms of variance estimation. Based on this property, we develop a projection method which maps the original ...
Eisenberg Marisa C MC Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Electronic address: - - 2014
Identifiability is a necessary condition for successful parameter estimation of dynamic system models. A major component of identifiability analysis is determining the identifiable parameter combinations, the functional forms for the dependencies between unidentifiable parameters. Identifiable combinations can help in model reparameterization and also in determining which parameters may be experimentally ...
Xu Tu T Amgen Inc.; Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
In medical research, continuous markers are widely employed in diagnostic tests to distinguish diseased and non-diseased subjects. The accuracy of such diagnostic tests is commonly assessed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. To summarize an ROC curve and determine its optimal cut-point, the Youden index is popularly used. In ...
Zhao Wei W Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China, - - 2014
Selection of the first-dose-in-neonates is challenging. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate a pharmacokinetic bridging approach to predict a neonatal dosing regimen. We selected fluconazole as a paradigm compound. We used data from studies in juvenile mice and adults to develop population pharmacokinetic models using NONMEM. We ...
Pittayapat Pisha P *OIC, OMFS IMPATH Research Group, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven and Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, - - 2014
Summary BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of linear measurements on three imaging modalities: lateral cephalograms from a cephalometric machine with a 3 m source-to-mid-sagittal-plane distance (SMD), from a machine with 1.5 m SMD and 3D models from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data. Twenty-one dry ...
DE Vos Jurriaan M JM Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008, Zürich, Switzerland; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Box G-W, Providence, RI, 02912, - - 2014
A key measure of humanity's global impact is by how much it has increased species extinction rates. Familiar statements are that these are 100-1000 times pre-human or background extinction levels. Estimating recent rates is straightforward, but establishing a background rate for comparison is not. Previous researchers chose an approximate benchmark ...
Lupu Mircea - - 2014
In analyzing human-machine interaction (HMI), a human-centered approach is needed to address the potential and limitation of human control, especially in the control of high-order or unstable systems. However, there is no quantitative measure of human performance or cognitive workload in these difficult HMI tasks. We propose to characterize HMI ...
Froda Sorana S Département de mathématiques, UQAM, C.P. 8888, succ. centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3P8, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this paper, we consider the basic reproduction number, R0, a parameter that characterizes the transmission potential of an epidemic, and explore a novel way for estimating it. We introduce a stochastic process which takes as starting points the classical SIR (susceptibles-infected-removed) models, deterministic and stochastic. The estimation method rests ...
Cuevas Jaime J Colegio de - - 2014
Genomic-enabled prediction in plant and animal breeding has become an active area of research. Many prediction models address the collinearity that arises when the number (p) of molecular markers (SNPs) is larger than the sample size (n). Here we propose four Bayesian approaches to the problem based on commonly used ...
Ding Tao T Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR - - 2014
One methodology is proposed to estimate the quantification and composition of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste in a fast developing region like Shanghai, PR China. The varieties of structure types and building waste intensities due to the requirement of progressive building design and structure codes in different decades are ...
Barr Brannon B Environmental and Forest Biology, SUNY-ESF, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY, 13210, United States, - - 2014
Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In ...
Ho Simon Y W SY School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, - - 2014
Evolutionary timescales can be estimated from genetic data using phylogenetic methods based on the molecular clock. To account for molecular rate variation among lineages, a number of relaxed-clock models have been developed. Some of these models assume that rates vary among lineages in an autocorrelated manner, so that closely related ...
Mutavdžić Pavlović Dragana D Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this paper, batch sorption of sulfamethazine on eight soil samples (six from Croatia and two from Bosnia and Hercegovina) with different organic matter contents ranging from 1.52 to 12.8% was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as agitation time, initial concentration, and ionic strength on the sulfamethazine sorption ...
Cao Yanguang Y Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14214, - - 2014
Minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) models provide a simple and sensible approach that incorporates physiological elements into pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis when only plasma data are available. With this modeling concept, a second-generation mPBPK model was further developed with specific accommodations for the unique PK properties of monoclonal antibodies (mAb). This ...
