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Guénard Guillaume G Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3J7 - - 2014
Direct estimation of species' tolerance to pesticides and other toxic organic substances is a combinatorial problem, because of the large number of species-substance pairs. We propose a statistical modelling approach to predict tolerances associated with untested species-substance pairs, by using models fitted to tested pairs. This approach is based on ...
Firmat Cyril C Department of Biology, Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7419 Trondheim, Norway - - 2014
The allometric-constraint hypothesis states that evolutionary divergence of morphological traits is restricted by integrated growth regulation. In this study, we test this hypothesis on a time-calibrated and well-documented palaeontological sequence of dental measurements on the Pleistocene arvicoline rodent species Mimomys savini from the Iberian Peninsula. Based on 507 specimens representing ...
Antoniou Constantinos C a Laboratory of Transportation Engineering , National Technical University of Athens , Athens , - - 2014
Objective: Modeling road safety development is a complex task and needs to consider both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed. The objective of this research is to apply structural time series models for obtaining reliable medium- to ...
Newman J J Institute of Food and Health, School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, - - 2014
Sensory evaluation can be problematic for ingredients with a bitter taste during research and development phase of new food products. In this study, 19 dairy protein hydrolysates (DPH) were analysed by an electronic tongue and their physicochemical characteristics, the data obtained from these methods were correlated with their bitterness intensity ...
Moriarity Andrew K AK Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W. Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI, 48202. Electronic address: - - 2014
The radiology job market has been described as highly variable, and recent practice hiring surveys predict that the number of available jobs will remain flat. Radiologists may be working more hours and retiring later than desired, activities that influence overall job availability. A national survey was performed to determine the ...
Wallace Emma E *HRB Centre for Primary Care Research, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 †School of Medicine, University of Limerick, Limerick ‡Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, St James's Hospital, Dublin 8, - - 2014
Risk prediction models have been developed to identify those at increased risk for emergency admissions, which could facilitate targeted interventions in primary care to prevent these events. Systematic review of validated risk prediction models for predicting emergency hospital admissions in community-dwelling adults. A systematic literature review and narrative analysis was ...
Matcuk George R GR Jr 1 Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1500 San Pablo St, 2nd Fl Imaging, Los Angeles, CA - - 2014
OBJECTIVE. Superolateral Hoffa fat-pad edema is a frequent finding with patellar maltracking and may precede clinically significant chondrosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify which patellofemoral measurements are most highly associated and to develop a prediction rule to guide clinical decision making. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Twenty-three patellofemoral measurements ...
Kozma Chris M CM CK Consulting Associates, LLC, 84 Tomahawk Trail, Saint Helena Island, SC 29920. - - 2014
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are adherent to their treatment regimens are less likely to experience relapses and the cost associated with relapse. Pharmacists whose practice involves these specialty pharmaceuticals used to treat MS are striving for ways to improve outcomes by achieving treatment adherence in their patients. Specialty ...
Knudsen Kati - - 2014
To facilitate evaluation of the airway before endotracheal intubation, different scores have been developed, mainly to predict difficult airways. However, in anesthesia clinical practice in Sweden, scores would be more useful if they could also predict an easy airway, so that the correct category of anesthesia personnel can be allocated. ...
Biyani Rahul R Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akron General Medical Center, Akron, OH, - - 2014
The current study was performed to relate anatomical parameters to in vivo patellar tracking for pediatric patients with recurrent patellar instability. Seven pediatric patients with recurrent patellar instability that failed conservative treatment were evaluated using computational reconstruction of in vivo patellofemoral function. Computational models were created from high-resolution MRI scans ...
Przybylak Katarzyna - - 2014
The ability of drugs to induce phospholipidosis (PLD) is linked directly to their molecular sub-structures: hydrophobic, cyclic moieties with hydrophilic, peripheral amine groups. These structural properties can be captured and coded into SMARTs patterns. Such structural alerts, which are capable of identifying potential PLD inducers, should ideally be developed on ...
Lautz Laura K - - 2014
High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) gas-drilling operations in the Marcellus Play have raised environmental concerns, including risk of groundwater contamination. Fingerprinting water impacted by gas-drilling operations is not trivial given other potential sources of contamination. We present a multivariate statistical modeling framework for developing a quantitative, geochemical fingerprinting tool to distinguish ...
