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Gama Inês I Forensic Sciences Centre (CENCIFOR), Largo da Sé Nova, s/n, 3000-213, Coimbra, Portugal, - - 2014
Biological sex estimation is one of the main parameters required in the construction of a biological profile of an unknown deceased person. In corpses in an advanced state of decomposition, skeletonized or severely mutilated, bone analysis may provide the only way to access biological sex. Although the hip bones are ...
Lin Hsien-Shu - - 2014
The current study aimed to compare the measurements of the mandible morphology using 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with those using 2D CBCT-synthesized cephalograms; to quantify errors in measurements based on 2D synthesized cephalograms; and to clarify the effects such errors have on the description of the mandibular ...
Lancaster Jill J Department of Resource Management and Geography, University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie Street, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia, - - 2014
Many communities comprise species that select resources that are patchily distributed in an environment that is otherwise unsuitable or suboptimal. Effects of this patchiness can depend on the characteristics of patch arrays and animal movements, and produce non-intuitive outcomes in which population densities are unrelated to resource abundance. Resource mosaics ...
Mac Nally Ralph R Institute for Applied Ecology, The University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, 2617, Australia, - - 2014
Accounting for differences in abundances among species remains a high priority for community ecology. While there has been more than 80 years of work on trying to explain the characteristic S shape of rank-abundance distributions (RADs), there has been recent conjecture that the form may not depend on ecological processes per ...
Navega David D Forensic Sciences Centre (CENCIFOR), Largo da Sé Nova, s/n, 3000-213, Coimbra, Portugal, - - 2014
Sex estimation is extremely important in the analysis of human remains as many of the subsequent biological parameters are sex specific (e.g., age at death, stature, and ancestry). When dealing with incomplete or fragmented remains, metric analysis of the tarsal bones of the feet has proven valuable. In this study, ...
Henn Julian J Emil-Warburg-Weg 6, 95447 Bayreuth, - - 2014
In order to detect and graphically visualize the absence or presence of systematic errors in fit data, conditional probabilities are employed to analyze the statistical independence or dependence of fit residuals. This concept is completely general and applicable to all scientific fields in which model parameters are fitted to experimental ...
Banerjee D D Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and - - 2014
Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird ...
Quinn Thomas P TP School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, WA, 98195-5020, USA, - - 2014
It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult ...
Kanchan Tanuj T From the *Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, †Manipal University, Manipal; ‡Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh; and §Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India; and ‖Department of Forensic Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu University, - - 2014
Human skull has been the most extensively studied bone for establishing the taxonomies at evolutionary levels. Crania are also the most commonly used skeletal elements in population studies because they are known to be more genetically driven and less affected by environmental factors. The craniofacial indices are considered as clinical ...
Krabben A - - 2014
Treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is rarely personalized, since predictors of disease course are lacking. The severity of RA can be measured objectively by radiographic progression. The most reliable way to measure radiographic progression is in a longitudinal cohort with serial time points, scoring on a quantitative scale, ...
Chen Li-Sheng - - 2014
Abstract Although the trade-off between the two misclassifications (false-positive fraction and false-negative fraction), corresponding to type I and type II error in statistical hypothesis testing based on Neyman-Pearson lemma, to determine the optimal cutoff in the province of evaluating the accuracy of medical diagnosis and disease screening using interval-scaled biomarkers ...
Bae Tae Soo - - 2014
Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, there is little research on the intervertebral load in accordance with anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints ...
Mostafa Nesrine Z NZ Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, - - 2014
Suitable animal models are necessary to test the efficacy of new bone grafting therapies in cleft palate surgery. Rodent models of cleft palate are available but have limitations. This study compared and modified mid-palate cleft (MPC) and alveolar cleft (AC) models to determine the most reliable and reproducible model for ...
Naito Kanta K Department of Mathematics, Shimane University, Japan - - 2014
This paper is concerned with the development process of human fetuses. Though the development process of human fetuses still includes many unknown issues, it is known that a certain harmonious relationship between the organs can be observed. This knowledge is based on our intuition, but we have no theory which ...
Williams Felicia N FN Shriners Hospital for Children, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, - - 2014
The article by van den Broek et al.(1) in a recent issue of Experimental Dermatology identifies some of the more pressing challenges for both scientists and physicians with regards to scar formation: the how, why, when, and who of hypertrophic scar formation. Despite our growing knowledge of the immune system, the ...
Jung Gwanghyun G Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, - - 2014
Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) represent a powerful new model system to study the basic mechanisms of inherited cardiomyopathies. hiPSC-CMs have been utilized to model several cardiovascular diseases, achieving the most success in the inherited arrhythmias, including long QT and Timothy syndromes (Moretti et al. N Engl J Med. ...
Saar Indrek I a Estonian Academy of Security - - 2014
ABSTRACT Objective: This paper examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Methods: Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions ...
