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Wei Shaoceng S Department of Statistics, University of - - 2014
This study evaluates the effect of death as a competing event to the development of dementia in a longitudinal study of the cognitive status of elderly subjects. A multi-state Markov model with three transient states: intact cognition, mild cognitive impairment (M.C.I.) and global impairment (G.I.) and one absorbing state: dementia ...
Li Ruosha R Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, - - 2014
Semi-competing risks data frequently arise in biomedical studies when time to a disease landmark event is subject to dependent censoring by death, the observation of which however is not precluded by the occurrence of the landmark event. In observational studies, the analysis of such data can be further complicated by ...
He Bing B 1Department of Biostatistics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; 2Department of Social Medicine, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, THE NETHERLANDS; 3Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DENMARK; 4Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; and 5Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, - - 2014
The study aims were 1) to develop transparent algorithms that use short segments of training data for predicting activity types and 2) to compare the prediction performance of the proposed algorithms using single accelerometers and multiple accelerometers. Sixteen participants (age, 80.6 yr (4.8 yr); body mass index, 26.1 kg·m (2.5 ...
Benner Philipp P Max-Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Isthmus SARL, 75002 Paris, - - 2014
The construction of statistics for summarizing posterior samples returned by a Bayesian phylogenetic study has so far been hindered by the poor geometric insights available into the space of phylogenetic trees, and ad hoc methods such as the derivation of a consensus tree makeup for the ill-definition of the usual ...
Guénard Guillaume G Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3J7 - - 2014
Direct estimation of species' tolerance to pesticides and other toxic organic substances is a combinatorial problem, because of the large number of species-substance pairs. We propose a statistical modelling approach to predict tolerances associated with untested species-substance pairs, by using models fitted to tested pairs. This approach is based on ...
Tataru Paula P Bioinformatics Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark, Biophysics Graduate Group, Computer Science Division, Department of Statistics, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94709, - - 2014
We present a tool, diCal-IBD, for detecting identity-by-descent (IBD) tracts between pairs of genomic sequences. Our method builds on a recent demographic inference method based on the coalescent with recombination, and is able to incorporate demographic information as a prior. Simulation study shows that diCal-IBD has significantly higher recall and ...
Firmat Cyril C Department of Biology, Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7419 Trondheim, Norway - - 2014
The allometric-constraint hypothesis states that evolutionary divergence of morphological traits is restricted by integrated growth regulation. In this study, we test this hypothesis on a time-calibrated and well-documented palaeontological sequence of dental measurements on the Pleistocene arvicoline rodent species Mimomys savini from the Iberian Peninsula. Based on 507 specimens representing ...
Anger Lennart T - - 2014
Chemical structure data and corresponding measured bioactivities of compounds are nowadays easily available from public and commercial databases. However, these databases contain heterogeneous data from different laboratories determined under different protocols and, in addition, sometimes even erroneous entries. In this study, we evaluated the use of data from bioactivity databases ...
Scheibehenne Benjamin B University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, - - 2014
To be useful, cognitive models with fitted parameters should show generalizability across time and allow accurate predictions of future observations. It has been proposed that hierarchical procedures yield better estimates of model parameters than do nonhierarchical, independent approaches, because the formers' estimates for individuals within a group can mutually inform ...
Divers Marion T MT Department of Geology & Planetary Science, University of Pittsburgh , 4107 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, United - - 2014
Human-engineered landscapes and subsequent altered hydrology affect the fate and transport of reactive nitrogen, particularly in urban watersheds. In this study, we used dual-nitrate isotopes and mixing model analysis (δ(15)N and δ(18)O of NO3(-)) to quantify nitrogen inputs from two sources concentrated in urban systems, sewage and atmospheric deposition. Analysis ...
Balfer Jenny - - 2014
Supervised machine learning models are widely used in chemoinformatics, especially for the prediction of new active compounds or targets of known actives. Bayesian classification methods are among the most popular machine learning approaches for the prediction of activity from chemical structure. Much work has focused on predicting structure-activity relationships (SARs) ...
