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Warnock Rachel C M RC School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, NC, USA Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA - - 2015
Calibration is the rate-determining step in every molecular clock analysis and, hence, considerable effort has been expended in the development of approaches to distinguish good from bad calibrations. These can be categorized into a priori evaluation of the intrinsic fossil evidence, and a posteriori evaluation of congruence through cross-validation. We ...
Macernis Mindaugas - - 2014
We report here the resonance Raman spectra and the quantum chemical calculations of the Raman spectra for β-carotene and 13,13'-diphenyl-β-carotene. The first aim of this approach was to test the robustness of the method used for modeling β-carotene, and assess whether it could accurately predict the vibrational properties of derivatives ...
Ma Xiaoye - - 2014
A recent paper proposed an intent-to-diagnose approach to handle non-evaluable index test resultsand discussed several alternative approaches, with an application to the meta-analysis of coronary CTangiography diagnostic accuracy studies. However, no simulation studies have been conducted to testthe performance of the methods. We propose an extended trivariate generalized linear mixed ...
Lupton Emily J EJ Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, - - 2014
The pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum remain challenging for experimental research in part due to limited access of sporozoites. An important factor limiting availability is the laboratory support required for producing infected mosquitoes and the ephemeral nature of isolated extracellular sporozoites. This study was undertaken to investigate ...
Doyle Heather H Biomechanics Research Centre (BMEC), Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, Ireland, - - 2014
A multiscale modelling methodology to predict the macroscale stiffness of selective laser sintered polycaprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) materials is evaluated. The relationship between a micromechanics-evaluated composite material elastic modulus (E eff) and segment grey-value (GVave) is established for a 90/10 wt% PCL/β-TCP material and compared to the previously established E eff ...
Seneviratne Udaya U *Department of Neuroscience, Monash Medical Centre, Victoria, Australia; and †Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, - - 2014
The advent of digital EEG has provided greater flexibility and more opportunities in data analysis to optimize the diagnostic yield. Changing the filter settings, sensitivity, montages, and time-base are possible rational manipulations to achieve this goal. The options to use polygraphy, video, and quantification are additional useful features. Aliasing and ...
Chandrasekharan Sanjay S Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Tata Institute of Fundamental - - 2014
Novel computational representations, such as simulation models of complex systems and video games for scientific discovery (Foldit, EteRNA etc.), are dramatically changing the way discoveries emerge in science and engineering. The cognitive roles played by such computational representations in discovery are not well understood. We present a theoretical analysis of ...
Badu-Tawiah Abraham K AK Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. - - 2014
Diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings require technologies that are affordable and easy to use with minimal infrastructure. Colorimetric detection methods that produce results that are readable by eye, without reliance on specialized and expensive equipment, have great utility in these settings. We report a colorimetric method that integrates a paper-based ...
Khabipova Diana D Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, - - 2014
The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined ...
Ming Yansheng - - 2014
Salient contour detection can benefit from integration of both contour cues and region cues. However, this task is difficult due to different nature of region representations and contour representations. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an energy minimization framework based on winding number constraints. In this framework, both region ...
Diemoz Paul C - - 2014
Edge illumination (EI) has emerged as an X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCi) modality which could present significant advantages in terms of translation to clinical and laboratory applications. In this paper, we model its signal through the use of the "transport of intensity" equation. The validity conditions for this approach and its ...
Maniatis Lydia M LM 4 Profitou Ilia St., Drosia, 14572, Greece. Electronic address: - - 2014
The anchoring theory proposed to unify contrast and constancy has explained neither.
Jiang Jing J Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, - - 2014
Quantifying flow from phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) data requires that the vessels of interest be segmented. This estimate of the vessel area will dictate the type and magnitude of the error sources that affect the flow measurement. These sources of errors are well understood and mathematical expressions have been derived for ...
Ferrie Christopher C Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, - - 2014
We introduce a self-learning tomographic technique in which the experiment guides itself to an estimate of its own state. Self-guided quantum tomography uses measurements to directly test hypotheses in an iterative algorithm which converges to the true state. We demonstrate through simulation on many qubits that Self-guided quantum tomography is ...
