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Li Bangde B Sensory Evaluation Center, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA ; Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering ...
Thomas Daniel B DB Department of Vertebrate Zoology, MRC-116, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD 20746, USA Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand - - 2014
The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have ...
R S Freitas Lúcia L Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Tropical, Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, - - 2014
To analyse the ecological association between the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the Brazilian municipalities and average leprosy incidence rate in the period 2009-2011. An ecological study taking the Brazilian municipalities as its units of analysis. The local empirical Bayes estimation method was used to obtain smoothed incidence rates (SIR) ...
Rushton Paula W PW School of Occupational Therapy, Université de Montréal , Montréal, QC , Canada - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The objectives of this study were to: (1) translate the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Manual Wheelchair Users (WheelCon-M) into a French-Canadian version (WheelCon-M-F); and (2) evaluate the WheelCon-M-F validity evidence based on response processes, internal structure, and relations with other variables. Methods: The WheelCon-M was translated from ...
Hopenfeld Bruce B Angel Medical Systems, Inc. , Shrewsbury, NJ , - - 2014
Abstract Most existing heart beat detection algorithms serially process peaks, which can be either noise or true beats. Serial processing can result in inaccurate detections in the context of high noise. The proposed method relies on the relative regularity of sinus rhythm RR interval changes to select the best sequences ...
Winquist Andrea A aDepartment of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; bNational Center for Environmental Assessment, Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, NC; cDepartment of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; and dSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, - - 2014
Because ambient air pollution exposure occurs as mixtures, consideration of joint effects of multiple pollutants may advance our understanding of the health effects of air pollution. We assessed the joint effect of air pollutants on pediatric asthma emergency department visits in Atlanta during 1998-2004. We selected combinations of pollutants that ...
Xu Siyan S a Boston University Biostatistics Department , 801 Massachusetts Avenue , Boston , MA , - - 2014
Abstract Equivalence trials aim to demonstrate that new and standard treatments are equivalent within pre-defined clinically relevant limits. We focus when inference of equivalence is made in terms of the ratio of two normal means. In the presence of unspecified variances, methods such as likelihood-ratio test use sample estimates for ...
Austin Peter C PC Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada Institute of Health Management, Policy and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Schulich Heart Research Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada - - 2014
Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term "bias due to incomplete matching" to describe the bias that ...
Nellis Georgi - - 2014
Estimates of prevalence are known to be affected by the design of cross-sectional studies. A pan-European study provided an opportunity to compare the effect of two cross-sectional study designs on estimates of medicines use. A Service evaluation survey (SES) and a web-based point-prevalence study (PPS) were conducted as part of ...
Shiff Natalie Jane NJ Department of Paediatrics, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0C8, Canada, - - 2014
There is a paucity of published population-based estimates of the prevalence of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the pediatric population. We used administrative health data to estimate the prevalence of chronic inflammatory arthritis in individuals ≤18 years in three Canadian provinces: Quebec, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Cases aged ≤18 years were identified by meeting ...
Ji Ruijun R From the Tiantan Comprehensive Stroke Center, Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (R.J., Y.P., W.D., P.W., G.L., Yilong Wang, H.L., X.Z., Yongjun Wang); China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China (R.J., Y.P., W.D., P.W., G.L., Yilong Wang, H.L., X.Z., Yongjun Wang); and Department of Statistics and Operation Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill - - 2014
We aimed to develop a risk score (intracerebral hemorrhage-associated pneumonia score, ICH-APS) for predicting hospital-acquired stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) after ICH. The ICH-APS was developed based on the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR), in which eligible patients were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and validation (40%) cohorts. Variables routinely collected at ...
Taksler Glen B - - 2014
BackgroundStudies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation.FindingsResearchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and ...
Deter Russell L RL Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine , Houston, TX , USA - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To define modified Prenatal Growth Assessment Scores (mPGAS) for single and composite biometric parameters and determine their reference ranges in normal fetuses. Methods: Nine anatomical parameters (ap) were measured and the weight estimated (EWTa, EWTb) in a longitudinal study of 119 fetuses with normal neonatal growth outcomes. Expected ...
Diesfeldt H F A HF , De Stichtse Hof, Laren, The Netherlands, - - 2014
A BEHAVIOURAL RATING SCALE OF ACTIVITY ENGAGEMENT IN PSYCHOGERIATRIC DAY CARE: The Participation Scale was developed as an observational measure of activity engagement (as rated by group facilitators) of adult day care clients with mild to moderate dementia. In a consecutive sample of 448 subjects Mokken scaling procedure was conducted ...
Mavridis Dimitris D Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece Department of Primary Education, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, - - 2014
Missing outcome data are a common problem in clinical trials and systematic reviews, as it compromises inferences by reducing precision and potentially biasing the results. Systematic reviewers often assume that the missing outcome problem has been resolved at the trial level. However, in many clinical trials a complete case analysis ...
Thommes E W EW Medical Division, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., 7333 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON, Canada L5N 6L4; Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1. Electronic address: - - 2014
Seasonal influenza imposes a significant worldwide health burden each year. Mathematical models help us to understand how changes in vaccination affect this burden. Here, we develop a new dynamic transmission model which directly tracks the four dominant seasonal influenza strains/lineages, and use it to retrospectively examine the impact of the ...
