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Na Hyuntae H Department of Computer Science, Iowa State University, 226 Atanasoff Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011, - - 2014
The Gaussian network model (GNM) and anisotropic network model (ANM) are two elastic network models that have been widely used to study protein fluctuation dynamics. Both models have strengths and weaknesses. Attempts have been made in the past to unify the two models but they had severe limitations. This work ...
Wang Yuan Y Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX - - 2014
Atmospheric aerosols affect weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track, using ...
Rees Daniel I DI Department of Economics, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, - - 2014
While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of being diagnosed with migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. Ordinary least ...
Coenen Pieter P MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, , Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Reported associations of physical exposures during work (eg, lifting, trunk flexion or rotation) and low-back pain (LBP) are rather inconsistent. Mechanical back loads (eg, moments on the low back) as a result of exposure to abovementioned risk factors have been suggested to be important as such loads provide a more ...
Ackerman Jeffrey J School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2088, - - 2014
Elastically-suspended loads have been shown to reduce the peak forces acting on the body while walking with a load when the suspension stiffness and damping are minimized. However, it is not well understood how elastically-suspended loads can affect the energetic cost of walking. Prior work shows that elastically suspending a ...
Piazzesi Gabriella G Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The half-sarcomere is the functional unit of striated muscle, in which, according to a "linear" mechanical model, myosin motors are parallel force generators with an average strain s acting between the opposing myosin and actin filaments that behave as a series elastic element with compliance Cf. Thus the definition of ...
Wang Wei W State Key Laboratory of Microbial metabolism, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, - - 2014
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or intrinsically disordered protein regions comprise a large portion of eukaryotic proteomes (between 35% and 51%). These IDPs were found to link with cancer and various other diseases. However, widely used additive force field parameter sets are insufficient in quantifying the structural properties of IDPs. Therefore, ...
Keener James P JP Department of Mathematics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT - - 2014
Important mechanical events during mitosis are facilitated by the generation of force by chromosomal kinetochore sites that attach to dynamic microtubule tips. Several theoretical models have been proposed for how these sites generate force, and molecular diffusion of kinetochore components has been proposed as a key component that facilitates kinetochore ...
Burgoyne Hayden A HA Graduate Aerospace Laboratories (GALCIT), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, - - 2014
We present a force-displacement contact model for the compressive loading of elastoplastic spheres. This model builds from the well known Hertz contact law for elastic, quasistatic compression to incorporate a material's strain-rate-dependent plasticity in order to describe collisions between particles. In the quasistatic regime, finite-element analysis is used to derive ...
Hane F T FT Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, - - 2014
We performed single molecule dynamic force spectroscopy experiments to study the dimerization of two amyloid-β (1-42) peptides and compared three different theoretical models used to fit experimental data: Bell-Evans, Dudko-Hummer-Szabo, and Friddle-De Yoreo. Using these models we extracted values of the dissociation rate at zero force, k0, and height and ...
Mikulska Karolina K Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100, Torun, - - 2014
Computer simulations of protein unfolding substantially help to interpret force-extension curves measured in single-molecule atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. Standard all-atom (AA) molecular dynamics simulations (MD) give a good qualitative mechanical unfolding picture but predict values too large for the maximum AFM forces with the common pulling speeds adopted here. ...
Miller Ross H RH Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; Neuroscience & Cognitive Science Program, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The popular Hill model for muscle activation and contractile dynamics has been extended with several different formulations for predicting the metabolic energy expenditure of human muscle actions. These extended models differ considerably in their approach to computing energy expenditure, particularly in their treatment of active lengthening and eccentric work, but ...
Zhu Rui - - 2014
Abstract In only a few published finite element (FE) simulations have muscle forces been applied to the spine. Recently, muscle forces determined using an inverse static (IS) model of the spine were transferred to a spinal FE model, and the effect of methodical parameters was investigated. However, the sensitivity of ...