Shao Qing Q Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195, - - 2014
Zwitterionic materials have moieties possessing cationic and anionic groups. This molecular structure leads to unique properties that can be the solutions of various application problems. A typical example is that zwitterionic carboxybetaine (CB) and sulfobetaine (SB) materials resist nonspecific protein adsorption in complex media. Considering the vast number of cationic ...
Kuhner Mary K MK Department of Genome Sciences, Box 355065, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5065, USA - - 2014
The phylogenetic literature contains numerous measures for assessing differences between two phylogenetic trees. Individual measures have been criticized on various grounds, but little is known about their comparative performance in typical applications. We evaluate the performance of nine tree distance measures on two tasks: (1) distinguishing trees separated by lesser ...
Ruf Irina I Steinmann-Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Nussallee 8, 53115, Bonn, Germany; Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt, Abteilung Palāoanthropologie und Messelforschung, Sektion Mammalogie, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt am Main, - - 2014
In order to elucidate the systematic relevance of the turbinal skeleton in Lagomorpha the ethmoidal regions of 6 ochotonid, 21 leporid, and 2 outgroup species (Sciurus vulgaris, Tupaia sp.) species were investigated by high-resolution computed tomography (μCT). Number and shape of turbinals correspond to major clades and to several genera. ...
Gasda Patrick J - - 2014
We propose a robust technique called Savitzky-Golay second-derivative (SGSD) fitting for modeling the in situ Raman spectrum of graphitic materials in rock samples such as carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. In contrast to non-derivative techniques, with assumed locally linear or nth-order polynomial fluorescence backgrounds, SGSD produces consistently good fits of spectra with ...
Ying Ye - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate in-line Raman spectroscopy for monitoring the progress of particle size reduction in real time during wet-stirred media milling of two Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class II drugs, griseofulvin and naproxen. To develop a validated online Raman method, Raman analyses were carried out ...
Park So-Yeon SY Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea; Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea; Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea; and Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Republic of - - 2014
Texture analysis on fluence maps was performed to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. A total of six textural features including angular second moment, inverse difference moment, contrast, variance, correlation, and entropy were calculated for fluence maps generated from 20 prostate and 20 head ...
Schlattmann Peter P Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Bachstraße 18, 07743 Jena, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Bivariate linear and generalized linear random effects are frequently used to perform a diagnostic meta-analysis. The objective of this article was to apply a finite mixture model of bivariate normal distributions that can be used for the construction of componentwise summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curves. Bivariate linear random effects ...
Pérez Granda María Jesús MJ CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias-CIBERES (CB06/06/0058), Madrid, Spain; Cardiac Surgery Postoperative Care Unit, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, - - 2014
Clear differentiation of arterial and intravenous (IV) lines is a safety strategy recommended by the World Health Organization, and signaling stickers attached to IV lines are implemented in many institutions. However, the risk of colonization of the stickers' surface has not been evaluated. Our objective was to assess the colonization ...
Tsang Althea S-K AS Institute of Organic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52056 Aachen - - 2014
This article showcases three major uses of computational chemistry in reactivity studies: the application after, in combination with, and before experiment. Following a brief introduction of suitable computational tools, challenges and opportunities in the implementation of computational chemistry in reactivity studies are discussed, exemplified with selected case studies from our ...
Laglbauer Betty J L BJ Ghent University, Marine Biology Research Group, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed ...
Dorkó Zsanett Z Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Szent Gellert ter 4., H-1111 Budapest, - - 2015
Selectivity is extremely important in analytical chemistry but its definition is elusive despite continued efforts by professional organizations and individual scientists. This paper shows that the existing selectivity concepts for univariate analytical methods broadly fall in two classes: selectivity concepts based on measurement error and concepts based on response surfaces ...
Maki Bloomquist A K AK Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, - - 2014
A reader study was conducted to tune the parameters of an observer model used to predict the detectability index (d' ) of test objects as a task-based quality control (QC) metric for digital mammography. A simple test phantom was imaged to measure the model parameters, namely, noise power spectrum, modulation transfer ...