Edwards Cathrina H CH Biopolymers Group, Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, School of Medicine, King's College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, SE1 9NH, London, UK. - - 2014
Studying starch amylolysis kinetics in vitro is valuable for predicting the postprandial glycaemic response to starch intake. Prediction of starch amylolysis behaviour is challenging however, because of the many physico-chemical factors which influence amylolysis. The Logarithm of Slope (LOS) method for analysis of digestibility curves using first-order enzyme kinetics can ...
Ellis Lee L University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia - - 2014
General theory attributes criminal behavior primarily to low self-control, whereas evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory envisions criminality as being a crude form of status-striving promoted by high brain exposure to androgens. General theory predicts that self-control will be negatively correlated with risk-taking, while ENA theory implies that these two variables should ...
Bachler Gerald G ETH Zurich, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering , Zurich , - - 2014
Abstract Nano-sized titanium dioxide particles (nano-TiO2) can be found in a large number of foods and consumer products, such as cosmetics and toothpaste, thus, consumer exposure occurs via multiple sources, possibly involving different exposure routes. In order to determine the disposition of nano-TiO2 particles that are taken up, a physiologically ...
Laue Heike - - 2014
Bioaccumulation in aquatic species is a critical endpoint in the regulatory assessment of chemicals. Few measured fish bioconcentration factors (BCF) are available for fragrance ingredients. Thus, predictive models are often used to estimate their BCFs. Because biotransformation can reduce chemical accumulation in fish, models using QSAR-estimated biotransformation rates have been ...
Haake Steve S a Centre for Sports Engineering Research , Sheffield Hallam University , Sheffield , - - 2014
Abstract The mean of the top 25 performances in 8 men's and 5 women's field events since the 1890s showed that performances increased dramatically after the Second World War II and subsequently plateaued during the late twentieth century. A performance improvement index, developed on the basis of work done, was ...
Zhang Zhiyi Z Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, U.S.A. - - 2014
In this letter, we introduce an estimator of Küllback-Leibler divergence based on two independent samples. We show that on any finite alphabet, this estimator has an exponentially decaying bias and that it is consistent and asymptotically normal. To explain the importance of this estimator, we provide a thorough analysis of ...
Takeda Akiko A Department of Mathematical Informatics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan - - 2014
Financial risk measures have been used recently in machine learning. For example, ν-support vector machine (ν-SVM) minimizes the conditional value at risk (CVaR) of margin distribution. The measure is popular in finance because of the subadditivity property, but it is very sensitive to a few outliers in the tail of ...
McLernon D J DJ Medical Statistics Team, Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Polwarth Building, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK - - 2014
Infertility is defined as failure to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. This dichotomization into fertile versus infertile, based on lack of conception over 12-month period, is fundamentally flawed. Time to conception is strongly influenced by factors such as female age and whilst a minority of couples have absolute ...
Liu Junjie V JV M.D. Class of 2015, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, - - 2014
We describe a novel method to spatially map interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) through voxel-wise functional connectivity analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) portion of simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)-fMRI data. This method measures the local synchronicity of fMRI signals associated with IED and, in contrast to conventional methods, does not ...
- - 2014
Ten NHS providers will be selected to test ways of working that are similar to the John Lewis 'mutual' model where staff effectively own the organisation and have a greater say in running it.
Tan Kay See KS Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2014
Conventional longitudinal data analysis methods assume that outcomes are independent of the data-collection schedule. However, the independence assumption may be violated, for example, when a specific treatment necessitates a different follow-up schedule than the control arm or when adverse events trigger additional physician visits in between prescheduled follow-ups. Dependence between ...
Caster Ola O Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Box 1051, SE-75140, Uppsala, Sweden, - - 2014
Detection of unknown risks with marketed medicines is key to securing the optimal care of individual patients and to reducing the societal burden from adverse drug reactions. Large collections of individual case reports remain the primary source of information and require effective analytics to guide clinical assessors towards likely drug ...
Navega David D Forensic Sciences Centre (CENCIFOR), Largo da Sé Nova,, 3000-213, Coimbra, Portugal, - - 2014
In forensic anthropology, ancestry estimation is essential in establishing the individual biological profile. The aim of this study is to present a new program-AncesTrees-developed for assessing ancestry based on metric analysis. AncesTrees relies on a machine learning ensemble algorithm, random forest, to classify the human skull. In the ensemble learning ...
