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Li Bangde B Sensory Evaluation Center, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA ; Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering ...
Thomas Daniel B DB Department of Vertebrate Zoology, MRC-116, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD 20746, USA Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand - - 2014
The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have ...
Ryen Linda L Department of Economics, Karlstad University, Karlstad, - - 2014
There has been a rapid increase in the use of cost-effectiveness analysis, with quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as an outcome measure, in evaluating both medical technologies and public health interventions. Alongside, there is a growing literature on the monetary value of a QALY based on estimates of the willingness ...
Wijnands José M A JM Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands, - - 2014
Studies on the occurrence of gout show a large range in estimates. However, a clear insight into the factors responsible for this variation in estimates is lacking. Therefore, our aim was to review the literature on the prevalence and incidence of gout systematically and to obtain insight into the degree ...
Navarro-Compán Victoria V Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain, Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Amsterdam Rheumatology Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Department of Rheumatology, Atrium Medical Center Heerlen, Heerlen, The Netherlands, Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, National Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, National Advisory Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands and Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada, Portugal.Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain, Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Amsterdam Rheumatology Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Department of Rheumatology, Atrium Medical Center Heerlen, Heerlen, The Netherlands, Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, National Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, National Advisory Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands and Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada, Portugal. - - 2014
The aim of this study was to assess if any of the different types of radiographic damage [true joint space narrowing (JSN), (sub)luxation and erosions] are preferentially related to disability in patients with RA. Longitudinal data from 167 RA patients from the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support ...
Jackson Dan D MRC Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0SR, - - 2014
The Cox proportional hazards model is frequently used in medical statistics. The standard methods for fitting this model rely on the assumption of independent censoring. Although this is sometimes plausible, we often wish to explore how robust our inferences are as this untestable assumption is relaxed. We describe how this ...
Keir Daniel A DA Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging School of Kinesiology, - - 2014
To improve the signal-to-noise ratio of breath-by-breath pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2p) data it is common practice to perform multiple step-transitions which are subsequently processed to yield an ensemble-averaged profile. The effect of different data processing techniques on phase II VO2p kinetic parameter estimates (VO2p amplitude, time delay [TD], and phase ...
Bor Jacob J From the aDepartment of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA; bAfrica Centre for Health and Population Studies, Somkhele, South Africa; cDepartment of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; and dFaculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United - - 2014
When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its ...
Sundvor Ingrid I NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Instituttveien 18, Kjeller 2027, - - 2014
This study shows the results obtained from emission and air dispersion modelling of acetaldehyde in the city of Oslo and associated with the circulation of bioethanol vehicles. Two scenarios of bioethanol implementation, both realistic and hypothetical, have been considered under winter conditions; 1) realistic baseline scenario, which corresponds to the ...
Lopes-Costa Tânia T Departamento de Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera km 1, 41013 Sevilla, - - 2014
A photochromic system based on dracoflavylium, a natural pigment extracted from Dragon's blood, a resin appearing in the injury parts of the tree Dracaena draco, is studied in water. The photochromism arises from the irradiation of the trans-chalcone, giving a mixture of flavylium cation/quinoidal base as a photoproduct via cis-chalcone ...
Perrakis Konstantinos K Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, - - 2014
An important topic when estimating the effect of air pollutants on human health is choosing the best method to control for seasonal patterns and time varying confounders, such as temperature and humidity. Semi-parametric Poisson time-series models include smooth functions of calendar time and weather effects to control for potential confounders. ...
Althuis Michelle D - - 2014
Assessment of design heterogeneity conducted prior to meta-analysis is infrequently reported; it is often presented post hoc to explain statistical heterogeneity. However, design heterogeneity determines the mix of included studies and how they are analyzed in a meta-analysis, which in turn can importantly influence the results. The goal of this ...
R S Freitas Lúcia L Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Tropical, Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, - - 2014
To analyse the ecological association between the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the Brazilian municipalities and average leprosy incidence rate in the period 2009-2011. An ecological study taking the Brazilian municipalities as its units of analysis. The local empirical Bayes estimation method was used to obtain smoothed incidence rates (SIR) ...
