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Results 451 - 500 of 2924
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Ge S - - 2012
Purpose: While intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) has great potential to deliver highly conformal tumoricidal dose to targets whilst minimizing dose to nearby organs-at-risk, IMPT optimization is very time consuming and memory extensive due to finer dose grids and a large number of energy layers used compared to intensity-modulated radiation therapy ...
Couzo Evan - - 2012
In Houston, some of the highest measured 8-hr ozone (O3) peaks are characterized by sudden increases in observed concentrations of at least 40 ppb in 1 hr or 60 ppb in 2 hr. Measurements show that these large hourly changes appear at only a few monitors and span a narrow ...
Höglund A - - 2012
In recent years, the shipping of environmentally hazardous cargo has increased considerably in the Baltic proper. In this study, a large number of hypothetical oil spills with an idealized, passive tracer are simulated. From the tracer distributions, statistical measures are calculated to optimize the quantity of tracer from a spill ...
Noon Barry R - - 2012
Monitoring the population trends of multiple animal species at a landscape scale is prohibitively expensive. However, advances in survey design, statistical methods, and the ability to estimate species presence on the basis of detection-nondetection data have greatly increased the feasibility of species-level monitoring. For example, recent advances in monitoring make ...
Soni N - - 2012
Purpose: To quantify the effect of 192Ir source attenuation due to titanium material used in manufacturing the new CT-compatible FSD device during treatment delivery. Methods: A typical cervical cancer treatment includes primary external beam followed by a course of HDR Intra-Cavitary brachytherapy using FSD applicator. A detailed geometry of the ...
Tian Z - - 2012
Purpose: With the development of ultra-fast GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine, it becomes clinically realistic to compute the dose-deposition coefficients (DDC) for IMRT optimization using MC simulation. However, it is still time-consuming if we want to compute DDC with small statistical uncertainty. This work studies the effects of the ...
Twardochleb Laura A - - 2012
Predators sometimes provide biotic resistance against invasions by nonnative prey. Understanding and predicting the strength of biotic resistance remains a key challenge in invasion biology. A predator's functional response to nonnative prey may predict whether a predator can provide biotic resistance against nonnative prey at different prey densities. Surprisingly, functional ...
Feng Lu - - 2012
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is studying the next generation giant telescope, called the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). With a 42 m diameter primary mirror, it is a significant step from currently existing telescopes. Therefore, the E-ELT with its instruments poses new challenges in terms of cost and computational complexity ...
Sheu R - - 2012
Purpose: In contrast to commercial dose (MU) second check software using data from treatment planning system, we developed the software which can directly access commercial record and verify, Mosaiq system - to perform the MU and data integrity checks. Methods: Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) and ActiveX Data Objects for ...
Geng Yingnan - - 2012
Gradient similarity is a simple, yet powerful, data descriptor which shows robustness in stereo matching. In this paper, a RGB vector space is defined for stereo matching. Based on the adaptive support-weight approach, a matching algorithm, which uses the pixel gradient similarity, color similarity, and proximity in RGB vector space ...
Viulet T - - 2012
Purpose: Radiosurgical treatment planning requires a good approximation of the dose distribution which is typically computed on a high resolution grid. However, the resulting optimization problem is large, and leads to substantial runtime. We study a sparse grid approach, for which we estimate and compensate for the expected deviations from ...
DeCesare Nicholas J - - 2012
Multi-scale resource selection modeling is used to identify factors that limit species distributions across scales of space and time. This multi-scale nature of habitat suitability complicates the translation of inferences to single, spatial depictions of habitat required for conservation of species. We estimated resource selection functions (RSFs) across three scales ...
Chen G - - 2012
Purpose: Consistency verification between the data from treatment planning system (TPS), record and verification system (R&V), and delivered recorder with visual inspection is time consuming and subject to human error. The purpose of this work is to develop a software tool to automatically perform such verifications. Methods: Using Microsoft visual ...
Wang Chenguang - - 2012
To explore different allometric equations for scaling clearance across the human life-span using propofol as a model drug. Data from seven previously published propofol studies ((pre)term neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents and adults) were analysed using NONMEM VI. To scale clearance, a bodyweight-based exponential equation with four different structures for ...
Fraass Benedick A - - 2012
Inverse planned intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has helped many centers implement highly conformal treatment planning with beamlet-based techniques. The many comparisons between IMRT and 3D conformal (3DCRT) plans, however, have been limited because most 3DCRT plans are forward-planned while IMRT plans utilize inverse planning, meaning both optimization and delivery ...