Moses W W WW Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2014
Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of ...
Brynolfsson Patrik P Department of Radiation Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate, using simulations, a method for improved contrast agent (CA) quantification in DCE-MRI. We developed a maximum likelihood estimator that combines the phase signal in the DCE-MRI image series with an additional CA estimate, e.g. the estimate obtained from magnitude data. A number ...
Izadi Saeed S Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Department of Computer Science, and Departments of Computer Science and Physics, Virginia Tech , Blacksburg, Virginia 24060, United - - 2014
Simplified classical water models are currently an indispensable component in practical atomistic simulations. Yet, despite several decades of intense research, these models are still far from perfect. Presented here is an alternative approach to constructing widely used point charge water models. In contrast to the conventional approach, we do not ...
Jagtap Pratik Dilip - - 2014
Proteogenomics combines large-scale genomic and transcriptomic data with mass spectrometry-based proteomic data to discover novel protein sequence variants and improve genome annotation. In contrast to conventional proteomic applications, proteogenomic analysis requires a number of additional data processing steps. Ideally, these required steps would be integrated and automated via a single ...
Si Dong D Department of Computer Science, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, - - 2014
Major secondary structure elements such as α helices and β sheets can be computationally detected from cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps with medium resolutions of 5-10 Å. However, a critical piece of information for modeling atomic structures is missing, because there are no tools to detect β strands from cryo-EM maps ...
Rohr Rudolf P RP Integrative Ecology Group, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla, - - 2014
Abstract Recent studies have shown a phylogenetic signal in the structure of ecological networks, making the point that evolutionary history is important in explaining network architecture. However, this previous work has focused on either antagonistic (i.e., predator-prey) or mutualistic networks and has used different methodologies. Thus, a comparative assessment of ...
Falcy Matthew R MR Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, 4034 Fairview Industrial Dr SE., Salem, OR, USA, - - 2014
1.An extensive body of theory suggests that density-dependent habitat selection drives many fundamental ecological processes. The ideal free distribution and the ideal despotic distribution make contrasting predictions about the effect of total population size on relative abundances among habitats. Empirical assessment of these habitat selection models is uncommon because data ...
Kunz Michael M Goethe University Frankfurt, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences and Institute for Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, - - 2014
In tomography, the quality of the reconstruction is essential because the complete cascade of the subsequent analysis is based on it. To date, weighted back-projection (WBP) has been the most commonly used technique due to its versatility and performance in sub-tomogram averaging. Here we present super-sampling SART that is based ...
Elliot Michael G MG Human Evolutionary Studies Program, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada V5A 1S6. Electronic address: - - 2014
Inferences about the evolution of continuous traits based on reconstruction of ancestral states have often been considered more error-prone than analysis of independent contrasts. Here we show that both methods in fact yield identical estimators for the correlation coefficient and regression gradient of correlated traits, indicating that reconstructed ancestral states ...
Sun Guoxiang G College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, - - 2014
This paper aims to establish the infrared spectrum fingerprint (IRFP) in the absorbing region of 4,000-400 cm(-1) and its first derivative infrared spectrum fingerprints (d-IRFP) of ginkgo tablet (GT). And set up theories of the digitized and quantified evaluating method for super information characteristics by IRFPs of traditional Chinese medicine ...
Chu Dominique D School of Computing, University of Kent, CT2 7NF, Canterbury, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Amorphous computing is a non-standard computing paradigm that relies on massively parallel execution of computer code by a large number of small, spatially distributed, weakly-interacting processing units. Over the last decade or so, amorphous computing has attracted a great deal of interest both as an alternative model of computing and ...
Wang Hui H Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, California 94304 - - 2014
We present a novel semiparametric method for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in experimental crosses. Conventional genetic mapping methods typically assume parametric models with Gaussian errors and obtain parameter estimates through maximum-likelihood estimation. In contrast with univariate regression and interval-mapping methods, our model requires fewer assumptions and also accommodates various ...
