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Caughlin T Trevor TT Department of Biology, University of Florida, PO Box 118525, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA Conservation Ecology Program, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 49 Soi Tientalay 25, Bangkhuntien-Chaitalay Road, Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150, Thailand - - 2015
Overhunting in tropical forests reduces populations of vertebrate seed dispersers. If reduced seed dispersal has a negative impact on tree population viability, overhunting could lead to altered forest structure and dynamics, including decreased biodiversity. However, empirical data showing decreased animal-dispersed tree abundance in overhunted forests contradict demographic models which predict ...
Ma David K G DK Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia, - - 2015
Data visualisation is usually a crucial first step in analysing and exploring large-scale complex data. The visualisation of proteomics time-course data on post-translational modifications presents a particular challenge that is largely unmet by existing tools and methods. To this end, we present Minardo, a novel visualisation strategy tailored for such ...
Moore Jason H JH Department of Genetics, Geisel School of Medicine, DHMC, One Medical Center Dr., HB 7937, Lebanon, NH, 03756, USA, - - 2015
Here we introduce the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) methodology and software package for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. We provide a general overview of the method and then highlight some of the key functions of the open-source MDR software package that is freely distributed. We end with ...
Koletzko Svenja H SH University of Zurich, - - 2014
This research introduces low goal ambivalence as a relevant correlate of goal self-concordance. In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that university freshmen's ambivalence toward the goal of completing their degree mediates the effect of goal self-concordance on subjective well-being. In Studies 1 and 2, differences in goal ambivalence accounted ...
Muschick Moritz M Zoological Institute, University of Basel, Basel 4051, Switzerland Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, - - 2014
Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we ...
Gaidatzis Dimos D Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, - - 2014
QuasR is a package for the integrated analysis of high-throughput sequencing data in R, covering all steps from read preprocessing, alignment and quality control to quantification. QuasR supports different experiment types (including RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and Bis-seq) and analysis variants (e.g. paired-end, stranded, spliced and allele-specific), and is integrated in Bioconductor ...
Rudenstine Sasha S Department of Epidemiology,Columbia University,New York,New - - 2014
We propose a model of population behavior in the aftermath of disasters. We conducted a qualitative analysis of an empirical dataset of 339 disasters throughout the world spanning from 1950 to 2005. We developed a model of population behavior that is based on 2 fundamental assumptions: (i) behavior is predictable ...
Myers Casey A CA Center for Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Denver, 2390 S. York St, Denver, CO, 80208, - - 2014
Uncertainty that arises from measurement error and parameter estimation can significantly affect the interpretation of musculoskeletal simulations; however, these effects are rarely addressed. The objective of this study was to develop an open-source probabilistic musculoskeletal modeling framework to assess how measurement error and parameter uncertainty propagate through a gait simulation. ...
Tamm M M Miriam Tamm, RWTH Aachen University, Department of Medical Statistics, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, - - 2014
Background: In clinical trials patients are commonly recruited sequentially over time incurring the risk of chronological bias due to (unobserved) time trends. To minimize the risk of chronological bias, a suitable randomization procedure should be chosen. Objectives: Considering different time trend scenarios, we aim at a detailed evaluation of the ...
Haug Joachim T JT Functional Morphology, Department of Biology II, GeoBio-Center, LMU Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, 82152, Planegg-Martinsried, - - 2014
The nymphal stages of Palaeozoic insects differ significantly in morphology from those of their modern counterparts. Morphological details for some previously reported species have recently been called into question. Palaeozoic insect nymphs are important, however - their study could provide key insights into the evolution of wings, and complete metamorphosis. ...
Noé Laurent L 1 Laboratoire d'Informatique Fondamentale de Lille (LIFL) (UMR 8022 Lille 1/CNRS) - Inria Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France - - 2014
Abstract Spaced seeds have been recently shown to not only detect more alignments, but also to give a more accurate measure of phylogenetic distances, and to provide a lower misclassification rate when used with Support Vector Machines (SVMs). We confirm by independent experiments these two results, and propose in this ...