Sacilotto G B D BD Aquatic Testing, Training and Research Unit, Australian Institute of Sport, Bruce, ACT, Australia, and with the Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT, - - 2014
Resistive or drag forces encountered during free swimming greatly influence the swim performance of elite competitive swimmers. The benefits in understanding the factors which affect the drag encountered will enhance performance within the sport. However, the current techniques used to experimentally measure or estimate drag values are questioned for their ...
Maykranz Daniel D Locomotion Laboratory Magdalenenstr. 27 64289 Darmstadt, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
The spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model is widely used to predict and explain basic characteristics of human walking and running. Its periodic running solutions can be mirrored at the instant of the vertical orientation of the leg and thus are symmetric between landing and take-off. In contrast, human running ...
Cao Hua H a Département EEA , Haute Etude de l'Ingénieur (HEI) , Lille , - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate a surface electromyography (sEMG) signal and force model for the biceps brachii muscle during isotonic isometric contractions for an experimental set-up as well as for a simulation. The proposed model includes a new rate coding scheme and a new analytical formulation of ...
Fang Wei-Ta WT Graduate Institute of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan, - - 2014
Thousands of farm ponds disappeared on the tableland in Taoyuan County, Taiwan since 1920s. The number of farm ponds that have disappeared is 1,895 (37%), 2,667 ponds remain (52%), and only 537 (11%) new ponds were created within a 757 km(2) area in Taoyuan, Taiwan between 1926 and 1960. In ...
Wang Yuan Y 1] Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Center for Atmospheric Chemistry and the Environment, Texas A&M University, College Station, 77843 Texas, USA [2] Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, - - 2014
Increasing levels of anthropogenic aerosols in Asia have raised considerable concern regarding its potential impact on the global atmosphere, but the magnitude of the associated climate forcing remains to be quantified. Here, using a novel hierarchical modelling approach and observational analysis, we demonstrate modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over ...
Molinari A A Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The estimation of natural background levels (NBLs) of dissolved concentrations of target chemical species in subsurface reservoirs relies on a proper assessment of the effects of forcing terms driving flow and transport processes taking place within the system and whose dynamics drive background concentration values. We propose coupling methodologies based ...
Thelen Darryl G - - 2014
This study introduces a framework for co-simulating neuromuscular dynamics and knee joint mechanics during gait. A knee model was developed that included 17 ligament bundles and a representation of distributed contact between a femoral component and tibial insert surface. The knee was incorporated into a forward dynamics musculoskeletal model of ...
Ferrant Sylvain S 1] Université de Toulouse, UPS (OMP), GET, 14 av. Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France [2] IRD, CNRS, GET, F-31400 Toulouse, France [3] UPS, IRD, CNRS, CNES, CESBIO, 18 av. Edouard Belin 31400 - - 2014
Local groundwater levels in South India are falling alarmingly. In the semi-arid crystalline Deccan plateau area, agricultural production relies on groundwater resources. Downscaled Global Climate Model (GCM) data are used to force a spatially distributed agro-hydrological model in order to evaluate Climate Change (CC) effects on local groundwater extraction (GWE). ...
- - 2014
To develop a business and plan for the future, there is a need to assess the current situation. One way of doing this is to use Porter's five forces framework. This was the brainchild of Harvard Business School's Michael Porter and developed in 1979. Looking at the competitive intensity of ...
Tavano Alessandro A Institute of Psychology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany ; Scientific Institute "E.Medea", San Vito al Tagliamento (Pordenone), - - 2014
Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded ...
Yuen Choon Wah CW Centre for Transportation Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, - - 2014
This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, ...
Liu Jun J Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology and Systems Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China. - - 2014
To address the bottleneck issues of an elastic-style six-axis force/torque sensor (six-axis force sensor), this work proposes a no-elastic piezoelectric six-axis force sensor. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is analyzed, and a structural model is constructed. The static-active design theory of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor ...
Ibáñez-Gimeno Pere P Unitat d'Antropologia Biològica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia, - - 2014
Biomechanical models are useful to assess the effect of muscular forces on bone structure. Using skeletal remains, we analyze pronator teres rotational efficiency and its force components throughout the entire flexion-extension and pronation-supination ranges by means of a new biomechanical model and 3D imaging techniques, and we explore the relationship ...