Cameron Alexander M AM Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, and North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia From the Center for Regenerative Medicine, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia; the Disciplines of Surgery and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Adelaide; the Adult Burns Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital; and the Australasian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's - - 2014
The development of new therapies for hypertrophic scarring has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model. The authors' objective was to establish a reproducible murine model of hypertrophic scarring by infusing bleomycin over a prolonged period to stimulate dermal fibroproliferation. Osmotic pumps filled with 90 μl of ...
Lacovara Kenneth J KJ Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Science, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2014
Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs were the most diverse and abundant large-bodied herbivores in the southern continents during the final 30 million years of the Mesozoic Era. Several titanosaur species are regarded as the most massive land-living animals yet discovered; nevertheless, nearly all of these giant titanosaurs are known only from very ...
Smith James Andrew - - 2013
Induction of labour is poorly understood even though it is performed in 20% of births in the United States. One method of induction, the balloon dilator applied with traction to the interior os of the cervix, engages a softening process, permitting dilation and effacement to proceed until the beginning of ...
Brazzale Danny J - - 2013
Background: The recently generated spirometry reference equations from the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) provide a long-awaited opportunity for the adoption of a globally applicable set of normal reference values. Objective: The aim of this study was to document the likely interpretative effects of changing from commonly used current spirometry ...
Kahan Joshua - - 2013
Despite almost a decade since the introduction of Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM), there remains some confusion within the wider neuroimaging, neuroscience and clinical communities as to what DCM studies are probing, and what all the jargon means. We provide ten simple rules, and a theoretical example to gently introduce the ...
Bolin Elijah - - 2013
Appropriate interpretation of a screening test's validity poses a challenge to the clinician. The purpose of this review is to revisit the terms sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and pre- and posttest probability and their application to the clinical setting. For illustration, we use a recently published article in the American ...
Coskunpinar Ayca A Department of Psychology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, - - 2013
Although there is considerable support for the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use, the use of multidimensional conceptualizations of impulsivity and alcohol use has lead to varying relationship sizes across studies. The aims of the current meta-analysis are to (i) examine variability in the magnitude of the bivariate relationship between ...
Motohashi Hayato H Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2013
It is shown that the tension between recent neutrino oscillation experiments, favoring sterile neutrinos with masses of the order of 1 eV, and cosmological data which impose stringent constraints on neutrino masses from the free streaming suppression of density fluctuations, can be resolved in models of the present accelerated expansion of ...
Shah Arvind Kumar - - 2013
Background: Ascertaining the optimal depth of dilator progression is a crucial factor during tract dilation in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Dilation is generally guided under fluoroscopy, ultrasound or combination of both techniques and it is still difficult to prevent over-dilation causing perforation and vascular injury or under-dilation causing difficulty in establishment ...
Lowry J K JK Division of Invertebrate Zoology, Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.; Email: - - 2013
The Amphipoda includes a large clade defined by the presence of a previously unrecognised synapomorphy, apical robust setae on the rami of uropods 1-2. We term this clade the Senticaudata subord. nov. (Latin: sentis = thorn). It includes almost all freshwater species as well as a number of marine benthic ...
Yang Shulin S Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, - - 2013
Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of the bones of the calvaria resulting in abnormal skull shapes that can be associated with increased intracranial pressure. While craniosynostoses of multiple different types can be easily diagnosed, quantifying the severity of the abnormality is much more subjective and not a standard part of ...
Akdoğan Ilgaz I Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, - - 2012
To compare the calcaneal pitch angle (CPA) values measured on direct lateral radiographs of feet, and the modified projection area per length squared (PAL), which was calculated as a new method for the evaluation of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot. Direct lateral radiographs of patients who had ...
Liu H - - 2012
This study aims at investigating the efficiency of bimodal spectroscopy in detection of hypertrophic scar tissue on a preclinical model. Fluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance spectra were collected from 55 scars deliberately created on ears of 20 rabbits, amongst which some received tacrolimus injection to provide non-hypertrophic scar tissue. The spectroscopic ...
Lee Dong Won - - 2012
In this study, we evaluated the effects of silicone-based gel on the healing of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model. After 4-week application of silicone-based gel containing allantoin, dexpanthenol and heparin (Noscarna™) to scars in a rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring, significant improvements in hypertrophic scar healing and ...
Wu Tongning - - 2012
Digital human models are frequently obtained from supine-postured medical images or cadaver slices, but many applications require standing models. This paper presents the work of reconstructing standing Chinese adult anatomical models from supine postured slices. Apart from the previous studies, the deformation works on 2-D segmented slices. The surface profile ...
Molendijk Marc L - - 2012
Inconsistenties have been reported with regard to an association between val(66) met, a polymorphism on the BDNF gene, and hippocampal volume. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to determine the magnitude and direction of this putative association and estimated the potential influence of demographic, clinical, and methodological characteristics ...