Foster Jared C JC Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA and Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA - - 2014
We consider the use of randomized clinical trial (RCT) data to identify simple treatment regimes based on some subset of the covariate space, [Formula: see text]. The optimal subset, [Formula: see text], is selected by maximizing the expected outcome under a treat-if-in-[Formula: see text] regime, and is restricted to be ...
Tang Zhongwen - - 2014
Abstract An analytical way to compute predictive probability of success (PPOS) together with credible interval at interim analysis (IA) is developed for big clinical trials with time to event end points. The method takes account of the fixed data up to IA, the amount of uncertainty in future data, and ...
Arifin Sm Niaz - - 2014
Agent-based models (ABMs) have been used to model the behaviour of individual mosquitoes and other aspects of malaria. In this paper, a conceptual entomological model of the population dynamics of Anopheles gambiae and the agent-based implementations derived from it are described. Hypothetical vector control interventions (HVCIs) are implemented to target ...
Laurie Cecelia - - 2014
BackgroundHow to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) with epistasis efficiently and reliably has been a persistent problem for QTL mapping analysis. There are a number of difficulties for studying epistatic QTL. Linkage can impose a significant challenge for finding epistatic QTL reliably. If multiple QTL are in linkage and have ...
Li Xianwei - - 2014
Based on a two-stage heuristic method, this paper is concerned with the design of robust feedback controllers with restricted frequency-domain specifications (RFDSs) for uncertain linear discrete-time systems. Polytopic uncertainties are assumed to enter all the system matrices, while RFDSs are motivated by the fact that practical design specifications are often ...
Su B Y - - 2014
We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The wavelet transform is very effective in distinguishing the falls from ...
Yuan Miaolong - - 2014
Feature point recognition is a key component in many vision-based applications, such as vision-based robot navigation, object recognition and classification, image-based modeling, and augmented reality. Real-time performance and high recognition rates are of crucial importance to these applications. In this brief, we propose a novel method for real-time keypoint recognition ...
Generous Nicholas N Defense Systems and Analysis Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of - - 2014
Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based ...
Kakourou Alexia A 1 Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center , Leiden, The Netherlands - - 2014
Abstract We consider a proteomic mass spectrometry case-control study for the construction of a diagnostic rule for patients' disease status allocation. We propose an approach for combining a collection of classifiers for the construction of a "combined" classification rule in order to enhance calibration and prediction ability. In a first ...
Bacaita E S ES Department of Physics, "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi, Prof. Dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Rd., No. 73, Iasi 700050, Romania. - - 2014
The study proposes modeling calcein release kinetics (considered as a hydrophilic drug model) from an interpenetrating network matrix of hydrogels, based on the combination of two polymers, of which chitosan is the most commonly used polymer. The release process is analyzed for different increasing time intervals, based on the evolution ...
Corsini Chiara C Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering 'Giulio Natta', Politecnico di Milano, Milan, - - 2014
Newborns with single ventricle physiology are usually palliated with a multi-staged procedure. When cardiovascular complications e.g., collateral vessel formation occur during the inter-stage periods, further treatments are required. An 8-month-old patient, who underwent second stage (i.e., bi-directional Glenn, BDG) surgery at 4 months, was diagnosed with a major veno-venous collateral vessel ...
Ryan Devon Patrick - - 2014
DNA methylation changes are associated with a wide array of biological processes. Bisulfite conversion of DNA followed by high-throughput sequencing is increasingly being used to assess genome-wide methylation at single-base resolution. The relative slowness of most commonly used aligners for processing such data introduces an unnecessarily long delay between receipt ...
Lange Jane M JM Department of Bioststatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
Multistate models are used to characterize individuals' natural histories through diseases with discrete states. Observational data resources based on electronic medical records pose new opportunities for studying such diseases. However, these data consist of observations of the process at discrete sampling times, which may either be pre-scheduled and non-informative, or ...
Lu Kaifeng K Forest Laboratories, Harborside Financial Center, Jersey City, USA - - 2014
Multiple imputation procedures replace each missing value with a set of plausible values based on the posterior predictive distribution of missing data given observed data. In many applications, as few as five imputations are adequate to achieve high efficiency relative to an infinite number of imputations. However, substantially more imputations ...