Rushton Paula W PW School of Occupational Therapy, Université de Montréal , Montréal, QC , Canada - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The objectives of this study were to: (1) translate the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Manual Wheelchair Users (WheelCon-M) into a French-Canadian version (WheelCon-M-F); and (2) evaluate the WheelCon-M-F validity evidence based on response processes, internal structure, and relations with other variables. Methods: The WheelCon-M was translated from ...
Villani Anthony Michael AM Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, - - 2014
accurate and practical assessment methods for assessing appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) is of clinical importance for the diagnosis of geriatric syndromes associated with skeletal muscle wasting. the purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate novel anthropometric prediction equations for the estimate of ASM in older adults post-surgical fixation ...
Welsh Alan H AH 1Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia 2Performance Research, Australian Institute of Sport, PO Box 176, Belconnen ACT, - - 2014
We consider "magnitude-based inference" and its interpretation by examining in detail its use in the problem of comparing two means. We extract from the spreadsheets which are provided to users of the analysis (http://www.sportsci.org/) a precise description of how "magnitude-based inference" is implemented. We compare the implemented version of the ...
Safari Leila L Health Language Laboratories, School of Information Technology, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Computer Engineering, The University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2014
To elevate the level of care to the community it is essential to provide usable tools for healthcare professionals to extract knowledge from clinical data. In this paper a generic translation algorithm is proposed to translate a restricted natural language query (RNLQ) to a standard query language like SQL (Structured ...
Hopenfeld Bruce B Angel Medical Systems, Inc. , Shrewsbury, NJ , - - 2014
Abstract Most existing heart beat detection algorithms serially process peaks, which can be either noise or true beats. Serial processing can result in inaccurate detections in the context of high noise. The proposed method relies on the relative regularity of sinus rhythm RR interval changes to select the best sequences ...
Winquist Andrea A aDepartment of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; bNational Center for Environmental Assessment, Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, NC; cDepartment of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; and dSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, - - 2014
Because ambient air pollution exposure occurs as mixtures, consideration of joint effects of multiple pollutants may advance our understanding of the health effects of air pollution. We assessed the joint effect of air pollutants on pediatric asthma emergency department visits in Atlanta during 1998-2004. We selected combinations of pollutants that ...
Nelson Kyle S KS 1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN 2Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center (BDAC), Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI), School of Public Health, University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, Minneapolis, MN 3Department of Neurosurgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Section of Neurosurgery, Omaha, - - 2014
The methods of evidence-based medicine are a relatively recent development in the understanding of clinical practice. They are criticized as not providing support for interventions long held to be highly effective based on experience that predated the availability of evidence-based analysis. To determine if the methods of evidence-based medicine can ...
Xu Siyan S a Boston University Biostatistics Department , 801 Massachusetts Avenue , Boston , MA , - - 2014
Abstract Equivalence trials aim to demonstrate that new and standard treatments are equivalent within pre-defined clinically relevant limits. We focus when inference of equivalence is made in terms of the ratio of two normal means. In the presence of unspecified variances, methods such as likelihood-ratio test use sample estimates for ...
Austin Peter C PC Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada Institute of Health Management, Policy and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Schulich Heart Research Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada - - 2014
Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term "bias due to incomplete matching" to describe the bias that ...
Nellis Georgi - - 2014
Estimates of prevalence are known to be affected by the design of cross-sectional studies. A pan-European study provided an opportunity to compare the effect of two cross-sectional study designs on estimates of medicines use. A Service evaluation survey (SES) and a web-based point-prevalence study (PPS) were conducted as part of ...
Shiff Natalie Jane NJ Department of Paediatrics, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0C8, Canada, - - 2014
There is a paucity of published population-based estimates of the prevalence of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the pediatric population. We used administrative health data to estimate the prevalence of chronic inflammatory arthritis in individuals ≤18 years in three Canadian provinces: Quebec, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Cases aged ≤18 years were identified by meeting ...
Ji Ruijun R From the Tiantan Comprehensive Stroke Center, Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (R.J., Y.P., W.D., P.W., G.L., Yilong Wang, H.L., X.Z., Yongjun Wang); China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China (R.J., Y.P., W.D., P.W., G.L., Yilong Wang, H.L., X.Z., Yongjun Wang); and Department of Statistics and Operation Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill - - 2014
We aimed to develop a risk score (intracerebral hemorrhage-associated pneumonia score, ICH-APS) for predicting hospital-acquired stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) after ICH. The ICH-APS was developed based on the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR), in which eligible patients were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and validation (40%) cohorts. Variables routinely collected at ...
