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Serov A S AS Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
We present a stream-tube model of oxygen exchange inside a human placenta functional unit (a placentone). The effect of villi density on oxygen transfer efficiency is assessed by numerically solving the diffusion-convection equation in a 2D+1D geometry for a wide range of villi densities. For each set of physiological parameters, ...
Chepelev Nikolai L NL Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, - - 2014
Reliable quantification of gene and protein expression has potential to contribute significantly to the characterization of hypothesized modes of action (MOA) or adverse outcome pathways for critical effects of toxicants. Quantitative analysis of gene expression by benchmark dose (BMD) modeling has been facilitated by the development of effective software tools. ...
Dahlgren Johan P JP Department of Biology and Max-Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of Aging, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230, Odense M, Denmark, - - 2014
Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field ...
Agetsuma Naoki N Wakayama Experimental Forest, Hokkaido University, Wakayama, - - 2014
Population densities of wildlife species tend to be correlated with resource productivity of habitats. However, wildlife density has been greatly modified by increasing human influences. For effective conservation, we must first identify the significant factors that affect wildlife density, and then determine the extent of the areas in which the ...
DeSilva Rebecca R Centre for Forensic Science, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, - - 2014
The forensic anthropologist is responsible for contributing to the identification of an unknown by constructing a biological profile from their skeletal remains. Towards achieving this goal, anthropologists can apply population and temporally specific standards with known error margins to morphometric data collected from a decedent. Recent research relating to the ...
Morris Richard M RM From the Academic Unit of Bone Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Northern General Hospital, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, England (R.M.M., L.Y., J.M.W.); and Centre for Computational Imaging & Simulation Technologies in Biomedicine (CISTIB), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England (M.A.M.F., J.M.P., - - 2014
Purpose To outline the conceptual development of dual-energy absorptiometric (DXA) region-free analysis, quantify its precision, and evaluate its application to quantify the change in longitudinal femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) in patients during the 12 months after total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods All subjects had undergone total hip ...
Evrard Séverine S Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Liege, CHU Sart-Tilman, Liege, - - 2014
The link between vascular calcification (VC) and increased mortality is now well established. Over time, as clinical importance of this phenomenon has begun to be fully considered, scientists have highlighted more and more physiopathological mechanisms and signaling pathways that underlie VC. Several conditions such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and renal diseases ...
Gama Inês I Forensic Sciences Centre (CENCIFOR), Largo da Sé Nova, s/n, 3000-213, Coimbra, Portugal, - - 2014
Biological sex estimation is one of the main parameters required in the construction of a biological profile of an unknown deceased person. In corpses in an advanced state of decomposition, skeletonized or severely mutilated, bone analysis may provide the only way to access biological sex. Although the hip bones are ...
Lin Hsien-Shu - - 2014
The current study aimed to compare the measurements of the mandible morphology using 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with those using 2D CBCT-synthesized cephalograms; to quantify errors in measurements based on 2D synthesized cephalograms; and to clarify the effects such errors have on the description of the mandibular ...
Lancaster Jill J Department of Resource Management and Geography, University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie Street, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia, - - 2014
Many communities comprise species that select resources that are patchily distributed in an environment that is otherwise unsuitable or suboptimal. Effects of this patchiness can depend on the characteristics of patch arrays and animal movements, and produce non-intuitive outcomes in which population densities are unrelated to resource abundance. Resource mosaics ...
Mac Nally Ralph R Institute for Applied Ecology, The University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, 2617, Australia, - - 2014
Accounting for differences in abundances among species remains a high priority for community ecology. While there has been more than 80 years of work on trying to explain the characteristic S shape of rank-abundance distributions (RADs), there has been recent conjecture that the form may not depend on ecological processes per ...
Navega David D Forensic Sciences Centre (CENCIFOR), Largo da Sé Nova, s/n, 3000-213, Coimbra, Portugal, - - 2014
Sex estimation is extremely important in the analysis of human remains as many of the subsequent biological parameters are sex specific (e.g., age at death, stature, and ancestry). When dealing with incomplete or fragmented remains, metric analysis of the tarsal bones of the feet has proven valuable. In this study, ...
Enns-Bray William S WS Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6; Roger Jackson Centre for Health and Wellness Research, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6; McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N - - 2014
Finite element (FE) models of bone derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) rely on realistic material properties to accurately predict bone strength. QCT cannot resolve bone microarchitecture, therefore QCT-based FE models lack the anisotropy apparent within the underlying bone tissue. This study proposes a method for mapping femoral anisotropy using ...
Henn Julian J Emil-Warburg-Weg 6, 95447 Bayreuth, - - 2014
In order to detect and graphically visualize the absence or presence of systematic errors in fit data, conditional probabilities are employed to analyze the statistical independence or dependence of fit residuals. This concept is completely general and applicable to all scientific fields in which model parameters are fitted to experimental ...
Banerjee D D Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and - - 2014
Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird ...
Quinn Thomas P TP School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, WA, 98195-5020, USA, - - 2014
It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult ...
