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Results 1 - 50 of 2013
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Muschick Moritz M Zoological Institute, University of Basel, Basel 4051, Switzerland Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, - - 2014
Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we ...
Yuan Miaolong - - 2014
Feature point recognition is a key component in many vision-based applications, such as vision-based robot navigation, object recognition and classification, image-based modeling, and augmented reality. Real-time performance and high recognition rates are of crucial importance to these applications. In this brief, we propose a novel method for real-time keypoint recognition ...
Ryan Devon Patrick - - 2014
DNA methylation changes are associated with a wide array of biological processes. Bisulfite conversion of DNA followed by high-throughput sequencing is increasingly being used to assess genome-wide methylation at single-base resolution. The relative slowness of most commonly used aligners for processing such data introduces an unnecessarily long delay between receipt ...
Lange Jane M JM Department of Bioststatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
Multistate models are used to characterize individuals' natural histories through diseases with discrete states. Observational data resources based on electronic medical records pose new opportunities for studying such diseases. However, these data consist of observations of the process at discrete sampling times, which may either be pre-scheduled and non-informative, or ...
Lu Kaifeng K Forest Laboratories, Harborside Financial Center, Jersey City, USA - - 2014
Multiple imputation procedures replace each missing value with a set of plausible values based on the posterior predictive distribution of missing data given observed data. In many applications, as few as five imputations are adequate to achieve high efficiency relative to an infinite number of imputations. However, substantially more imputations ...
Roll Shawn C SC Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Introduction: Ultrasonography may be valuable in staging carpal tunnel syndrome severity, especially by combining multiple measures. This study aimed to develop a preliminary severity staging model using multiple sonographic and clinical measures. Methods: Measures were obtained in 104 participants. Multiple categorization structures for each variable were correlated to diagnostic severity ...
Richards David M DM Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; Centre for Integrative Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Despite being of vital importance to the immune system, the mechanism by which cells engulf relatively large solid particles during phagocytosis is still poorly understood. From movies of neutrophil phagocytosis of polystyrene beads, we measure the fractional engulfment as a function of time and demonstrate that phagocytosis occurs in two ...
Simic Vladimir V University of Belgrade, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, Vojvode Stepe 305, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address: - - 2014
End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are vehicles that have reached the end of their useful lives and are no longer registered or licensed for use. The ELV recycling problem has become very serious in the last decade and more and more efforts are made in order to reduce the impact of ELVs ...
Zhao Jianhua - - 2014
This paper concerns model selection for mixtures of probabilistic principal component analyzers (MPCA). The well known Bayesian information criterion (BIC) is frequently used for this purpose. However, it is found that BIC penalizes each analyzer implausibly using the whole sample size. In this paper, we present a new criterion for ...
Wang Shuming - - 2014
In the context of robust optimization with information granules for distributional parameters, this paper investigates a two-stage waste-to-energy feedstock flow planning problem with uncertain capacity expansion costs. The objective is to minimize the worst-case overall loss in a mean-risk criterion where the risk is measured by a conditional value-at-risk operator. ...
Klein Kate K a Community Psychology Program , Wilfrid Laurier University , Toronto , Ontario , - - 2014
Abstract Traditional stage models of LGBTQ identity development have conceptualized 'coming out' as a linear process from 'closeted' to 'out' that all queer/trans individuals must follow if they are to be considered healthy and well-adjusted. These stage models have been critiqued for their rigidity and absence of a dynamic understanding ...
Polley Mei-Yin C MY Biometric Research Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive Room 5W638 MSC 9735, Bethesda, 20892, MD, - - 2014
Cancer biomarkers are frequently evaluated using archived specimens collected from previously conducted therapeutic trials. Routine collection and banking of high quality specimens is an expensive and time-consuming process. Therefore, care should be taken to preserve these precious resources. Here, we propose a novel two-stage adaptive cutoff design that affords the ...