Jacobs John M JM National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Cooperative Oxford Lab, Oxford, MD, 21654, - - 2014
To construct statistical models in order to predict the presence, abundance, and potential virulence of Vibrio vulnificus in surface waters of Chesapeake Bay for implementation in ecological forecasting systems. We evaluated and applied previously published qPCR assays to water samples (n = 1636) collected from Chesapeake Bay from 2007 - ...
Antoniou Constantinos C a Laboratory of Transportation Engineering , National Technical University of Athens , Athens , - - 2014
Objective: Modeling road safety development is a complex task and needs to consider both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed. The objective of this research is to apply structural time series models for obtaining reliable medium- to ...
Chen Ran - - 2014
Quantitative characterization of nanoparticles interactions with their surrounding environment is vital for safe nanotechnological development and standardization. A recent quantitative measure, the Biological Surface Adsorption Index (BSAI), has demonstrated promising applications in nanomaterial surface characterization and biological/environmental prediction. This paper further advances the approach beyond the application of five descriptors ...
Cao Qi - - 2014
Reliable computer models for the prediction of chemical biodegradability from molecular descriptors and fingerprints are very important for making health and environmental decisions. By coupling the differential evolution (DE) algorithm with the support vector classifier (SVC) in order to optimize the main parameters of the classifier, an improved classifier called ...
Jaeger Kristin L KL School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691; and - - 2014
Protecting hydrologic connectivity of freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to ensuring species persistence, ecosystem integrity, and human well-being. More frequent and severe droughts associated with climate change are poised to significantly alter flow intermittence patterns and hydrologic connectivity in dryland streams of the American Southwest, with deleterious effects on highly endangered ...
O'Connor Ben L BL Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Bldg. 240, Argonne, IL, USA, - - 2014
Large areas of public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management and located in arid regions of the southwestern United States are being considered for the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities. Land-disturbing activities in these desert, alluvium-filled valleys have the potential to adversely affect the hydrologic and ecologic ...
Tremblay Antoine A NeuroCognitive Imaging Laboratory, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, - - 2014
In the analysis of psychological and psychophysiological data, the relationship between two variables is often assumed to be a straight line. This may be due to the prevalence of the general linear model in data analysis in these fields, which makes this assumption implicitly. However, there are many problems for ...
Zimmerman Jack E JE aAnesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia bCerner Corporation, Vienna, Virginia, - - 2014
There are few first-hand accounts that describe the history of outcome prediction in critical care. This review summarizes the authors' personal perspectives about the development and evolution of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation over the past 35 years. We emphasize what we have learned in the past and more ...
Guo Shien S Evidera, 430 Bedford Street, Suite 300, Lexington Office Park, Lexington, MA, 02420, USA, - - 2014
Considerable advances have been made in modeling Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a move towards individual-level rather than cohort models and simulations that consider multiple dimensions when evaluating disease severity. However, the possibility that disease-modifying agents (DMAs) may emerge requires an update of existing modeling frameworks. The aim of this study ...
Zeimes Caroline B - - 2014
In this paper, the hazard and exposure concepts from risk assessment are applied in an innovative approach to understand zoonotic disease risk. Hazard is here related to the landscape ecology determining where the hosts, vectors and pathogens are and, exposure is defined as the attractiveness and accessibility to hazardous areas. ...
Nouei Mahyar Taghizadeh MT Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, International Campus, Mashhad, Iran, - - 2014
Cardiac events could be taken into account as the leading causes of death throughout the globe. Such events also trigger an undesirable increase in what treatment procedures cost. Despite the giant leaps in technological development in heart surgery, coronary surgery still carries the high risk of the mortality. Besides, there ...
Vranic Branko Z BZ Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel , Basel , Switzerland - - 2014
Abstract A preliminary study of the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the offline simultaneous determination of metoprolol tartrate (MTP) and hydrochlorothiazide (HTZ) in powders and tablets has been carried out. An industrial tableting process was simulated using an instrumented tablet press replicator - Presster™. Conventional reference analytics were ...
Matzarakis Andreas A Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, 79085, Freiburg, Germany, - - 2014
The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the ...