Roll Shawn C SC Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Introduction: Ultrasonography may be valuable in staging carpal tunnel syndrome severity, especially by combining multiple measures. This study aimed to develop a preliminary severity staging model using multiple sonographic and clinical measures. Methods: Measures were obtained in 104 participants. Multiple categorization structures for each variable were correlated to diagnostic severity ...
Richards David M DM Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; Centre for Integrative Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Despite being of vital importance to the immune system, the mechanism by which cells engulf relatively large solid particles during phagocytosis is still poorly understood. From movies of neutrophil phagocytosis of polystyrene beads, we measure the fractional engulfment as a function of time and demonstrate that phagocytosis occurs in two ...
Simic Vladimir V University of Belgrade, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, Vojvode Stepe 305, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address: - - 2014
End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are vehicles that have reached the end of their useful lives and are no longer registered or licensed for use. The ELV recycling problem has become very serious in the last decade and more and more efforts are made in order to reduce the impact of ELVs ...
Zhao Jianhua - - 2014
This paper concerns model selection for mixtures of probabilistic principal component analyzers (MPCA). The well known Bayesian information criterion (BIC) is frequently used for this purpose. However, it is found that BIC penalizes each analyzer implausibly using the whole sample size. In this paper, we present a new criterion for ...
Wang Shuming - - 2014
In the context of robust optimization with information granules for distributional parameters, this paper investigates a two-stage waste-to-energy feedstock flow planning problem with uncertain capacity expansion costs. The objective is to minimize the worst-case overall loss in a mean-risk criterion where the risk is measured by a conditional value-at-risk operator. ...
Klein Kate K a Community Psychology Program , Wilfrid Laurier University , Toronto , Ontario , - - 2014
Abstract Traditional stage models of LGBTQ identity development have conceptualized 'coming out' as a linear process from 'closeted' to 'out' that all queer/trans individuals must follow if they are to be considered healthy and well-adjusted. These stage models have been critiqued for their rigidity and absence of a dynamic understanding ...
Polley Mei-Yin C MY Biometric Research Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive Room 5W638 MSC 9735, Bethesda, 20892, MD, - - 2014
Cancer biomarkers are frequently evaluated using archived specimens collected from previously conducted therapeutic trials. Routine collection and banking of high quality specimens is an expensive and time-consuming process. Therefore, care should be taken to preserve these precious resources. Here, we propose a novel two-stage adaptive cutoff design that affords the ...
Fischer Valentin V Geology Department, Université de Liège, B18 Allée du 6 Août, 4000, Liège, Belgium, - - 2014
Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian-earliest Jurassic interval, ...
Pookhao Naruekamol N Department of Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, - - 2014
With the advance of new sequencing technologies producing massive short reads data, metagenomics is rapidly growing, especially in the fields of environmental biology and medical science. The metagenomic data are not only high dimensional with large number of features and limited number of samples, but also complex with a large ...
Martín-Martínez D D Laboratorio de Procesado de Imagen, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Actigraphy is an useful tool for evaluating the activity pattern of a subject; activity registries are usually processed by first splitting the signal into its wakefulness and rest intervals and then analyzing each one in isolation. Consequently, a preprocessing stage for such a splitting is needed. Several methods have been ...
Schröder Arne A Department 4: Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, - - 2014
Experimental and theoretical studies show that mortality imposed on a population can counter-intuitively increase the density of a specific life-history stage or total population density. Understanding positive population-level effects of mortality is advancing, illuminating implications for population, community, and applied ecology. Reconciling theory and data, we found that the mathematical ...
Wan Hong H Shire, 735 Chesterbrook Blvd., Wayne, 19087-5637, PA, - - 2014
Several adaptive design methods have been proposed to reestimate sample size using the observed treatment effect after an initial stage of a clinical trial while preserving the overall type I error at the time of the final analysis. One unfortunate property of the algorithms used in some methods is that ...