Fischer Valentin V Geology Department, Université de Liège, B18 Allée du 6 Août, 4000, Liège, Belgium, - - 2014
Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian-earliest Jurassic interval, ...
Pookhao Naruekamol N Department of Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, - - 2014
With the advance of new sequencing technologies producing massive short reads data, metagenomics is rapidly growing, especially in the fields of environmental biology and medical science. The metagenomic data are not only high dimensional with large number of features and limited number of samples, but also complex with a large ...
Martín-Martínez D D Laboratorio de Procesado de Imagen, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Actigraphy is an useful tool for evaluating the activity pattern of a subject; activity registries are usually processed by first splitting the signal into its wakefulness and rest intervals and then analyzing each one in isolation. Consequently, a preprocessing stage for such a splitting is needed. Several methods have been ...
Schröder Arne A Department 4: Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, - - 2014
Experimental and theoretical studies show that mortality imposed on a population can counter-intuitively increase the density of a specific life-history stage or total population density. Understanding positive population-level effects of mortality is advancing, illuminating implications for population, community, and applied ecology. Reconciling theory and data, we found that the mathematical ...
Wan Hong H Shire, 735 Chesterbrook Blvd., Wayne, 19087-5637, PA, - - 2014
Several adaptive design methods have been proposed to reestimate sample size using the observed treatment effect after an initial stage of a clinical trial while preserving the overall type I error at the time of the final analysis. One unfortunate property of the algorithms used in some methods is that ...
Backholm Matilda M Department of Physics & Astronomy and the Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, - - 2014
The tangling of two tethered microswimming worms serving as the ends of "active strings" is investigated experimentally and modeled analytically. C. elegans nematodes of similar size are caught by their tails using micropipettes and left to swim and interact at different separations over long times. The worms are found to tangle ...
Hlaing Soe - - 2014
Radiometric vicarious calibration of ocean color (OC) satellite sensors is carried out through the full sunlight path radiative transfer (RT) simulations of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system based on the aerosol and water-leaving radiance data from AERONET-OC sites for the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Quantitative evaluation of the potential of ...
de Oliveira Samuel Conceição SC Departamento de Bioprocessos e Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Caixa Postal 502, Araraquara, SP, 14801-902, Brazil, - - 2014
Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) ...
Zhang Weida W Department of Engineering and Design, School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, BN1 9SB, UK. Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, People's Republic of - - 2014
An instrumental electrode model (IEM) capable of describing the performance of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) systems in the MHz frequency range has been proposed. Compared with the commonly used Complete Electrode Model (CEM), which assumes ideal front-end interfaces, the proposed model considers the effects of non-ideal components in the front-end ...
Fernández-Colino Alicia - - 2014
Although significant progress has been made in the area of injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications and model cell niches, further improvements are still needed, especially in terms of mechanical performance, stability and biomimicry of the native fibrillar architecture found in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This work focuses on the design ...
Rebollo Maria P MP Department of Parasitology,Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine,Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 - - 2014
SUMMARY Lymphatic filariasis (LF), which is highly endemic in 73 countries worldwide, is targeted for elimination by 2020. The strategy for achieving this goal is based on 4 sequential programmatic steps: mapping, Mass drug administration (MDA) implementation, post-MDA surveillance and verification of LF elimination. All 4 stages of the implementation ...
Wason James J MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK - - 2014
Multi-arm multi-stage trials can improve the efficiency of the drug development process when multiple new treatments are available for testing. A group-sequential approach can be used in order to design multi-arm multi-stage trials, using an extension to Dunnett's multiple-testing procedure. The actual sample size used in such a trial is ...
Behm Jocelyn E JE Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1085, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Understanding how mutualistic interactions are stabilized in the presence of cheaters is a major question in evolutionary biology. The legume-rhizobia mutualism has become a model system for studying how plants control cheating partners. However, the generality and evolutionary origins of these control mechanisms are intensely debated. In this Opinion article, ...