Hoffman Veena V Optum Epidemiology, Ann Arbor, MI, - - 2014
The goal of this study is to develop and validate an algorithm to identify Prolia(®) users within a health insurance claims database. Patients with a denosumab-specific or nonspecific administration claim during the early period of Prolia availability in the USA (June 1, 2010 to March 31, 2012) were classified as ...
Schwartenbeck Philipp P The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, UK Centre for Neurocognitive Research and Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria Neuroscience Institute and Centre for Neurocognitive Research, Christian-Doppler-Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, - - 2014
Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy ...
Haskins Amy E AE Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine, - - 2014
To develop clinical prediction models estimating the probability of maintaining erections adequate for intercourse 2 years after prostate cancer treatment, based on pretreatment characteristics. Study participants consisted of prostate cancer patients with localized disease and functional erections before undergoing surgery (n = 536) or radiation therapy (n = 240) at a single USA institution. Baseline ...
Zhao Sihai Dave SD Department of Statistics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, U.S.A. - - 2014
The successful translation of genomic signatures into clinical settings relies on good discrimination between patient subgroups. Many sophisticated algorithms have been proposed in the statistics and machine learning literature but in practice simpler algorithms are often employed. However, few simple algorithms have been formally described or systematically investigated. We give ...
Connors B M BM School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada Earth to Ocean Research Group, Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada ESSA Technologies Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada - - 2014
Abundance trends are the basis for many classifications of threat and recovery status, but they can be a challenge to interpret because of observation error, stochastic variation in abundance (process noise) and temporal autocorrelation in that process noise. To measure the frequency of incorrectly detecting a decline (false-positive or false ...
Sandom Christopher C Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 114, Aarhus C 8000, Denmark - - 2014
The late Quaternary megafauna extinction was a severe global-scale event. Two factors, climate change and modern humans, have received broad support as the primary drivers, but their absolute and relative importance remains controversial. To date, focus has been on the extinction chronology of individual or small groups of species, specific ...
Klales Alexandra R AR Department of Anthropology, University of Manitoba, 432 Fletcher Argue Building, 15 Chancellor Circle, Manitoba, MB, R3T 2N2, - - 2014
Ancestry estimation is essential for biological profile estimation in forensic anthropology. Hefner (2009) and Osteoware (Smithsonian Institution, 2011) presented 16 macromorphoscopic traits that can be scored for standardized data collection and can also be used within a statistical framework to estimate ancestry. The primary purpose of this research was to ...
Cavallini Simona S Fondazione FORMIT, Via Giovanni Gemelli Careri 11, 00147, Rome, Italy, - - 2014
Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically ...
Kranioti Elena F EF Edinburgh Unit for Forensic Anthropology, School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, Scotland, UK, - - 2014
There are many population-specific studies around the world on sex estimation from skeletal remains. Of the long bones, the tibia has been an important one because it is commonly studied to assess population specificity of a long bone. However, the studies in Europe that use this bone for sex estimation ...
Sabuncu Mert R MR Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Building 149, 13th Street, Room 2301, 02129, Charlestown, MA, USA, - - 2014
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods have become an important tool in neuroimaging, revealing complex associations and yielding powerful prediction models. Despite methodological developments and novel application domains, there has been little effort to compile benchmark results that researchers can reference and compare against. This study takes a significant step in ...
Lueken Ulrike U Department of Psychology, Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Chemnitzer Straße 46, 01187, Dresden, Germany, - - 2014
While neuroimaging research has advanced our knowledge about fear circuitry dysfunctions in anxiety disorders, findings based on diagnostic groups do not translate into diagnostic value for the individual patient. Machine-learning generates predictive information that can be used for single subject classification. We applied Gaussian process classifiers to a sample of ...
Lilford Richard J - - 2014
This protocol concerns the assessment of cost-effectiveness of hospital health information technology (HIT) in four hospitals. Two of these hospitals are acquiring ePrescribing systems incorporating extensive decision support, while the other two will implement systems incorporating more basic clinical algorithms. Implementation of an ePrescribing system will have diffuse effects over ...
Salomon Erika E University of Illinois, Champaign, USA - - 2014
Humans are essentialists: They believe hidden "essences" underlie membership in natural and social kinds. Although essentialism has well-established implications for important societal issues (e.g., discrimination), little is known about its origins. According to a recent proposal, essentialism emerges from a broader inherence heuristic-an intuitive tendency to explain patterns in terms ...