Doménech-Carbó Antonio A Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot (València) (Spain). - - 2014
A method for dating copper/bronze archaeological objects aged in atmospheric environments is proposed based on the specific signals for cuprite and tenorite corrosion products measured through the voltammtry of microparticles method. The tenorite/cuprite ratio increased with the corrosion time and fitted to a potential law that yielded a calibration curve ...
Ralston Kevin - - 2014
There is a growing international literature assessing inequalities in health and mortality by area based measures. However, there are few works comparing measures available to inform research design. The analysis here seeks to begin to address this issue by assessing whether there are important differences in the relationship between deprivation ...
Loux Travis M TM Department of Biostatistics, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, USA - - 2014
Uses of the propensity score to obtain estimates of causal effect have been investigated thoroughly under assumptions of linearity and additivity of exposure effect. When the outcome variable is binary relationships such as collapsibility, valid for the linear model, do not always hold. This article examines uses of the propensity ...
Cisternas Pamela Carmen - - 2014
To further the understanding and implementation of expert elicitation methods in evaluations of public policies related to air pollution, the present study's main goal was to explore the potential strengths and weaknesses of Structured Expert Judgment (SEJ) methodology as a way to derive a C-R function for chronic PM2.5 exposure ...
Cornett Andrew A 1Counsilman Center for the Science of Swimming, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN; 2Eastern Michigan University, School of Health Promotion and Human Performance, Ypsilanti, - - 2014
Anecdotal reports regarding the 2013 FINA World Swimming Championships held in Barcelona suggested that swim performances were biased, presumably due to a current. The purpose of this study was to analyze the swimmers' performance data in order to determine the merit of these rumors. The mean time difference between odd ...
Ksepka Daniel T DT National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, NC 27705; andDepartment of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 - - 2014
Pelagornithidae is an extinct clade of birds characterized by bizarre tooth-like bony projections of the jaws. Here, the flight capabilities of pelagornithids are explored based on data from a species with the largest reported wingspan among birds. Pelagornis sandersi sp. nov. is represented by a skull and substantial postcranial material. ...
Morris Bradley J BJ Department of Lifespan Development and Educational Science, Kent State - - 2014
Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, ...
Sébille Véronique - - 2014
Despite the widespread use of patient-reported Outcomes (PRO) in clinical studies, their design remains a challenge. Justification of study size is hardly provided, especially when a Rasch model is planned for analysing the data in a 2-group comparison study. The classical sample size formula (CLASSIC) for comparing normally distributed endpoints ...
Fuller Gordon Ward GW Emergency Medicine Research in Sheffield Group, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2014
'On the field and on the run' assessments of head impact events in professional rugby have resulted in a high proportion of players subsequently diagnosed with confirmed concussion not leaving the field of play at the time of injury. The International Rugby Board (IRB) consequently developed a process to support ...
Hildebrand Deana A DA Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine whether integrating influence strategies (reciprocation, consistency, consensus, feeling liked, authority, and scarcity) throughout Chickasaw Nation Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics (1) changed participants' perception of the WIC experience and (2) affected breastfeeding initiation rates. Two-part, quasi-experimental design. Four WIC clinics. Parents and ...
Ganidou Maria A MA Unit for Human Reproduction, 1st Dept. of OB/Gyn, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Greece - - 2014
Abstract The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate whether the assessment of AMH and AFC is useful in the prediction of ovarian response in expected normal responders treated with a fixed dose of recombinant FSH (rec-FSH) and GnRH antagonists. A base model including age and basal FSH ...
Hirasawa Hiroyo H Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, - - 2014
Abstract Purpose. To validate the 'Sumi Questionnaire' to estimate quality of vision (QoV) in glaucoma patients using Rasch analysis. Methods. 162 glaucoma patients underwent visual field (VF) testing in both eyes using the Humphrey 24-2 SITA standard program. The binocular VF was then calculated using the integrated VF (IVF) method. ...
Hajna Samantha S Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1020 Pine Avenue West, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is evidence that land use mix based on the Shannon (1948) entropy formula may be misspecified in some studies. The aim of this study was to quantify the bias arising from this misspecification. Spatial coordinates were obtained from Statistics Canada for 9348 unique point locations. Five hundred-metre polygon-based network ...
Ruiz Estrada Mario Arturo MA Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, - - 2014
Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model-the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model-that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards ...
Sanfélix-Gimeno Gabriel G *Department of Medicine, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School †Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA ‡Center for Public Health Research (CSISP-FISABIO, REDISSEC), Valencia, Spain §Aetna, Hartford, CT ∥CVS Caremark, Wooksocket, - - 2014
As an example of the process that could be used to evaluate and optimize the performance of quality measures in routine practice, we evaluated whether the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measure assessing the "persistence of β-blocker treatment after a heart attack" correlates with post-myocardial infarction (MI) outcomes ...