Canero Eliana M EM Laboratorio de Neurobiología de la Memoria, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, IFIBYNE-CONICET, - - 2014
The ability to stay alert to subtle changes in the environment and to freeze, fight or flight in the presence of predators requires integrating sensory information as well as triggering motor output to target tissues, both of which are associated with the autonomic nervous system. These reactions, which are commonly ...
He Zangdong Z Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine and Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis, Indiana, - - 2014
Joint models of longitudinal and survival outcomes have been used with increasing frequency in clinical investigations. Correct specification of fixed and random effects is essential for practical data analysis. Simultaneous selection of variables in both longitudinal and survival components functions as a necessary safeguard against model misspecification. However, variable selection ...
Johnson W Brad WB United States Naval - - 2014
Effective clinical supervision naturally incorporates many elements of mentoring. In this article, we us the Mentoring Relationship Continuum (MRC) model to frame a discussion of transformational supervision. We define transformational supervision as a rich developmental relationship characterized by increasing relational reciprocity, a greater range of career and psychosocial mentoring functions, ...
Sayers A A School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2014
There is a growing debate with regards to the appropriate methods of analysis of growth trajectories and their association with prospective dependent outcomes. Using the example of childhood growth and adult BP, we conducted an extensive simulation study to explore four two-stage and two joint modelling methods, and compared their ...
Zhang Long - - 2014
A number of neural networks can be formulated as the linear-in-the-parameters models. Training such networks can be transformed to a model selection problem where a compact model is selected from all the candidates using subset selection algorithms. Forward selection methods are popular fast subset selection approaches. However, they may only ...
Klok Chris C IMARES, Ambachtsweg 8A, P.O. Box 57, 1879AB Den Helder, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for ...
Zhao Jianhua - - 2014
Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA) involves within-class and between-class covariance matrices. For 2-D data such as images, regularized LDA (RLDA) can improve LDA due to the regularized eigenvalues of the estimated within-class matrix. However, it fails to consider the eigenvectors and the estimated between-class matrix. To improve these two matrices ...
McLaughlin Niall - - 2014
We introduce a novel dual-stage algorithm for online multitarget tracking in realistic conditions. In the first stage, the problem of data association between tracklets and detections, given partial occlusion, is addressed using a novel occlusion robust appearance similarity method. This is used to robustly link tracklets with detections without requiring ...
Costa Ciniro C Jr a Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry , University of São Paulo , Piracicaba , São Paulo , - - 2014
Intensive beef production has increased during recent decades in Brazil and may substantially increase both methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from manure management. However, the quantification of these gases and methods for extrapolating them are scarce in Brazil. A case study examines CH4 and N2O emissions from one ...
Aygun Ozcan O Ozcan Aygun, PhD, RN, is Teaching Staff, Fethiye High School of Health Nursing Department, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Fethiye/Mugla, Turkey. Ayse Ergun, PhD, RN, is Assistant Professor, Public Health Nursing Department, Division of Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, Marmara University, Istanbul, - - 2014
Sun protection is important for skin cancer prevention, but many adolescents do not protect themselves from the sun. Instrumentation derived from the transtheoretical model (TTM) can be used to study the process of change in health behaviors like sun protection. The purpose of this study was to translate and adapt ...
Royo Ana C - - 2014
The motion capture systems are often used for checking and analyzing human motion in biomechanical applications. For these applications it is important that the systems provide the best possible accuracy. Among the existing capture systems, optical systems are those with the highest accuracy. In this paper, the development of a ...
Djurić-Jovicić Milica D - - 2014
Postural impairments and gait disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) affect limits of stability, impaire postural adjustment, and evoke poor responses to perturbation. In the later stage of the disease, some patients can suffer from episodic features such as freezing of gait (FOG). Objective gait assessment and monitoring progress of the ...