Napolitano Antonio - - 2012
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and there is strong interest in noninvasive measurement of GABA levels to assess GABAergic dysfunction in a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases. GABA detection by proton MR spectroscopy is challenging due to its low ...
Macdonald Kate E - - 2012
Hippocampal pathology occurs early in Alzheimer disease (AD), and atrophy, measured by volumes and volume changes, may predict which subjects will develop AD. Measures of the temporal horn (TH), which is situated adjacent to the hippocampus, may also indicate early changes in AD. Previous studies suggest that these metrics can ...
Zheng Ying - - 2012
We have developed a model of the local field potential (LFP) based on the conservation of charge, the independence principle of ionic flows and the classical Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type intracellular model of synaptic activity. Insights were gained through the simulation of the HH intracellular model on the nonlinear relationship between ...
Lee Gang-Hui - - 2012
The etiology of epilepsy is a very complicated, multifactorial process that is not completely understood. Therefore, the availability of epilepsy animal models induced by different mechanisms is crucial in advancing our knowledge and developing new therapeutic regimens for this disorder. Considering the advantages of zebrafish, we have developed a seizure ...
Jocham Gerhard G Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. - - 2012
Although the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in reward-guided decision making, its exact role in this process has remained an unresolved issue. Here we show that, in accordance with models of decision making, vmPFC concentrations of GABA and glutamate in human volunteers predict both behavioral performance and ...
Maldjian J A - - 2012
The hippocampus is a widely recognized area of early change in AD, yet voxelwise analyses of FDG-PET activity differences between AD and CN controls have consistently failed to identify hippocampal hypometabolism. In this article, we propose a high-dimensional PET-specific analysis framework to determine whether important hippocampal metabolic FDG-PET activity differences ...
Dickens Laura S LS MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, P.O. Box 138, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, - - 2012
Formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) is a critical step in death receptor-mediated apoptosis, yet the mechanisms underlying assembly of this key multiprotein complex remain unclear. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we have delineated the stoichiometry of the native TRAIL DISC. While current models suggest that core DISC components are ...
Rattka Marta - - 2012
In patients at risk of developing epilepsy after an initial precipitating injury to the brain, the epileptogenic latent period may offer a window of opportunity for initiating potential antiepileptogenic therapy in an attempt to prevent epilepsy from developing. One potential target for antiepileptogenesis is the development of neuronal hyperexcitability during ...
Adluru Nagesh - - 2012
Extracting specific white matter tracts (e.g., uncinate fasciculus) from whole brain tractography has numerous applications in studying individual differences in white matter. Typically specific tracts are extracted manually, following replicable protocols which can be prohibitively expensive for large scale studies. A tract clustering framework is a suitable computational framework but ...
Kim Hosung - - 2012
In drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), detecting hippocampal atrophy on MRI is crucial as it allows defining the surgical target. In addition to atrophy, about 40% of patients present with malrotation, a developmental anomaly characterized by atypical morphologies of the hippocampus and collateral sulcus. We have recently shown that both ...
Schlerf John - - 2012
A central tenet of motor neuroscience is that the cerebellum learns from sensory prediction errors. Surprisingly, neuroimaging studies have not revealed definitive signatures of error processing in the cerebellum. Furthermore, neurophysiologic studies suggest an asymmetry, such that the cerebellum may encode errors arising from unexpected sensory events, but not errors ...
Grundmann Kathrin - - 2012
A mutation in the coding region of the Tor1A gene, resulting in a deletion of a glutamic acid residue in the torsinA protein (∆ETorA), is the major cause of the inherited autosomal-dominant early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1). The pathophysiological consequences of this amino acid loss are still not understood. Currently ...
Senkevitch Emilee E Research Center for Genetic Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, - - 2012
All knockout mouse models of urea cycle disorders die in the neonatal period or shortly thereafter. Since N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency in humans can be effectively treated with N-carbamyl-l-glutamate (NCG), we sought to develop a mouse model of this disorder that could be rescued by biochemical intervention, reared to adulthood, ...
Demont-Guignard Sophie - - 2012
In partial epilepsies, interictal epileptic spikes (IESs) and fast ripples (FRs) represent clinically relevant biomarkers characteristic of epileptogenic networks. However, their specific significance and the pathophysiological changes leading to either FRs or IESs remain elusive. The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions in which hyperexcitable networks can ...
Hindriks Rikkert - - 2012
During the maintenance period of propofol-induced general anesthesia, specific changes in spontaneous EEG rhythms can be observed. These comprise increased delta and theta power and the emergence of alpha oscillations over frontal regions. In this study we use a meanfield model of the thalamo-cortical system to reproduce these changes and ...
Hansen Suzanne L - - 2012
The cortical wedge is a commonly applied model for in vitro screening of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and has been extensively used in characterization of well-known AEDs. However, the predictive validity of this model as a screening model has been questioned as, e.g., carbamazepine has been reported to lack effect ...
Young Oran R - - 2012
Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article ...
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