Gijsberts Arjan A IDIAP Research Institute Martigny, - - 2014
Stable myoelectric control of hand prostheses remains an open problem. The only successful human-machine interface is surface electromyography, typically allowing control of a few degrees of freedom. Machine learning techniques may have the potential to remove these limitations, but their performance is thus far inadequate: myoelectric signals change over time ...
Tang J J Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Systems Pharmacology Section, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, - - 2014
Monitoring of physiological surrogate end points in drug development generates dynamic time-domain data reflecting the state of the biological system. Conventional data analysis often reduces the information in these data by extracting specific data points, thereby discarding potentially useful information. We developed a genetic fuzzy system (GFS) algorithm that is ...
de Agustina Beatriz B Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Industrial Engineering School, National University of Distance Education (UNED), C/Juan del Rosal, 12, E28040-Madrid, Spain. - - 2014
In this study, a methodology has been developed with the objective of evaluating the surface roughness obtained during turning processes by measuring the signals detected by a force sensor under the same cutting conditions. In this way, the surface quality achieved along the process is correlated to several parameters of ...
Negro Francesco F Department of Neurorehabilitation Engineering, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, - - 2014
Contractile properties of human motor units provide information on the force capacity and fatigability of muscles. The spike-triggered averaging technique (STA) is a conventional method used to estimate the twitch waveform of single motor units in vivo by averaging the joint force signal. Several limitations of this technique have been ...
Kovalev Alexander A Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Department of Zoology, Kiel University, , Kiel 24118, - - 2014
The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity ...
Salinero Juan J JJ Exercise Physiology and Performance Laboratory, Camilo José Cela University, Madrid, - - 2013
The goal of dorsiflexion sports shoes is to increase jumping capacity by means of a lower position of the heel in relation to the forefoot which results in additional stretching of the ankle plantar flexors. The aim of this study was to compare a dorsiflexion sports shoe model with two ...
Fuentes Mauricio Alfredo MA Av. Club Hipico 1528, departamento 821, Santiago de Chile, Chile. Postal Code: 8370720. Electronic address: - - 2013
Regarding running animals, algebraic expressions for the horizontal (ωx) and vertical (ωy) components of the mechanical cost of transport are deduced for a ground force pattern based on the Spring-mass model. Defining μ˜ as the maximum ground forces ratio μ˜=max(Fx)/max(Fy), the analysis shows that the mechanical cost of transport ωx+ωy ...
Luo Jiajia - - 2013
Introduction: The uterine suspensory tissue (UST) complex, which includes the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral ligaments (USL), plays an important role in resisting pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We described a novel technique for quantifying the in vivo time-dependent force-displacement behavior of the UST, demonstrated its feasibility in situ, and used the ...
Sun Xiantao X School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, - - 2013
This paper presents the development of a force-decoupled compound parallel alignment stage for nanoimprint lithography. Parallel alignment stage is a critical component of nanoimprint machine to implement the uniform surface contact between the template with predefined micro∕nano patterns and the substrate that accepts the patterns. A combination of a high-stiffness ...
Esumi Satoru - - 2013
A motivational deficit (the loss of pleasure or interest in previously rewarding stimuli) is one of the core symptoms of major depression, and valid models evaluating the motivational effects of drugs are needed. It was recently demonstrated that the priming stimulation effect in the runway model of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) ...
Várnai Csilla C Systems Biology Centre, University of Warwick , Coventry, United - - 2013
Maximum Likelihood (ML) optimization schemes are widely used for parameter inference. They maximize the likelihood of some experimentally observed data, with respect to the model parameters iteratively, following the gradient of the logarithm of the likelihood. Here, we employ a ML inference scheme to infer a generalizable, physics-based coarse-grained protein ...