Chiang Hui-Chu HC Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Qi deficiency (QD), one of the most common disorders in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is relevant to many disorders in obstetrics and gynecology. This study aimed to identify the common processes and criteria for diagnosing QD among contemporary proficient TCM practitioners. Steps of decision tree analysis and modified Delphi method ...
Cooper Gregory F GF Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh, 5607 Baum Boulevard, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15206-3701 USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Outbreaks of infectious disease can pose a significant threat to human health. Thus, detecting and characterizing outbreaks quickly and accurately remains an important problem. This paper describes a Bayesian framework that links clinical diagnosis of individuals in a population to epidemiological modeling of disease outbreaks in the population. Computer-based diagnosis ...
Schneidman-Duhovny Dina D Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Integrative structural modeling uses multiple types of input information and proceeds in four stages: (i) gathering information, (ii) designing model representation and converting information into a scoring function, (iii) sampling good-scoring models, and (iv) analyzing models and information. In the first stage, uncertainty originates from data that are sparse, noisy, ...
Lange M M UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Ecological Modelling, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boar. ASF was introduced into the southern Russian Federation in 2007 and is now reported to be spreading in populations of wild and domestic suids. An endemic situation in the local wild boar population would ...
Deetz Joshua D - - 2014
We have optimized a reactive force field (ReaxFF) in order to model the gelation of alkoxysilanes in bulk precursor solutions. The force field parameter set was refined using a parallelized local search algorithm. Using this approach, each processor is assigned a small list of parameters. At the end of every ...
McLain Alexander C AC Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, 800 Sumter Street, Columbia, South Carolina, 29208, - - 2014
In some longitudinal studies the initiation time of the process is not clearly defined, yet it is important to make inference or do predictions about the longitudinal process. The application of interest in this article is to provide a framework for modeling individualized labor curves (longitudinal cervical dilation measurements) where ...
Pevzner Yuri - - 2014
Web-based front end interfaces to scientific applications are important tools that allow researchers to utilize a broad range of software packages with just an Internet connection and a browser. One such interface, CHARMMing (CHARMM interface and graphics), allows researcher to take advantage of the functionality of the powerful and widely ...
Krmpotic Cecilia M CM Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires, Argentina; División Paleontología de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: - - 2014
The epidermis of mammals is characterized by having a stratum granulosum that produces an orthokeratotic stratum corneum, different from the typical reptilian parakeratotic stratum. Nonetheless, some mammals show distinct degrees of parakeratosis in epidermal regions with few or no pilose follicles (e.g., areas subjacent to cornified scales). With respect to ...
Middleton Richard S - - 2014
Efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change will require deep reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the scale of gigatonnes/yr. CO2 capture and utilization and/or storage technologies are a class of approaches that can substantially reduce CO2 emissions. Even though examples of this approach, such as CO2 enhanced oil ...
Lohr Cheryl A CA Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1910 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA, - - 2014
Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding ...
Feldmann Theodore B TB University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA, - - 2014
Academic departments of psychiatry are experiencing unprecedented changes that are difficult and challenging for faculty and administrators. This article examines the factors that influence change and the barriers to effective change. The author reviewed the business literature on change in organizations and examined the psychodynamic factors that mediate individual and ...
Soderlund David M DM Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Geneva, New York, 14456, - - 2014
The discovery of resmethrin almost five decades ago was the seminal event in the development of pyrethroid insecticides as important pest management tools whose value endures today. This brief review considers the development of pyrethroids from the perspective of the discovery of resmethrin. I describe the pathway to the discovery ...
Woodward Richard T RT Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, TAMU 2124, College Station, TX, 77843-2124, USA, - - 2014
Uncertainties inherent in fisheries motivate a precautionary approach to management, meaning an approach specifically intended to avoid bad outcomes. Stochastic dynamic optimization models, which have been in the fisheries literature for decades, provide a framework for decision making when uncertain outcomes have known probabilities. However, most such models incorporate population ...
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