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Bukhari W W School of Electronics Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Deagu, - - 2014
Motion-adaptive radiotherapy aims to deliver a conformal dose to the target tumour with minimal normal tissue exposure by compensating for tumour motion in real time. The prediction as well as the gating of respiratory motion have received much attention over the last two decades for reducing the targeting error of ...
Zanforlin A A Multidisciplinary Area Medical Department San Luca Hospital Trecenta, Rovigo, Italy - - - 2014
Establishing the correct time of weaning from mechanical ventilation is a crucial issue in the clinical practice. The difficult process of weaning can be due to pathological conditions that result in an imbalance between respiratory-muscle strength and respiratory load. Recently it has been suggested that ultrasound measurements of diaphragm muscle ...
Herry C L CL Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa Hospital-General Campus, 501 Smyth Road-Box 708, Ottawa ON K1H 8L6, - - 2014
Variability analysis of respiratory waveforms has been shown to provide key insights into respiratory physiology and has been used successfully to predict clinical outcomes. The current standard for quality assessment of the capnogram signal relies on a visual analysis performed by an expert in order to identify waveform artifacts. Automated ...
van Valkenburgh Blaire B Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, - - 2014
To enhance bite force at the canines, feliform carnivorans have short rostra relative to caniform carnivorans. Rostral reduction in feliforms results in less rostrocaudal space for the maxilloturbinals, the complex set of bones involved in conditioning inspired air and conserving water. It is unknown whether the maxilloturbinals might show adaptations ...
Dong Min M Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations-time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out ...
Kretovich Billmyre Katherine K Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, - - 2014
The alimentary and respiratory organ systems arise from a common endodermal origin, the anterior foregut tube. Formation of the esophagus from the dorsal region and the trachea from the ventral region of the foregut primordium occurs via a poorly understood compartmentalization process. Disruption of this process can result in severe ...
Shamsi Hamed H Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Atatürk University, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey, - - 2014
This work presents a detailed framework to detect the location of heart sound within the respiratory sound based on temporal fuzzy c-means (TFCM) algorithm. In the proposed method, respiratory sound is first divided into frames and for each frame, the logarithmic energy features are calculated. Then, these features are used ...
Badyda A J AJ Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 20 Nowowiejska St., 00-653, Warsaw, Poland, - - 2014
High concentrations of air pollutants are characteristic of the vicinity of urban busy roads. Numerous studies have shown that these concentrations are significantly higher in comparison with areas located in a certain distance from roads and especially those in rural areas. Inhabitants living in the proximity of roads are, therefore, ...
Pannu Sonal R SR 1Division of Pulmonary Care and Critical Medicine, Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH. 2METRIC, Multidisciplinary Epidemiology and Translational Research in Intensive Care, Emergency and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. 3Division of Pulmonary Care and Critical Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL. 4Division of Pulmonary Care and Critical Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. 5Division of Pulmonary Care & Critical Medicine, Guang An Men Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Beijing, China. 6Department of Biostatistics, Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, - - 2014
Patients with severe, persistent hypoxemic respiratory failure have a higher mortality. Early identification is critical for informing clinical decisions, using rescue strategies, and enrollment in clinical trials. The objective of this investigation was to develop and validate a prediction model to accurately and timely identify patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory ...
Broxterman R M RM a Department of Anatomy and Physiology , Kansas State University , Manhattan , KS , - - 2014
Abstract It has previously been suggested that the respiratory compensation point (RCP) and critical speed (CS) parameters are equivalent and, therefore, like CS, RCP demarcates the boundary between the heavy- and severe-intensity domains. However, these findings are equivocal and therefore must be interpreted cautiously. Thus, we examined the relationship between ...
Selinger Jessica C JC Simon Fraser University - - 2014
Respiratory measures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are routinely used to estimate the body's steady state metabolic energy use. However, slow mitochondrial dynamics, long transit times, complex respiratory control mechanisms, and high breath-by-breath variability obscure the relationship between the body's instantaneous energy demands (instantaneous energetic cost) and that measured from ...