Kanchan Tanuj T From the *Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, †Manipal University, Manipal; ‡Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh; and §Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India; and ‖Department of Forensic Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu University, - - 2014
Human skull has been the most extensively studied bone for establishing the taxonomies at evolutionary levels. Crania are also the most commonly used skeletal elements in population studies because they are known to be more genetically driven and less affected by environmental factors. The craniofacial indices are considered as clinical ...
Krabben A - - 2014
Treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is rarely personalized, since predictors of disease course are lacking. The severity of RA can be measured objectively by radiographic progression. The most reliable way to measure radiographic progression is in a longitudinal cohort with serial time points, scoring on a quantitative scale, ...
Chen Li-Sheng - - 2014
Abstract Although the trade-off between the two misclassifications (false-positive fraction and false-negative fraction), corresponding to type I and type II error in statistical hypothesis testing based on Neyman-Pearson lemma, to determine the optimal cutoff in the province of evaluating the accuracy of medical diagnosis and disease screening using interval-scaled biomarkers ...
Bae Tae Soo - - 2014
Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, there is little research on the intervertebral load in accordance with anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints ...
Mostafa Nesrine Z NZ Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, - - 2014
Suitable animal models are necessary to test the efficacy of new bone grafting therapies in cleft palate surgery. Rodent models of cleft palate are available but have limitations. This study compared and modified mid-palate cleft (MPC) and alveolar cleft (AC) models to determine the most reliable and reproducible model for ...
Naito Kanta K Department of Mathematics, Shimane University, Japan - - 2014
This paper is concerned with the development process of human fetuses. Though the development process of human fetuses still includes many unknown issues, it is known that a certain harmonious relationship between the organs can be observed. This knowledge is based on our intuition, but we have no theory which ...
Williams Felicia N FN Shriners Hospital for Children, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, - - 2014
The article by van den Broek et al.(1) in a recent issue of Experimental Dermatology identifies some of the more pressing challenges for both scientists and physicians with regards to scar formation: the how, why, when, and who of hypertrophic scar formation. Despite our growing knowledge of the immune system, the ...
Jung Gwanghyun G Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, - - 2014
Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) represent a powerful new model system to study the basic mechanisms of inherited cardiomyopathies. hiPSC-CMs have been utilized to model several cardiovascular diseases, achieving the most success in the inherited arrhythmias, including long QT and Timothy syndromes (Moretti et al. N Engl J Med. ...
Saar Indrek I a Estonian Academy of Security - - 2014
ABSTRACT Objective: This paper examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Methods: Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions ...
Cameron Alexander M AM Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, and North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia From the Center for Regenerative Medicine, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia; the Disciplines of Surgery and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Adelaide; the Adult Burns Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital; and the Australasian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's - - 2014
The development of new therapies for hypertrophic scarring has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model. The authors' objective was to establish a reproducible murine model of hypertrophic scarring by infusing bleomycin over a prolonged period to stimulate dermal fibroproliferation. Osmotic pumps filled with 90 μl of ...
Lacovara Kenneth J KJ Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Science, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2014
Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs were the most diverse and abundant large-bodied herbivores in the southern continents during the final 30 million years of the Mesozoic Era. Several titanosaur species are regarded as the most massive land-living animals yet discovered; nevertheless, nearly all of these giant titanosaurs are known only from very ...
Seo Jeong-Woo JW Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical & Health Science, Konkuk University, 322 Danwoldong, Chungju, - - 2014
In this study, the accuracy of the inputs required for finite element analysis, which is mainly used for the biomechanical analysis of bones, was improved. To ensure a muscle force and joint contact force similar to the actual values, a musculoskeletal model that was based on the actual gait experiment ...
Kim Namkeun N 0000-0001-5654-2747 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, 58185 Linköping, - - 2014
A three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of a human dry skull was devised for simulation of human bone-conduction (BC) hearing. Although a dry skull is a simplification of the real complex human skull, such model is valuable for understanding basic BC hearing processes. For validation of the model, the mechanical point ...
Zhou Wei W Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to develop an optimal combination of mineral salts in the fermentation medium for nosiheptide (Nsh) production using statistical methodologies. A Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the impacts of eight mineral salts on Nsh production. The results showed that among the no-significant factors, ...
Smith James Andrew - - 2013
Induction of labour is poorly understood even though it is performed in 20% of births in the United States. One method of induction, the balloon dilator applied with traction to the interior os of the cervix, engages a softening process, permitting dilation and effacement to proceed until the beginning of ...
Brazzale Danny J - - 2013
Background: The recently generated spirometry reference equations from the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) provide a long-awaited opportunity for the adoption of a globally applicable set of normal reference values. Objective: The aim of this study was to document the likely interpretative effects of changing from commonly used current spirometry ...
Kahan Joshua - - 2013
Despite almost a decade since the introduction of Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM), there remains some confusion within the wider neuroimaging, neuroscience and clinical communities as to what DCM studies are probing, and what all the jargon means. We provide ten simple rules, and a theoretical example to gently introduce the ...