Steyerberg Ewout W EW Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The - - 2014
New markers may improve prediction of diagnostic and prognostic outcomes. We aimed to review options for graphical display and summary measures to assess the predictive value of markers over standard, readily available predictors. We illustrated various approaches using previously published data on 3264 participants from the Framingham Heart Study, where ...
van Dijk Jeroen P JP RIKILT, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
An important part of the current hazard identification of novel plant varieties is comparative targeted analysis of the novel and reference varieties. Comparative analysis will become much more informative with unbiased analytical approaches, e.g. omics profiling. Data analysis estimating the similarity of new varieties to a reference baseline class of ...
Zeng Da-Wu DW Liver center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, No. 20 Chazhong Road, 350005 Taijiang District, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, - - 2014
To develop a cirrhosis-predicted model in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers with alanine transarninase (ALT) less than two times the upper limit of normal (ULN). Treatment-naive patients (n=278), who had undergone liver biopsies, were randomly divided into two groups - a training group and a validation group. Thirteen bio-clinical parameters were analyzed. ...
Liu Zhihong Z Research Center for Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 East Circle at University City, Guangzhou, 510006, - - 2014
Predicting compound chemical stability is important because unstable compounds can lead to either false positive or to false negative conclusions in bioassays. Experimental data (COMDECOM) measured from DMSO/H2O solutions stored at 50 °C for 105 days were used to predicted stability by applying rule-embedded naïve Bayesian learning, based upon atom center fragment ...
Dong Xiaoyu X a Office of Biostatistics, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. - - 2014
Abstract Interchangeability was originally developed in order to assess drug bioequivalence beyond average bioequivalence. In 2003, FDA published a Guidance documenting the procedures on using in vivo bioequivalence crossover trial to assess interchangeability between test and reference products. In general, this FDA Guidance describes interchangeability in terms of population and ...
Staplin Nd N Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute, University of Southampton, Southampton, - - 2014
There are often reasons to suppose that there is dependence between the time to event and time to censoring, or dependent censoring, for survival data, particularly when considering medical data. This is because the decision to treat or not is often made according to prognosis, usually with the most ill ...
Groenendijk Piet P Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
The agricultural sector faces the challenge of ensuring food security without an excessive burden on the environment. Simulation models provide excellent instruments for researchers to gain more insight into relevant processes and best agricultural practices and provide tools for planners for decision making support. The extent to which models are ...
Hermans Rodolfo I RI London Centre for Nanotechnology, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London , London WC1E 6BT, United - - 2014
The mechanical stretching of single polyproteins is an emerging tool for the study of protein (un)folding, chemical catalysis and polymer physics at the single molecule level. The observed processes, i.e., unfolding or reduction events, are typically considered to be stochastic and by nature are susceptible to be censored by the ...
Sohn Michael B - - 2014
Metagenomics has a great potential to discover previously unattainable information about microbialcommunities. An important prerequisite for such discoveries is to accurately estimate the compositionof microbial communities. Most of prevalent homology-based approaches utilize solely the results ofan alignment tool such as BLAST, limiting their estimation accuracy to high ranks of the ...
Scott Robert S RS Department of Anthropology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 131 George Street, RAB 306, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1414, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Reconstructions of paleohabitats are necessary aids in understanding hominin evolution. The morphology of species from relevant sites, understood in terms of functional relationships to habitat (termed ecomorphology), offers a direct link to habitat. Bovids are a speciose radiation that includes many habitat specialists and are abundant in the fossil record. ...
Yang L L Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Shandong University School of Public Health, Jinan, - - 2014
Human brucellosis is a re-emerging bacterial anthropozoonotic disease, which remains a public health concern in China with the growing number of cases and more widespread natural foci. The purpose of this study was to short-term forecast the incidence of human brucellosis with a prediction model. We collected the annual and ...
Rodrigues David D Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Social (CIS-IUL), Lisboa, Portugal; Institut de Psychologie, Laboratoire de Psychologie Sociale: Menaces et Société (EA 4471), Université Paris Descartes, Paris, - - 2014
The Investment Model (Rusbult, 1980) defines general commitment as a long-term orientation towards relationship maintenance and feelings of psychological attachment, influenced by satisfaction, quality of alternatives and intrinsic/extrinsic investments. We suggest the importance of additionally assessing moral commitment, defined by an intrapersonal predisposition to remain in the relationship (Johnson, 1991). ...
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