Jagtap Pratik - - 2012
LTQ Orbitrap data analyzed with ProteinPilot can be further improved by MaxQuant raw data processing, which utilizes precursor-level high mass accuracy data for peak processing and MGF creation. In particular, ProteinPilot results from MaxQuant-processed peaklists for Orbitrap data sets resulted in improved spectral utilization due to an improved peaklist quality ...
Conrardy Julie A - - 2012
This article focuses on the revised AORN "Recommended practices for product selection in perioperative practice settings." Hospitals and ambulatory surgery facilities should have protocols in place for product evaluation that includes a multidisciplinary team approach. The process for product evaluation and selection includes gathering information; establishing consistent requirements for product ...
Di Achille Paolo - - 2012
Complementary advances in medical imaging, vascular biology, genetics, biomechanics, and computational methods promise to enable the development of mathematical models of the enlargement and possible rupture of intracranial aneurysms that can help inform clinical decisions. Nevertheless, this ultimate goal is extremely challenging given the many diverse and complex factors that ...
Cao W - - 2012
Purpose: To investigate the impact of spot spacing on intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan quality based on a new IMPT optimization method which incorporates deliverable monitor unit (MU) constraints and therefore eliminates the dose distortion effect of post processing while using small spot spacings in the current treatment planning ...
Ugille Maaike - - 2012
One way to combine data from single-subject experimental design studies is by performing a multilevel meta-analysis, with unstandardized or standardized regression coefficients as the effect size metrics. This study evaluates the performance of this approach. The results indicate that a multilevel meta-analysis of unstandardized effect sizes results in good estimates ...
Mathias Neil R - - 2012
Modeling and simulation of drug dissolution and oral absorption has been increasingly used over the last decade to understand drug behavior in vivo based on the physicochemical properties of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) and dosage forms. As in silico and in vitro tools become more sophisticated and our knowledge of ...
Harlander Niklas - - 2012
Objective: Single channel noise reduction has been well investigated and seems to have reached its limits in terms of speech intelligibility improvement, however, the quality of such schemes can still be advanced. This study tests to what extent novel model-based processing schemes might improve performance in particular for non-stationary noise ...
Kim Tae-Rae - - 2012
A homology model builder using simple restraining potentials based on spline-interpolated quadratic functions is developed and interfaced with CHARMM package. The continuity and stability of the potential function were validated, and the parameters were optimized using the CASP7 targets. The performance of the model builder was benchmarked to the Modeller ...
Mohseni Seyed Alireza - - 2012
This paper proposes a new mixed training algorithm consisting of error backpropagation (EBP) and variable structure systems (VSSs) to optimize parameter updating of neural networks. For the optimization of the number of neurons in the hidden layer, a new term based on the output of the hidden layer is added ...
Stonier Adam - - 2012
Increases in cell culture titers in existing facilities have prompted efforts to identify strategies that alleviate purification bottlenecks whilst controlling costs. This paper describes the application of a database-driven dynamic simulation tool to identify optimal purification sizing strategies and visualise their robustness to future titer increases. The tool harnessed the ...
Decristoforo Clemens - - 2012
68Ge/68Ga generators have received tremendous attention in the last years based on the success of 68Ga-labelled Somatostatin analogues for Positron-Emission Tomography (PET), which are today used routinely worldwide. Various commercially available generator types are based on different column matrices including TiO2, SnO2 or organic 68Gechelate coated silica, providing 68Ga as ...
Brorby G P - - 2012
The potential for fiber exposure during historical use of chrysotile-containing joint compounds (JCC) has been documented, but the published data are of limited use for reconstructing exposures and assessing worker risk. Consequently, fiber concentration distributions for workers sanding JCC were independently derived by applying a recently developed model based on ...
Okeno Tobias O - - 2012
A bio-economic model was developed to evaluate the utilisation of indigenous chickens (IC) under different production systems accounting for the risk attitude of the farmers. The model classified the production systems into three categories based on the level of management: free-range system (FRS), where chickens were left to scavenge for ...
Pillai M R A - - 2012
Fission-produced 99Mo (F 99Mo) is traditionally used for fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc alumina-based column generators. In this paper, several emerging strategies are discussed which are being pursued or have been suggested to overcome the continuing shortages of F 99Mo. In addition to the hopeful eventual success of these proposed new 99Mo ...
Moussa Jonathan E - - 2012
The Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) density functionals are popular for their ability to improve upon the accuracy of standard semilocal functionals such as Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), particularly for semiconductor band gaps. They also have a reduced computational cost compared to hybrid functionals, which results from the restriction of Fock exchange calculations to small ...
Liu Andong - - 2012
The H(∞) filtering problem is investigated in this paper for a class of discrete-time genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) with random delays. The addressed filtering problem is to estimate the concentrations of mRNA and protein, and the filtering error system is modeled as a Markovian switched system. By using a properly ...