Auvray B B Animal Productivity Group, AgResearch Limited, Mosgiel 9053, New Zealand - - 2014
The aim of genomic prediction is to predict breeding value from genomic data. We describe the development of genomic prediction equations and accuracies for molecular breeding values (MBV) for industry use, focusing on the methodology used to deal with predictions for the New Zealand sheep population structure. This is made ...
Fuchs Richard R Laboratory of Geoinformation Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University, The - - 2014
Historic land cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land cover/use ...
Connors B M BM School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; ESSA Technologies, Vancouver, BC, Canada. - - 2014
Categorization of the status of populations, species, and ecosystems underpins most conservation activities. Status is often based on how a system's current indicator value (e.g., change in abundance) relates to some threshold of conservation concern. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves can be used to quantify the statistical reliability of indicators ...
Gadagkar Sudhindra R SR Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, 85308, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Many biological response curves commonly assume a sigmoidal shape that can be approximated well by means of the 4-parameter nonlinear logistic equation, also called the Hill equation. However, estimation of the Hill equation parameters requires access to commercial software or the ability to write computer code. Here we present two ...
Madani-Hosseini Mahsa M Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve, Montréal H3G 1M8, - - 2014
In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) is a wastewater storage tank converted into an anaerobic digestion (AD) system by means of an airtight floating geo-membrane. For process optimization, ISPAD requires modelling with well-established microbial kinetics coefficients. The present objectives were to: obtain kinetics coefficients for the modelling of ISPAD; compare the prediction of the ...
Fedorov Sergey V SV A. E. Favorsky Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Favorsky St. 1, 664033, Irkutsk, - - 2014
The main factors affecting the accuracy and computational cost of the calculation of (31) P NMR chemical shifts in the representative series of organophosphorous compounds are examined at the density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) levels. At the DFT level, the best functionals for the calculation ...
Ngonghala Calistus N CN Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical school, Boston, MA 02115; National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, Knoxville, TN 37996-1527, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is ...
Unsworth Carolyn Anne CA Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University , Bundoora , Australia - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Outcome measures must be responsive to change (able to show statistically significant change) and must also produce information on the degree of change that is clinically significant, or the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). This research sought to establish the MCID for four domains of the Australian Therapy ...
Kinose Yoshiyuki Y The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, - - 2014
To construct stomatal conductance models and estimate stomatal O3 uptake for Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla, stomatal conductance (gs) was measured in seedlings of the four tree species. Better estimates of gs were made by incorporating the acute effects of O3 on gs into ...
Kushner Joseph J Drug Product Design, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, MS 8156-033, Groton, CT 06340, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
An experimental study was conducted to verify that lubrication mixing in commercial-scale bin blenders can be described by a previously-reported lubrication blending process scale-up model. Specifically, the mixing of two placebo formulations (2:1 MCC:lactose, and 2:1 MCC:DCP) with 1% magnesium stearate in 100, 400, and 2000L bin blenders at 30% ...
Ommani Abbas A *M.Phil. †MCOptom, PhD ‡MSc §PhD, FAAO School of Optometry and Vision Science (AO, NH, DT, VL), Departments of Physics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering (VL), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; and Department of Physics and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan - - 2014
This study aimed to validate the mathematical Zernike pupil size scaling from bigger pupils to smaller pupils, and vice versa, by comparing the estimates of the Zernike coefficients with corresponding clinical measurements obtained at different pupil sizes. The i.Profiler Plus (Carl Zeiss Vision, Inc, USA) was used to obtain measures ...
Wetmore Barbara A BA The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, P.O. Box 12137, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2137, USA - - 2014
Momentum is growing worldwide to use in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) to evaluate human health effects of chemicals. However, the integration of dosimetry into HTS assays and incorporation of population variability will be essential before its application in a risk assessment context. Previously, we employed in vitro hepatic metabolic clearance ...
Kettle Helen H Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, - - 2014
We present here a first attempt at modelling microbial dynamics in the human colon incorporating both uncertainty and adaptation. This is based on the development of a Monod-equation based, differential equation model which produces computer simulations of the population dynamics and major metabolites of microbial communities from the human colon. ...