McGruder Brenna B Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, - - 2014
Coronaviruses have been studied for over 60 years, but have only recently gained notoriety as deadly human pathogens with the emergence of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome virus. The rapid emergence of these viruses has demonstrated the need for good models to study severe coronavirus respiratory ...
Kogan Aleksandr - - 2014
In the present article, we introduce the quadratic vagal activity-prosociality hypothesis, a theoretical framework for understanding the vagus nerve's involvement in prosociality. We argue that vagus nerve activity supports prosocial behavior by regulating physiological systems that enable emotional expression, empathy for others' mental and emotional states, the regulation of one's ...
Dik Sander S *Centre for Health Protection and Centre for Safety of Substances and Products, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands; James Graham Brown Cancer Center and Department of Medicine and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA *Centre for Health Protection and Centre for Safety of Substances and Products, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands; James Graham Brown Cancer Center and Department of Medicine and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, - - 2014
Low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory sensitizers can cause occupational asthma but due to a lack of adequate test methods, prospective identification of respiratory sensitizers is currently not possible. This paper presents the evaluation of Structure-Activity Relationship models (SARs) as potential methods to prospectively conclude on the sensitization potential of LMW ...
Russell Sara S SS Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK - - 2014
The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of ...
Addison Paul S PS Advanced Research Group, Covidien Respiratory and Monitoring Solutions, The Technopole Centre, Edinburgh, EH26 0PJ, Scotland, UK, - - 2014
DPOP (∆POP or Delta-POP) is a non-invasive parameter which measures the strength of respiratory modulations present in the pulse oximetry photoplethysmogram (pleth) waveform. It has been proposed as a non-invasive surrogate parameter for pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. ...
Bruser Christoph - - 2014
Unobtrusive, long-term monitoring of cardiac (and respiratory) rhythms using only non-invasive vibration sensors mounted in beds promises to unlock new applications in home and low acuity monitoring. This paper presents a novel concept for such a system based on an array of near infrared (NIR) sensors placed underneath a regular ...
Oweis Rami J RJ Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, - - 2014
Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation ...
Li Bangde B Sensory Evaluation Center, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA ; Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering ...
Mauderly Joe L JL Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute , Albuquerque, NM , - - 2014
Abstract The National Environmental Respiratory Center Program was initiated as an experiment to explore strategies for identifying the components of complex air pollution mixtures that cause health effects associated statistically with air pollution. A strategy involving multivariate analysis of a composition-concentration-response database was adopted. A novel database was created by ...
Rankin Scott A SA Division of Developmental Biology, College of Medicine University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2014
Background: Respiratory system development is regulated by a complex series of endoderm - mesoderm interactions that are not fully understood. Recently Xenopus has emerged as an alternative model to investigate early respiratory system development, but the extent to which the morphogenesis and molecular pathways involved are conserved between Xenopus and ...
Winquist Andrea A Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2014
Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) represent a substantial portion of particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and have been associated with adverse health effects. EC and OC are commonly measured using the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method or the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual ...
Johnson Blair T BT a University of Connecticut , Storrs , Connecticut , United - - 2014
Abstract Background: Systematic reviews now routinely assess methodological quality to gauge the validity of the included studies and of the synthesis as a whole. Although trends from higher quality studies should be clearer, it is uncertain how often meta-analyses incorporate methodological quality in models of study results either as predictors, ...
Roelen Corné A M CA ArboNed Occupational Health Service, PO Box 85091, 3508 AB, Utrecht, The Netherlands, - - 2014
Purpose To validate Dutch prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) for ability to predict high SA in Danish eldercare. The added value of work environment variables to the models' risk discrimination was also investigated. Methods 2,562 municipal eldercare workers (95 % women) participated in the Working ...
Keil Alexander P AP From the aDepartment of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; and bDepartment of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, - - 2014
The parametric g-formula can be used to estimate the effect of a policy, intervention, or treatment. Unlike standard regression approaches, the parametric g-formula can be used to adjust for time-varying confounders that are affected by prior exposures. To date, there are few published examples in which the method has been ...
Chen Renjie - - 2014
Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of ...