Bolin Elijah - - 2013
Appropriate interpretation of a screening test's validity poses a challenge to the clinician. The purpose of this review is to revisit the terms sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and pre- and posttest probability and their application to the clinical setting. For illustration, we use a recently published article in the American ...
Coskunpinar Ayca A Department of Psychology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, - - 2013
Although there is considerable support for the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use, the use of multidimensional conceptualizations of impulsivity and alcohol use has lead to varying relationship sizes across studies. The aims of the current meta-analysis are to (i) examine variability in the magnitude of the bivariate relationship between ...
Macdonald Kate E KE Dementia Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, - - 2013
Hippocampal pathology occurs early in Alzheimer disease (AD), and atrophy, measured by volumes and volume changes, may predict which subjects will develop AD. Measures of the temporal horn (TH), which is situated adjacent to the hippocampus, may also indicate early changes in AD. Previous studies suggest that these metrics can ...
Motohashi Hayato H Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2013
It is shown that the tension between recent neutrino oscillation experiments, favoring sterile neutrinos with masses of the order of 1 eV, and cosmological data which impose stringent constraints on neutrino masses from the free streaming suppression of density fluctuations, can be resolved in models of the present accelerated expansion of ...
Shah Arvind Kumar - - 2013
Background: Ascertaining the optimal depth of dilator progression is a crucial factor during tract dilation in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Dilation is generally guided under fluoroscopy, ultrasound or combination of both techniques and it is still difficult to prevent over-dilation causing perforation and vascular injury or under-dilation causing difficulty in establishment ...
Lowry J K JK Division of Invertebrate Zoology, Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.; Email: - - 2013
The Amphipoda includes a large clade defined by the presence of a previously unrecognised synapomorphy, apical robust setae on the rami of uropods 1-2. We term this clade the Senticaudata subord. nov. (Latin: sentis = thorn). It includes almost all freshwater species as well as a number of marine benthic ...
Yang Shulin S Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, - - 2013
Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of the bones of the calvaria resulting in abnormal skull shapes that can be associated with increased intracranial pressure. While craniosynostoses of multiple different types can be easily diagnosed, quantifying the severity of the abnormality is much more subjective and not a standard part of ...
Akdoğan Ilgaz I Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, - - 2012
To compare the calcaneal pitch angle (CPA) values measured on direct lateral radiographs of feet, and the modified projection area per length squared (PAL), which was calculated as a new method for the evaluation of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot. Direct lateral radiographs of patients who had ...
Liu H - - 2012
This study aims at investigating the efficiency of bimodal spectroscopy in detection of hypertrophic scar tissue on a preclinical model. Fluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance spectra were collected from 55 scars deliberately created on ears of 20 rabbits, amongst which some received tacrolimus injection to provide non-hypertrophic scar tissue. The spectroscopic ...
Lee Dong Won - - 2012
In this study, we evaluated the effects of silicone-based gel on the healing of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model. After 4-week application of silicone-based gel containing allantoin, dexpanthenol and heparin (Noscarna™) to scars in a rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring, significant improvements in hypertrophic scar healing and ...
Wu Tongning - - 2012
Digital human models are frequently obtained from supine-postured medical images or cadaver slices, but many applications require standing models. This paper presents the work of reconstructing standing Chinese adult anatomical models from supine postured slices. Apart from the previous studies, the deformation works on 2-D segmented slices. The surface profile ...
Molendijk Marc L - - 2012
Inconsistenties have been reported with regard to an association between val(66) met, a polymorphism on the BDNF gene, and hippocampal volume. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to determine the magnitude and direction of this putative association and estimated the potential influence of demographic, clinical, and methodological characteristics ...
Napolitano Antonio - - 2012
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and there is strong interest in noninvasive measurement of GABA levels to assess GABAergic dysfunction in a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases. GABA detection by proton MR spectroscopy is challenging due to its low ...
Zheng Ying - - 2012
We have developed a model of the local field potential (LFP) based on the conservation of charge, the independence principle of ionic flows and the classical Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type intracellular model of synaptic activity. Insights were gained through the simulation of the HH intracellular model on the nonlinear relationship between ...
Lee Gang-Hui - - 2012
The etiology of epilepsy is a very complicated, multifactorial process that is not completely understood. Therefore, the availability of epilepsy animal models induced by different mechanisms is crucial in advancing our knowledge and developing new therapeutic regimens for this disorder. Considering the advantages of zebrafish, we have developed a seizure ...
Jocham Gerhard G Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. - - 2012
Although the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in reward-guided decision making, its exact role in this process has remained an unresolved issue. Here we show that, in accordance with models of decision making, vmPFC concentrations of GABA and glutamate in human volunteers predict both behavioral performance and ...
Maldjian J A - - 2012
The hippocampus is a widely recognized area of early change in AD, yet voxelwise analyses of FDG-PET activity differences between AD and CN controls have consistently failed to identify hippocampal hypometabolism. In this article, we propose a high-dimensional PET-specific analysis framework to determine whether important hippocampal metabolic FDG-PET activity differences ...
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