Taksler Glen B - - 2014
BackgroundStudies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation.FindingsResearchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and ...
Deter Russell L RL Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine , Houston, TX , USA - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To define modified Prenatal Growth Assessment Scores (mPGAS) for single and composite biometric parameters and determine their reference ranges in normal fetuses. Methods: Nine anatomical parameters (ap) were measured and the weight estimated (EWTa, EWTb) in a longitudinal study of 119 fetuses with normal neonatal growth outcomes. Expected ...
Diesfeldt H F A HF , De Stichtse Hof, Laren, The Netherlands, - - 2014
A BEHAVIOURAL RATING SCALE OF ACTIVITY ENGAGEMENT IN PSYCHOGERIATRIC DAY CARE: The Participation Scale was developed as an observational measure of activity engagement (as rated by group facilitators) of adult day care clients with mild to moderate dementia. In a consecutive sample of 448 subjects Mokken scaling procedure was conducted ...
Mavridis Dimitris D Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece Department of Primary Education, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, - - 2014
Missing outcome data are a common problem in clinical trials and systematic reviews, as it compromises inferences by reducing precision and potentially biasing the results. Systematic reviewers often assume that the missing outcome problem has been resolved at the trial level. However, in many clinical trials a complete case analysis ...
Thommes E W EW Medical Division, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., 7333 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON, Canada L5N 6L4; Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1. Electronic address: - - 2014
Seasonal influenza imposes a significant worldwide health burden each year. Mathematical models help us to understand how changes in vaccination affect this burden. Here, we develop a new dynamic transmission model which directly tracks the four dominant seasonal influenza strains/lineages, and use it to retrospectively examine the impact of the ...
Doménech-Carbó Antonio A Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot (València) (Spain). - - 2014
A method for dating copper/bronze archaeological objects aged in atmospheric environments is proposed based on the specific signals for cuprite and tenorite corrosion products measured through the voltammtry of microparticles method. The tenorite/cuprite ratio increased with the corrosion time and fitted to a potential law that yielded a calibration curve ...
Loux Travis M TM Department of Biostatistics, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, USA - - 2014
Uses of the propensity score to obtain estimates of causal effect have been investigated thoroughly under assumptions of linearity and additivity of exposure effect. When the outcome variable is binary relationships such as collapsibility, valid for the linear model, do not always hold. This article examines uses of the propensity ...
Ralston Kevin - - 2014
There is a growing international literature assessing inequalities in health and mortality by area based measures. However, there are few works comparing measures available to inform research design. The analysis here seeks to begin to address this issue by assessing whether there are important differences in the relationship between deprivation ...
Cisternas Pamela Carmen - - 2014
To further the understanding and implementation of expert elicitation methods in evaluations of public policies related to air pollution, the present study's main goal was to explore the potential strengths and weaknesses of Structured Expert Judgment (SEJ) methodology as a way to derive a C-R function for chronic PM2.5 exposure ...
Cornett Andrew A 1Counsilman Center for the Science of Swimming, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN; 2Eastern Michigan University, School of Health Promotion and Human Performance, Ypsilanti, - - 2014
Anecdotal reports regarding the 2013 FINA World Swimming Championships held in Barcelona suggested that swim performances were biased, presumably due to a current. The purpose of this study was to analyze the swimmers' performance data in order to determine the merit of these rumors. The mean time difference between odd ...
Ksepka Daniel T DT National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, NC 27705; andDepartment of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 - - 2014
Pelagornithidae is an extinct clade of birds characterized by bizarre tooth-like bony projections of the jaws. Here, the flight capabilities of pelagornithids are explored based on data from a species with the largest reported wingspan among birds. Pelagornis sandersi sp. nov. is represented by a skull and substantial postcranial material. ...
Morris Bradley J BJ Department of Lifespan Development and Educational Science, Kent State - - 2014
Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, ...