Backholm Matilda M Department of Physics & Astronomy and the Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, - - 2014
The tangling of two tethered microswimming worms serving as the ends of "active strings" is investigated experimentally and modeled analytically. C. elegans nematodes of similar size are caught by their tails using micropipettes and left to swim and interact at different separations over long times. The worms are found to tangle ...
Hlaing Soe - - 2014
Radiometric vicarious calibration of ocean color (OC) satellite sensors is carried out through the full sunlight path radiative transfer (RT) simulations of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system based on the aerosol and water-leaving radiance data from AERONET-OC sites for the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Quantitative evaluation of the potential of ...
de Oliveira Samuel Conceição SC Departamento de Bioprocessos e Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Caixa Postal 502, Araraquara, SP, 14801-902, Brazil, - - 2014
Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) ...
Zhang Weida W Department of Engineering and Design, School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, BN1 9SB, UK. Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, People's Republic of - - 2014
An instrumental electrode model (IEM) capable of describing the performance of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) systems in the MHz frequency range has been proposed. Compared with the commonly used Complete Electrode Model (CEM), which assumes ideal front-end interfaces, the proposed model considers the effects of non-ideal components in the front-end ...
Fernández-Colino Alicia - - 2014
Although significant progress has been made in the area of injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications and model cell niches, further improvements are still needed, especially in terms of mechanical performance, stability and biomimicry of the native fibrillar architecture found in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This work focuses on the design ...
Rebollo Maria P MP Department of Parasitology,Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine,Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 - - 2014
SUMMARY Lymphatic filariasis (LF), which is highly endemic in 73 countries worldwide, is targeted for elimination by 2020. The strategy for achieving this goal is based on 4 sequential programmatic steps: mapping, Mass drug administration (MDA) implementation, post-MDA surveillance and verification of LF elimination. All 4 stages of the implementation ...
Wason James J MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK - - 2014
Multi-arm multi-stage trials can improve the efficiency of the drug development process when multiple new treatments are available for testing. A group-sequential approach can be used in order to design multi-arm multi-stage trials, using an extension to Dunnett's multiple-testing procedure. The actual sample size used in such a trial is ...
Behm Jocelyn E JE Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1085, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Understanding how mutualistic interactions are stabilized in the presence of cheaters is a major question in evolutionary biology. The legume-rhizobia mutualism has become a model system for studying how plants control cheating partners. However, the generality and evolutionary origins of these control mechanisms are intensely debated. In this Opinion article, ...
Canero Eliana M EM Laboratorio de Neurobiología de la Memoria, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, IFIBYNE-CONICET, - - 2014
The ability to stay alert to subtle changes in the environment and to freeze, fight or flight in the presence of predators requires integrating sensory information as well as triggering motor output to target tissues, both of which are associated with the autonomic nervous system. These reactions, which are commonly ...
He Zangdong Z Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine and Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis, Indiana, - - 2014
Joint models of longitudinal and survival outcomes have been used with increasing frequency in clinical investigations. Correct specification of fixed and random effects is essential for practical data analysis. Simultaneous selection of variables in both longitudinal and survival components functions as a necessary safeguard against model misspecification. However, variable selection ...
Johnson W Brad WB United States Naval - - 2014
Effective clinical supervision naturally incorporates many elements of mentoring. In this article, we us the Mentoring Relationship Continuum (MRC) model to frame a discussion of transformational supervision. We define transformational supervision as a rich developmental relationship characterized by increasing relational reciprocity, a greater range of career and psychosocial mentoring functions, ...
Sayers A A School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2014
There is a growing debate with regards to the appropriate methods of analysis of growth trajectories and their association with prospective dependent outcomes. Using the example of childhood growth and adult BP, we conducted an extensive simulation study to explore four two-stage and two joint modelling methods, and compared their ...
Zhang Long - - 2014
A number of neural networks can be formulated as the linear-in-the-parameters models. Training such networks can be transformed to a model selection problem where a compact model is selected from all the candidates using subset selection algorithms. Forward selection methods are popular fast subset selection approaches. However, they may only ...
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