Naimi Ashley I AI From the aDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; bDepartment of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; and cInstitut national de santé publique du Québec, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2014
Exposure-response curves are central to understanding how continuous exposures relate to health outcomes. Common methods to plot such curves include the use of crude and adjusted regression, with the exposure specified using fractional polynomials or regression splines. These approaches are subject to important limitations. In this article, we illustrate the ...
Perin J J Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, - - 2014
Semi-parametric regression models for the joint estimation of marginal mean and within-cluster pairwise association parameters are used in a variety of settings for population-averaged modeling of multivariate categorical outcomes. Recently, a formulation of alternating logistic regressions based on orthogonalized, marginal residuals has been introduced for correlated binary data. Unlike the ...
Shah Ghafoor - - 2014
We present a method for smart auscultation by proposing a novel blind recovery of the original cardiac and respiratory sounds from a single observation mixture, in the framework of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). The method learns the basis spectra of the mixing sources in unsupervised or semi-supervised fashion depending upon ...
Wittemyer George G Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology and Save the Elephants, Nairobi, Kenya 00200; Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523-1474; - - 2014
Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant ...
Buck Louis Germaine M GM Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Rockville, Maryland, - - 2014
Background: The relation between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality is evolving, though limited data exist for men recruited from general populations. Objectives: To assess the relation between perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning pregnancy. Methods: Utilizing population-based sampling strategies, we recruited 501 ...
Marostica Eleonora E Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 , Pavia, Italy, - - 2014
Asthma is an obstructive lung disease where the mechanism of disease progression is not fully understood hence motivating the use of empirical models to describe the evolution of the patient's health state. With reference to placebo response, measured in terms of FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s), a range of ...
Carey Mary-Katherine MK New England Center for Children and Western New England - - 2014
Continuous and discontinuous data-collection methods were compared in the context of discrete-trial programming. Archival data sets were analyzed using trial sampling (1st 5 trials, 1st 3 trials, and 1st trial only) and session sampling (every other session, every 3rd session, and every 5th session). Results showed that trial sampling systematically ...
Siegel Michael M Michael Siegel, Yamrot Negussie, Sarah Vanture, and Jane Pleskunas are with the Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Craig S. Ross is with Virtual Media Resources, Natick, MA. Charles King III is with Greylock McKinnon Associates, Cambridge, MA, and Pleiades Consulting Group, Lincoln, - - 2014
Objectives. We examined the relationship between gun ownership and stranger versus nonstranger homicide rates. Methods. Using data from the Supplemental Homicide Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports for all 50 states for 1981 to 2010, we modeled stranger and nonstranger homicide rates as a function of ...
Novelli A A Atmospheric Chemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany. - - 2014
The syn-CH3CHOO Criegee intermediate formed from the ozonolysis of propene and (E)-2-butene was detected via unimolecular decomposition and subsequent detection of OH radicals by a LIF-FAGE instrument. An observed time dependent OH concentration profile was analysed using a detailed model focusing on the speciated chemistry of Criegee intermediates based on ...
Braga-Neto Ulisses M UM Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, - - 2014
It is commonly assumed in pattern recognition that cross-validation error estimation is "almost unbiased" so long as the number of folds is not too small. While this is true for random sampling, it is not true with separate sampling, where the populations are independently sampled, a common situation in Bioinformatics. ...
Johnson Candice Y CY From the aRollins School of Public Health and Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; and bNational Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, - - 2014
Results of bias analyses for exposure misclassification are dependent on assumptions made during analysis. We describe how adjustment for misclassification is affected by incorrect assumptions about whether sensitivity and specificity are the same (nondifferential) or different (differential) for cases and noncases. We adjusted for exposure misclassification using probabilistic bias analysis, ...
McNeish Daniel M - - 2014
Recent studies have investigated the small sample properties of models for clustered data, such as multilevel models and generalized estimating equations. These studies have focused on parameter bias when the number of clusters is small, but very few studies have addressed the methods' properties with sparse data: a small number ...
Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T - - 2014
To estimate the amount of regret and weights of harm by omission and commission during therapeutic decisions for smear-negative pulmonary Tuberculosis. An interviewer-administered survey was done among young physicians in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh with a previously used questionnaire. The physicians were asked to estimate probabilities of morbidity and mortality ...
Haverkort Elizabeth B EB Department of Dietetics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands - - 2014
Background: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a method used to estimate body compartments such as fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Two BIA devices, a single-frequency BIA (SF-BIA) device and a bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) approach, were compared to evaluate their reliability and to study whether their estimations resulted in ...
Colombo Valeria C VC Laboratorio de Ecología de Enfermedades (LEcEn), ICIVET LITORAL (UNL-CONICET), R.P. Kreder 2805, CP 3080, Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this study we analyzed seasonal trends of immature stages of Ixodes loricatus parasitizing Akodon azarae (Sigmodontinae) in a locality of the Paraná Delta, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The data encompassed two consecutive years and the analysis included the control of potential confounders using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) with a ...
Thomas Daniel B DB Department of Vertebrate Zoology, MRC-116, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD 20746, USA Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand - - 2014
The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have ...
Yang Manshu M Health and Social Development Program, American Institute for Research, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2014
We analytically derive the fixed-effects estimates in unconditional linear growth curve models by typical linear mixed-effects modelling (TLME) and by a pattern-mixture (PM) approach with random-slope-dependent two-missing-pattern missing not at random (MNAR) longitudinal data. Results showed that when the missingness mechanism is random-slope-dependent MNAR, TLME estimates of both the mean ...
Lin Xiaoyan X Department of Statistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA, - - 2014
The proportional hazards (PH) model is the most widely used semiparametric regression model for analyzing right-censored survival data based on the partial likelihood method. However, the partial likelihood does not exist for interval-censored data due to the complexity of the data structure. In this paper, we focus on general interval-censored ...
Boers A M AM From the Departments of Radiology (A.M.B., I.A.Z., R.v.d.B., H.A.M., C.B.M.) and Biomedical Engineering and Physics (A.M.B., H.A.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Institute of Technical Medicine (A.M.B.) and MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine (C.H.S.), University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; and Department of Neurology (C.S.G.), University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. - - 2014
Quantification of blood after SAH on initial NCCT is an important radiologic measure to predict patient outcome and guide treatment decisions. In current scales, hemorrhage volume and density are not accounted for. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a fully automatic method for SAH volume and ...
Sutter R R Clinic of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Division of Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Division of Neuroscience Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Status epilepticus (SE) refractory to first- and second-line antiepileptic drugs carries high mortality. Little is known on early prediction of refractory SE (RSE) - an essential tool for planning appropriate therapy. Our aim was to identify and validate independent early RSE predictors in adults. Clinical and laboratory data on consecutive ...
Royston Patrick - - 2014
Most randomized controlled trials with a time-to-event outcome are designed and analysed under theproportional hazards assumption, with a target hazard ratio for the treatment effect in mind. However,the hazards may be non-proportional. We address how to design a trial under such conditions, andhow to analyse the results. We propose to ...
Zhen Chen C Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, People's Republic of China Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of - - 2014
Background. Accurate determination and detection of fever is essential in the appropriate treatment of pediatric population. It is widely known that improper definitions of fever can cause grave and dangerous consequences in medical procedures. Infrared tympanic thermometry seems a relatively new and popular alternative for traditional measurement in the diagnosis ...
Lewis Kevin M KM Baxter Healthcare Corporation, One Baxter Parkway, Deerfield, IL 60015, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Purpose: Currently available hemostatic pads are effective in treating oozing bleeds, but otherwise ineffective in more severe bleeding. This study investigates the hemostatic efficacy of a new hemostatic pad with advanced sealing properties using protein-reactive polyethylene glycol-coated collagen (PCC, Hemopatch) versus an oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC, Tabotamp/Surgicel Original) in a ...
McDonald Catherine C CC University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, Center for Global Women's Health, Center for Health Equity Research, Claire Fagin Hall, 418 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4217, USA; Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3535 Market Street, Suite 1150, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent ...
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