Sébille Véronique - - 2014
Despite the widespread use of patient-reported Outcomes (PRO) in clinical studies, their design remains a challenge. Justification of study size is hardly provided, especially when a Rasch model is planned for analysing the data in a 2-group comparison study. The classical sample size formula (CLASSIC) for comparing normally distributed endpoints ...
Fuller Gordon Ward GW Emergency Medicine Research in Sheffield Group, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2014
'On the field and on the run' assessments of head impact events in professional rugby have resulted in a high proportion of players subsequently diagnosed with confirmed concussion not leaving the field of play at the time of injury. The International Rugby Board (IRB) consequently developed a process to support ...
Hildebrand Deana A DA Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine whether integrating influence strategies (reciprocation, consistency, consensus, feeling liked, authority, and scarcity) throughout Chickasaw Nation Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics (1) changed participants' perception of the WIC experience and (2) affected breastfeeding initiation rates. Two-part, quasi-experimental design. Four WIC clinics. Parents and ...
Ganidou Maria A MA Unit for Human Reproduction, 1st Dept. of OB/Gyn, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Greece - - 2014
Abstract The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate whether the assessment of AMH and AFC is useful in the prediction of ovarian response in expected normal responders treated with a fixed dose of recombinant FSH (rec-FSH) and GnRH antagonists. A base model including age and basal FSH ...
Hirasawa Hiroyo H Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, - - 2014
Abstract Purpose. To validate the 'Sumi Questionnaire' to estimate quality of vision (QoV) in glaucoma patients using Rasch analysis. Methods. 162 glaucoma patients underwent visual field (VF) testing in both eyes using the Humphrey 24-2 SITA standard program. The binocular VF was then calculated using the integrated VF (IVF) method. ...
Hajna Samantha S Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1020 Pine Avenue West, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is evidence that land use mix based on the Shannon (1948) entropy formula may be misspecified in some studies. The aim of this study was to quantify the bias arising from this misspecification. Spatial coordinates were obtained from Statistics Canada for 9348 unique point locations. Five hundred-metre polygon-based network ...
Ruiz Estrada Mario Arturo MA Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, - - 2014
Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model-the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model-that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards ...
Sanfélix-Gimeno Gabriel G *Department of Medicine, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School †Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA ‡Center for Public Health Research (CSISP-FISABIO, REDISSEC), Valencia, Spain §Aetna, Hartford, CT ∥CVS Caremark, Wooksocket, - - 2014
As an example of the process that could be used to evaluate and optimize the performance of quality measures in routine practice, we evaluated whether the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measure assessing the "persistence of β-blocker treatment after a heart attack" correlates with post-myocardial infarction (MI) outcomes ...
Toh Sengwee S *Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA †Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Denver, CO ‡Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, - - 2014
For privacy and practical reasons, it is sometimes necessary to minimize sharing of individual-level information in multisite studies. However, individual-level information is often needed to perform more rigorous statistical analysis. To compare empirically 3 analytic methods for multisite studies that only require sharing of summary-level information to perform statistical analysis ...
Goldberg D S DS Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Since 2006, waitlist candidates with portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) have been eligible for standardized Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) exception points. However, there are no data evaluating the current POPH exception policy and its implementation. We used Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) data to compare outcomes of patients with ...
van Enst Wynanda A WA Dutch Cochrane Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
To investigate how the summary estimates in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic reviews are affected when searches are limited to MEDLINE. A systematic search was performed to identify DTA reviews that had conducted exhaustive searches and included a meta-analysis. Primary studies included in selected reviews were assessed to determine whether ...
Lyons Heather Z HZ Department of Psychology, Loyola University - - 2014
The present study tested 2 competing, extended models of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) with a sample of 100 economically distressed working African Americans receiving services at a nonprofit community center. Model 1 depicted a mediated model consistent with postulations of the TWA's original theorists. Model 2 depicted a ...
Zhang Yuan - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to explore the population pharmacokinetic features of levofloxacin in Chinese infected patients. A total of 27 Chinese adult infected patients were treated with intravenous levofloxacin (500 mg/day). In total, 49 plasma samples of levofloxacin were collected immediately after intravenous dripping and before administration on ...
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