Murray Anthony W AW aDepartment of Medical and Sport Sciences, University of Cumbria, Lancaster bDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester cDepartment of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Royal United Hospital Bath NHS Trust, Bath dDepartment of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol eLink Medical, Bramshill fDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Poole gDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield hRadiological Sciences Unit, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London iDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, UK jDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, St Luke's Hospital, Dublin, - - 2014
An audit was carried out into UK glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculation. The results were compared with an identical 2001 audit. Participants used their routine method to calculate GFR for 20 data sets (four plasma samples) in millilitres per minute and also the GFR normalized for body surface area. Some ...
Bondar Luiza L Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
To derive and validate a statistical model of motion and deformation for the clinical target volume (CTV) of early-stage rectal cancer patients. For 16 patients, 4 to 5 magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired before each fraction was administered. The CTV was delineated on each MRI. Using a leave-one-out methodology, ...
Bratus Alexander S AS Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia; Applied Mathematics-1, Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, Moscow 127994, - - 2014
A particular case of the famous quasispecies model - the Crow-Kimura model with a permutation invariant fitness landscape - is investigated. Using the fact that the mutation matrix in the case of a permutation invariant fitness landscape has a special tridiagonal form, a change of the basis is suggested such ...
Li Hong - - 2014
The momentum wheel (MW) plays a significant role in ensuring the success of satellite missions, the reliability information of MW can be provided by collecting degradation data when there exists certain performance characteristics that degrade over time. In this paper, we develop a reliability modeling and life estimation approach for ...
Russell Mark H MH DuPont Haskell Global Centers for Health and Environmental Sciences, S320/214, P.O. Box 50, Newark, DE 19714-0050, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Determination of the chemical clearance rate from human blood is a critical component of toxicokinetic exposure assessment. Analysis of temporal biomonitoring data without consideration of ongoing exposure results in calculation of apparent elimination half-life values that are longer than the intrinsic value. The intrinsic elimination half-life is solely a function ...
Sadoul Bastien C BC Unilever Research & Development Vlaardingen, Vlaardingen, The - - 2014
Several studies have assessed relationships of self-reported appetite (eating motivations, mainly by Visual Analogue Scales, VAS) with subsequent energy intake (EI), though usually in small data sets with limited power and variable designs. The objectives were therefore to better quantify the relationships of self-reports (incorporating subject characteristics) to subsequent EI, ...
Bai Zhonghao Z a The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body , Hunan University , Hunan , - - 2014
Objective: The development of the adaptive occupant restraint system (AORS) has led to an innovative way to optimize such systems for multiple size occupants. An AORS consists of multiple units such as adaptive air bags, seat belts, etc. During a collision, as a supplemental protective device, air bags can provide ...
Parenteau Chantal S CS a International Center for Automotive Medicine , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , - - 2014
Objective: Abdominal injuries resulting from vehicle crashes can be significant, in particular when undetected. In this study, abdominal injuries for occupants involved in frontal impacts were assessed using crash and medical data. Methods: Injury rates and patterns were first assessed with respect to thoracic injuries. A statistical analysis was then ...
Morse Justin D JD Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, - - 2014
A method of investigating head acceleration and intracranial dynamics from stick impacts in girls' and women's lacrosse was developed using headform impact experiments and a finite element head model. Assessing the likelihood of head injury due to stick-head impacts is of interest in girls' and women's lacrosse due to the ...
Cunden Fabio Deelan FD Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bari, I-70125 Bari, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari, - - 2014
We derive an analytical formula for the covariance cov(A,B) of two smooth linear statistics A=[under ∑]ia(λ_{i}) and B=[under ∑]ib(λ_{i}) to leading order for N→∞, where {λ_{i}} are the N real eigenvalues of a general one-cut random-matrix model with Dyson index β. The formula, carrying the universal 1/β prefactor, depends on ...
Kary M - - 2014
Bicyclists and transportation professionals would do better to decline advice drawn from characteristically epidemiological studies. The faults of epidemiology are both accidental (unpreparedness for the task) and essential (unsuitability of the methods). Characteristically epidemiological methods are known to be error-prone, and when applied to bicycle transportation suffer from diversion bias, ...
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