Matzke Nicholas J NJ Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, - - 2014
Founder-event speciation, where a rare jump dispersal event founds a new genetically isolated lineage, has long been considered crucial by many historical biogeographers, but its importance is disputed within the vicariance school. Probabilistic modeling of geographic range evolution creates the potential to test different biogeographical models against data using standard ...
Schindelwig K K Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, - - 2014
The influence of important parameters on the flight trajectory for jumps in downhill World Cup races was investigated. To quantify the impact injury risk at landing, the parameter equivalent landing height (ELH) was introduced, which considered a variable slope inclination during the landing movement. Altogether, 145 runs at four different ...
Lee Minjung M Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea - - 2014
Competing risks data often occur within a center in multi-center clinical trials where the event times within a center may be correlated due to unobserved factors across individuals. In this paper, we consider the cause-specific proportional hazards model with a shared frailty to model the association between the event times ...
Zhao Sihai Dave SD Department of Statistics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61820, - - 2014
Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. ...
Kaneko Hiromasa - - 2014
We discuss applicability domains (ADs) based on ensemble learning in classification and regression analyses. In regression analysis, the AD can be appropriately set, although attention needs to be paid to the bias of predicted values. However, because the AD set in classification analysis is too wide, we propose an AD ...
Zhang Xu X Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestrasse 24, D-27570 Bremerhaven, - - 2014
During glacial periods of the Late Pleistocene, an abundance of proxy data demonstrates the existence of large and repeated millennial-scale warming episodes, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. This ubiquitous feature of rapid glacial climate change can be extended back as far as 800,000 years before present (bp) in the ice ...
Antoniades Chrystalina A CA Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences and - - 2014
The cortico-basal-ganglia circuit plays a critical role in decision making on the basis of probabilistic information. Computational models have suggested how this circuit could compute the probabilities of actions being appropriate according to Bayes' theorem. These models predict that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) provides feedback that normalizes the neural representation ...
Kane Michael J - - 2014
Time series models can play an important role in disease prediction. Incidence data can be used to predict the future occurrence of disease events. Developments in modeling approaches provide an opportunity to compare different time series models for predictive power. Results: We applied ARIMA and Random Forest time series models ...
Haddadchi Arman A Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Determining the source of sediment using geochemical properties is now a widely used approach in catchment management. However the outcome of these studies often depends on the type of model used to determine the relative contribution from difference sources. Here we test the accuracy and robustness of four widely used ...
Patel Maulika S MS Department of Computer Engineering, G H Patel College of Engineering & Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
Protein structure prediction is of great relevance given the abundant genomic and proteomic data generated by the genome sequencing projects. Protein secondary structure prediction is addressed as a sub task in determining the protein tertiary structure and function. In this paper, a novel algorithm, KB-PROSSP-NN, which is a combination of ...
Roberts Chris - - 2014
Entry into specialty training was determined by a National Assessment Centre (NAC) approach using a combination of a behavioural Multiple-Mini-Interview (MMI) and a written Situational Judgement Test (SJT). We wanted to know if interviewers could make reliable and valid decisions about the non-cognitive characteristics of candidates with the purpose of ...
Clément P P LUNAM Université, Oniris, UMR BioEpAR, CS 40706, 44307 Nantes, France; INRA, UMR1300 BioEpAR, CS 40706, 44307 Nantes, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
The objective of the current study was to quantify the change in the prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) resulting from the inclusion of rumination time (RT) in the 2001 National Research Council (NRC) DMI prediction model. Forty-one Holstein cows fed the same total mixed ration were involved in a ...
Mayr A A Andreas Mayr, Institut für Medizininformatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Waldstr. 6, 91054 Erlangen, - - 2014
Background: Boosting algorithms to simultaneously estimate and select predictor effects in statistical models have gained substantial interest during the last decade. Objectives: This review highlights recent methodological developments regarding boosting algorithms for statistical modelling especially focusing on topics relevant for biomedical research. Methods: We suggest a unified framework for gradient ...
Mayr A A Andreas Mayr, Institut für Medizininformatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg(FAU), Waldstr. 6, 91054 Erlangen, - - 2014
Background: The concept of boosting emerged from the field of machine learning. The basic idea is to boost the accuracy of a weak classifying tool by combining various instances into a more accurate prediction. This general concept was later adapted to the field of statistical modelling. Nowadays, boosting algorithms are ...