Carslaw K S - - 2013
The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud droplet concentrations and radiative properties is the source of one of the largest uncertainties in the radiative forcing of climate over the industrial period. This uncertainty affects our ability to estimate how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gas emissions. Here we perform ...
Grutzik Scott J - - 2013
There are many atomic force microscopy (AFM) applications that rely on quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The AFM does not explicitly measure force, however, so in such cases knowledge of the cantilever stiffness is required. In most cases, the forces of interest are very ...
Wang Hongqiao - - 2013
The actuator influence functions of a thin meniscus mirror can be expanded in Zernike polynomials. And the correctness of influence functions has a great effect on solving the correction forces. The Zernike coefficients are applied as parameters in the all-floating support system. We analyze the main interferential factors when different ...
Suzuno K K Graduate School of Advanced Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University, 4-21-1 Nakano, Nakano-ku, Tokyo, 164-8525, Japan and Meiji Institute for Advanced Study of Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University, 4-21-1 Nakano, Nakano-ku, Tokyo, 164-8525, - - 2013
We investigate the mechanism of the phenomenon called the "faster-is-slower"effect in pedestrian flow studies analytically with a simplified phenomenological model. It is well known that the flow rate is maximized at a certain strength of the driving force in simulations using the social force model when we consider the discharge ...
Wang Huabin - - 2013
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) friction measurements on hard and soft materials remain a challenge due to the difficulties associated with accurately calibrating the cantilever for lateral force measurement. One of the most widely accepted lateral force calibration methods is the wedge method. This method is often used in a simplified ...
Esumi Satoru S Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558, - - 2013
A motivational deficit (the loss of pleasure or interest in previously rewarding stimuli) is one of the core symptoms of major depression, and valid models evaluating the motivational effects of drugs are needed. It was recently demonstrated that the priming stimulation effect in the runway model of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) ...
Moissenet Florent - - 2013
Musculo-tendon forces and joint reaction forces are typically estimated using a two-step method, computing first the musculo-tendon forces by a static optimization procedure and then deducing the joint reaction forces from the force equilibrium. However, this method does not allow studying the interactions between musculo-tendon forces and joint reaction forces ...
van Gerwen D J - - 2013
The development of needle insertion robots and training simulators requires knowledge of the forces that arise when a needle is inserted into soft-tissue. The present study aims to construct stochastic models of the force required to puncture a kidney using a trocar needle, based on measurements. To this end, a ...
Copus Joshua M - - 2013
Biomechanical models of feeding mechanisms elucidate how animals capture food in the wild, which, in turn, expands our understanding of their fundamental trophic niche. However, little attention has been given to modeling the protrusible upper jaw apparatus that characterizes many teleost species. We expanded existing biomechanical models to include upper ...
Innes Clinton - - 2013
Forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems can exhibit alternative stables states, whereby under the same environmental conditions, the ecosystem could equally well reside either in one state or another, depending on the initial conditions. We develop a mathematical model that couples a simplified forest-grassland mosaic model to a dynamic model of opinions about ...
Wu Xiaoqian - - 2013
Contrary to the standard of eliminating antimicrobial hits that collapse bacterial proton motive force (PMF), in this issue of Chemistry and Biology, Farha and colleagues describe the value of screens to identify molecules that dissipate PMF, yet are nonbacteriolytic and selectively toxic.
Juliano Thomas Robert - - 2013
Terahertz spectroscopy provides direct information concerning weak intermolecular forces in crystalline molecular solids and therefore acts as an excellent method for calibrating and evaluating computational models for non-covalent interactions. In this study, the low-frequency vibrations of two dipeptides were compared, acyclic diglycine and cyclic diglycine, as benchmark systems for gauging ...
Hansen James - - 2013
Cenozoic temperature, sea level and CO2 covariations provide insights into climate sensitivity to external forcings and sea-level sensitivity to climate change. Climate sensitivity depends on the initial climate state, but potentially can be accurately inferred from precise palaeoclimate data. Pleistocene climate oscillations yield a fast-feedback climate sensitivity of 3±1(°)C for ...
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