Cordue Paul P Biomathematics Research Centre, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, - - 2014
In the last decade, the use of phylogenetic networks to analyze the evolution of species whose past is likely to include reticulation events, such as horizontal gene transfer or hybridization, has gained popularity among evolutionary biologists. Nevertheless, the evolution of a particular gene can generally be described without reticulation events ...
Johnston Matthew W MW National Coral Reef Institute, Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center, 8000 North Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, FL 33004, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
The Atlantic invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/P. miles) has been as swift as it has been disastrous. Lionfish are non-native to the Mediterranean, but an invasion is perhaps even more likely than for the Atlantic. First, as for the Atlantic, there are many major cities on the coast of ...
Piai Vitória V Department of Psychology and the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA; Radboud University Nijmegen, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The - - 2014
When making statistical comparisons, the temporal dimension of the EEG signal introduces problems. Guthrie and Buchwald (1991) proposed a formally correct statistical approach that deals with these problems: comparing waveforms by counting the number of successive significant univariate tests and then contrasting this number to a well-chosen critical value. However, ...
Glöckner Andreas A Department of Psychology, University of Göttingen, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is broad consensus that human cognition is adaptive. However, the vital question of how exactly this adaptivity is achieved has remained largely open. Herein, we contrast two frameworks which account for adaptive decision making, namely broad and general single-mechanism accounts vs. multi-strategy accounts. We propose and fully specify a ...
Alves-Rausch José J Sartorius Stedim Biotech GmbH, August-Spindler-Str. 11, 37079 Goettingen, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
NIR spectroscopy was used to monitor Bacillus fermentations in 50m(3) reactors under harsh industrial conditions. The BioPAT(®) Spectro NIR sensor was attached directly to the bioreactor and provided fast, sensitive, non-destructive and robust measurements without interfering with the microorganism metabolism. Multivariate data analysis techniques related the spectra collected in real ...
Tsukada Hiromichi H Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) frequently experience visual hallucination (VH), which has been aptly described as people seeing things that are not there. The distinctive character of VH in DLB necessitates a new theory of visual cognition. We have conducted a series of studies with the aim to ...
Ilari-Antoine E E 1The French Pork and Pig Institute (IFIP),Economy Unit,34 Boulevard de la Gare,F-31500 - - 2014
The aim of this paper is to present an efficient tool for evaluating the economy part of the sustainability of pig farming systems. The selected tool IDEA was tested on a sample of farms from 15 contrasted systems in Europe. A statistical analysis was carried out to check the capacity ...
Pattison Adam - - 2014
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a common way to measure the mechanical properties of materials as functions of frequency. Traditionally, a viscoelastic mechanical model is applied and current DMA techniques fit an analytical approximation to measured dynamic motion data by neglecting inertial forces and adding empirical correction factors to account ...
Neumayer Bernhard B Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Clinical Forensic Imaging, Universitätsplatz 4, A-8010, Graz, - - 2014
In clinical forensic medicine, the estimation of the age of injuries such as externally visible subcutaneous hematomas is important for the reconstruction of violent events, particularly to include or exclude potential suspects. Since the estimation of the time of origin based on external inspection is unreliable, the aim of this ...
Rolletschek Hardy H Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung (IPK), Gatersleben, - - 2014
The large numbers of samples processed in breeding and biodiversity programmes require the development of efficient methods for the nondestructive evaluation of basic seed properties. Near-infrared spectroscopy is the state-of-the-art solution for this analytical demand, but it also has some limitations. Here, we present a novel, rapid, accurate procedure based ...
Liu Xuesong X School of Mathematical Science, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, - - 2014
An evolutionary dynamic model of 2×2 games with finite population of size N+M was built. Among these individuals, N individuals have the same update mechanism as that of Moran process, while the other M individuals have the same update mechanism as that of Fermi process. We obtain the balance equations ...
Gayetskyy Svitlana - - 2014
Angiogenesis is an important pathophysiological process of chronic inflammation, especially in inflammatory arthritis. Quantitative measurement of changes in vascularization may improve the diagnosis and monitoring of arthritis. The aim of this work is the development of a 3D imaging and analysis framework for quantification of vascularization in experimental arthritis. High-resolution ...
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