Szasz Peter P *Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada †Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ‡Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
To systematically examine the literature describing the methods by which technical competence is assessed in surgical trainees. The last decade has witnessed an evolution away from time-based surgical education. In response, governing bodies worldwide have implemented competency-based education paradigms. The definition of competence, however, remains elusive, and the impact of ...
Santillana Mauricio M School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, - - 2014
Search query information from a clinician's database, UpToDate, is shown to timely predict influenza epidemics in the United States. Our results show that digital disease surveillance tools based on experts' databases may be able to provide an alternative, reliable and stable signal for accurate predictions of flu outbreaks.
Claggett Brian B Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA - - 2014
In a typical randomized clinical study to compare a new treatment with a control, oftentimes each study subject may experience any of several distinct outcomes during the study period, which collectively define the "risk-benefit" profile. To assess the effect of treatment, it is desirable to utilize the entirety of such ...
Cochran-Biederman Jennifer L JL Conservation Biology Graduate Program, 135 Skok Hall, 1980 Folwell Avenue, Saint Paul, MN, 55108, U.S.A.; Biology Department, Winona State University, 175 W. Mark Street, Winona, MN, 55987, - - 2014
Reintroduction of imperiled native freshwater fish is becoming an increasingly important conservation tool amidst persistent anthropogenic pressures and new threats related to climate change. We summarized trends in native fish reintroductions in the current literature, identified predictors of reintroduction outcome, and devised recommendations for managers attempting future native fish reintroductions. ...
Boxall A B A AB Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
In order to establish the environmental impact of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), good information on the level of exposure in surface waters is needed. Exposure concentrations are typically estimated using information on the usage of an API as well as removal rates in the patient, the wastewater system and ...
Ouattara A A Université de Bordeaux, adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, U1034, 33600 Pessac, France; Inserm, adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, U1034, 33600 Pessac, France; Service d'anesthésie-réanimation II, maison du Haut-Lévêque, groupe hospitalier Sud, CHU de Bordeaux, avenue Magellan, 33600 Pessac, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Extensive literature describes the suitability of dynamic parameters to predict responsiveness in fluid. However, based on heart-lung interactions, these parameters can have serious limitations, including the use of protective lung ventilation. Although the latter seems to be beneficial for healthy patients undergoing high-risk surgery, the intraoperative interpretation of dynamic parameters ...
Sagi Eyal E Psychology Department, Northwestern - - 2014
This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity (e.g., the identity of ...
Pina-Camacho Laura L Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón. School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, IiSGM, CIBERSAM, Ibiza 43, 28009, Madrid, Spain, - - 2014
Identifying early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) at a very early stage remains challenging. To assess the diagnostic predictive value of multiple types of data at the emergence of early-onset first-episode psychosis (FEP), various support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were developed. The data were from a 2-year, prospective, longitudinal study of ...
Jeronimus Bertus F - - 2014
High neuroticism predicts psychopathology and physical health problems. Nongenetic factors, including major life events and experiences, explain approximately half of the variance in neuroticism. Conversely, neuroticism also predicts these life experiences. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reciprocal causation between neuroticism and life experiences and to gauge the ...
Hagá Sara - - 2014
The 3-stage model of social inference posits that people categorize behaviors and characterize actors or situations effortlessly, but they correct these characterizations with additional information effortfully. The current article tests this model using developmental data, assuming that the less cognitively demanding processes in the model (i.e., categorization, characterization) should appear ...
Yao Hong H State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China; School of Geography, Nantong University, Nantong, 226001, - - 2014
Point source pollution is one of the main threats to regional environmental health. Based on a water quality model, a methodology to assess the regional risk of point source pollution is proposed. The assessment procedure includes five parts: (1) identifying risk source units and estimating source emissions using Monte Carlo ...
Manuela Sam - - 2014
We develop and validate a revised version of the Pacific Identity and Wellbeing Scale (the PIWBS-R). This revision extends the original 5-factor PIWBS model to include a sixth subscale assessing Cultural Efficacy (CE). The definition and item content for CE was based on a synthesis of research on self-efficacy and ...
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