Punkkinen Henna - - 2012
Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we ...
Tricard Simon - - 2012
This paper describes an empirical model of polymer dynamics, based on the agitation of millimeter-sized polymeric beads. Although the interactions between the particles in the macroscopic model and those between the monomers of molecular-scale polymers are fundamentally different, both systems follow the Worm-Like Chain theory.
Mormede P - - 2012
The concept of robustness refers to the combination of a high production potential and a low sensitivity to environmental perturbations. The importance of robustness-related traits in breeding objectives is progressively increasing toward the production of animals with a high production level in a wide range of climatic conditions and production ...
Thompson Matthew D MD Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, - - 2012
Permeability-limited two-subcompartment and flow-limited, well-stirred tank tissue compartment models are routinely used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling. Here, the permeability-limited two-subcompartment model is used to derive a general flow-limited case of a two-subcompartment model with the well-stirred tank being a specific case where tissue fractional blood volume approaches zero. The general ...
Nyberg Joakim - - 2012
Several developments have facilitated the practical application and increased the general use of optimal design for nonlinear mixed effects models. These developments include new methodology for utilizing advanced pharmacometric models, faster optimization algorithms and user friendly software tools. In this paper we present the extension of the optimal design software ...
Fiume Marc - - 2012
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are providing an unprecedented capacity for data generation, and there is a corresponding need for efficient data exploration and analysis capabilities. Although most existing tools for HTS data analysis are developed for either automated (e.g. genotyping) or visualization (e.g. genome browsing) purposes, such tools are most ...
Naessens W - - 2012
Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical modelling. In this paper, the ...
Khormi Hassan M - - 2012
It is important to have appropriate models for the surveillance and control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever (DF). These models need to be based on appropriate temporal and spatial scales. The aim of this study was to illustrate the impact of different temporal and spatial scales on DF ...
Giordani Paolo - - 2012
The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current ...
Naessens W - - 2012
Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can significantly benefit from mathematical modelling. In this paper, the ...
Karplus P Andrew - - 2012
In macromolecular x-ray crystallography, refinement R values measure the agreement between observed and calculated data. Analogously, R(merge) values reporting on the agreement between multiple measurements of a given reflection are used to assess data quality. Here, we show that despite their widespread use, R(merge) values are poorly suited for determining ...
Galama Titus J TJ RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138, - - 2012
We estimate a health investment equation, derived from a health capital model that is an extension of the well-known Grossman model. Of particular interest is whether the health production function has constant returns to scale, as in the standard Grossman model, or decreasing returns to scale, as in the Ehrlich-Chuma ...
Setty Yaki - - 2012
MOTIVATION: Normal development of multicellular organisms is regulated by a highly complex process in which a set of precursor cells proliferate, differentiate and move, forming over time a functioning tissue. To handle their complexity, developmental systems can be studied over distinct scales. The dynamics of each scale is determined by ...
García Nieto P J - - 2012
Cyanotoxins, a kind of poisonous substances produced by cyanobacteria, are responsible for health risks in drinking and recreational water uses. The aim of this study is to improve our previous and successful work about cyanotoxins prediction from some experimental cyanobacteria concentrations in the Trasona reservoir (Asturias, Northern Spain) using the ...
Kovyrshin Arseny - - 2012
We present an application of a selective time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) scheme to a model for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a perylene sensitizer dye on a TiO(2) nanoparticle model. In an earlier study on this system [De Angelis, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2010, 493, 323], it was reported that ...
Richter Wolfgang F - - 2012
The subcutaneous (SC) route is of growing interest for the administration of biotherapeutics. Key products on the biotherapeutic market such as insulins, but also several immunoglobulins or Fc-fusion proteins, are administered SC. Despite the importance of the SC route, the available knowledge about the processes involved in the SC absorption ...
Dette Holger - - 2012
We consider two frequently used PK/PD models and provide closed form descriptions of locally optimal designs for estimating individual parameters. In a novel way, we use these optimal designs and construct locally standardized maximin optimal designs for estimating any subset of the model parameters of interest. We do this by ...
Safari Edwin - - 2012
Compacted clay liners (CCLs) when feasible, are preferred to composite geosynthetic liners. The thickness of CCLs is typically prescribed by each country's environmental protection regulations. However, considering the fact that construction of CCLs represents a significant portion of overall landfill construction costs; a performance based design of liner thickness would ...
Chen Mo - - 2012
We developed a functional electrical stimulator for correcting the gait patterns of patients with foot-drop problem. The stimulating electrical pulses of the system are modulated to evoke contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, by emulating the normal patterns. The modulation is adaptive, i.e. the system can predict the user's step ...
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