Toh Sengwee S *Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA †Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Denver, CO ‡Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, - - 2014
For privacy and practical reasons, it is sometimes necessary to minimize sharing of individual-level information in multisite studies. However, individual-level information is often needed to perform more rigorous statistical analysis. To compare empirically 3 analytic methods for multisite studies that only require sharing of summary-level information to perform statistical analysis ...
Goldberg D S DS Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Since 2006, waitlist candidates with portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) have been eligible for standardized Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) exception points. However, there are no data evaluating the current POPH exception policy and its implementation. We used Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) data to compare outcomes of patients with ...
van Enst Wynanda A WA Dutch Cochrane Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
To investigate how the summary estimates in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic reviews are affected when searches are limited to MEDLINE. A systematic search was performed to identify DTA reviews that had conducted exhaustive searches and included a meta-analysis. Primary studies included in selected reviews were assessed to determine whether ...
Lyons Heather Z HZ Department of Psychology, Loyola University - - 2014
The present study tested 2 competing, extended models of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) with a sample of 100 economically distressed working African Americans receiving services at a nonprofit community center. Model 1 depicted a mediated model consistent with postulations of the TWA's original theorists. Model 2 depicted a ...
Huang Huifang - - 2014
The inter-patient classification schema and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standards are important to the construction and evaluation of automated heartbeat classification systems. The majority of previously proposed methods that take the above two aspects into consideration use the same features and classification method to classify ...
Jankowski Hanna H Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
The effective dose (ED) is the pharmaceutical dosage required to produce a therapeutic response in a fixed proportion of the patients. When only one drug is considered, the problem is a univariate one and has been well-studied. However, in the multidimensional setting, that is, in the presence of combinations of ...
Sichieri Rosely R Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, - - 2014
Background/Aims: Cluster designs favor unbalanced baseline measures. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of unbalanced baseline BMI on school-based randomized controlled trials (RCT) aimed at obesity reduction and to evaluate the analysis strategies. We hypothesized that the adjustment of unbalanced baseline measures may explain the ...
Xia Jun-Qing JQ Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of - - 2014
The BICEP2 Collaboration reports a detection of primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) B mode with a tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.20_{-0.05}^{+0.07} (68% C.L.). However, this result disagrees with the recent Planck limit r<0.11 (95% C.L.) on constraining inflation models. In this Letter we consider an inflationary cosmology with a preceding nonsingular bounce, which gives ...
Koustas Erica E Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) Post-doctoral Fellow with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy, National Center for Environmental Economics, Washington, DC, - - 2014
In contrast to current methods of "expert-based narrative review", the Navigation Guide is a systematic and transparent method for synthesizing environmental health research from multiple evidence streams. The Navigation Guide was developed to effectively and efficiently translate the available scientific evidence into timely prevention-oriented action. Apply the Navigation Guide systematic ...
Johnson Paula I PI University of California San Francisco, Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, Oakland, California, - - 2014
The Navigation Guide methodology was developed to meet the need for a robust method of systematic and transparent research synthesis in environmental health science. We conducted a case study systematic review to support proof-of-concept of the method. Apply the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology to answer the question: Does developmental ...
Kim Dae Hyun DH Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Geriatric frailty is a common syndrome of older adults that is characterized by increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and influences treatment choice. Pharmacoepidemiologic studies that rely on administrative claims data in older adults are limited by confounding due to unmeasured frailty. A claims-based frailty score may be useful to ...
Mieloszyk Rebecca - - 2014
We develop an approach to quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide concentration in exhaled breath, recorded as a function of time by capnography. The generated waveform - or capnogram - is currently used in clinical practice to establish the presence of respiration as well as determine respiratory rate and end-tidal CO2 ...
Bello Segun S The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Rigshospitalet, Department 7811, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Electronic address: - - 2014
To examine the impact of not blinding outcome assessors on estimates of intervention effects in animal experiments modeling human clinical conditions. We searched PubMed, Biosis, Google Scholar, and HighWire Press and included animal model experiments with both blinded and nonblinded outcome assessors. For each experiment, we calculated the ratio of ...
Ventura Leonardo L Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Florence, - - 2014
We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for the calculation of incidence counts from mortality data by a convolution equation that expresses mortality through its relationship with incidence and the survival probability density. The basic idea is to use mortality data together with an estimate of the survival distribution from cancer ...
Widdifield Jessica - - 2014
We have previously validated administrative data algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using rheumatology clinic records as the reference standard. Here we reassessed the accuracy of the algorithms using primary care records as the reference standard. We performed a retrospective chart abstraction study using a random sample of ...
Washington Chad W CW Departments of Neurological - - 2014
Object Studies using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a large ICD-9-based (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) administrative database, to analyze aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been limited by an inability to control for SAH severity and the use of unverified outcome measures. To address these limitations, the authors developed ...
Quirino Isabel G IG Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, National Institute of Science and Technology (INCT) of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av Alfredo Balena, 190, Belo Horizonte, MG, 30130-100, - - 2014
The antenatal detection of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) has permitted early management of these conditions. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in CAKUT. We also propose a risk score of CKD. In this cohort study, ...
Milligan Craig C World Bank, Washington DC. Electronic address: - - 2014
We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed ...
Sasaki Shunsuke S Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan - - 2014
This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. ...
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