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Burr Devon M DM Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, 306 EPS Building, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, - - 2014
Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, exhibits extensive aeolian, that is, wind-formed, dunes, features previously identified exclusively on Earth, Mars and Venus. Wind tunnel data collected under ambient and planetary-analogue conditions inform our models of aeolian processes on the terrestrial planets. However, the accuracy of these widely used formulations in ...
Ichinohe Noritaka N Laboratory for Ultrastructural Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), 4-1-1 Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8502, Japan; Ichinohe Neural System Group, Lab for Molecular Analysis of Higher Cognitive Function, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recently, pathophysiology of human psychiatry originates from abnormal numbers of synapses/spines. There are generally two-types of development of spines from birth depending on species. One is, after birth, synaptogenesis occurs, and there is a clear peak of spines, and then rapidly pruning occurring, which are called "overshoot-type" of development of ...
Maynard Matthew R MR Advanced Laboratory for Radiation Dosimetry Studies (ALRADS), J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-8300, - - 2014
The European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) project aims to improve understanding of cancer risks associated with chronic in utero radiation exposure. A comprehensive series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms was previously developed at the University of Florida in order to provide the SOLO project with ...
Brendle Christian - - 2014
A bioimpedance-controlled concept for bone cement milling during revision total hip replacement is presented. Normally, the surgeon manually removes bone cement using a hammer and chisel. However, this procedure is relatively rough and unintended harm may occur to tissue at any time. The proposed bioimpedance-controlled surgical instrumentation improves this process ...
Hilário Renato R RR Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá, Macapá, Brazil; Department of Systematics and Ecology, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, - - 2014
Understanding the effects of habitat structure and other environmental variables on the density of a species can help define its habitat preferences and key ecological determinants of population parameters. The present study evaluated the effects of fragment size, the presence of a key predator/competitor, the yellow-breasted capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos), primary ...
Conversano Francesco F National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce, - - 2014
We investigated the possible clinical feasibility and accuracy of an innovative ultrasound (US) method for diagnosis of osteoporosis diagnosis of the spine. A total of 342 female patients (aged 51-60 y) underwent spinal dual X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal echographic scanning of the lumbar spine. Recruited patients were subdivided into a reference ...
Wang Ji J Bone Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The microstructure of trabecular bone is usually perceived as a collection of plate-like and rod-like trabeculae, which can be determined from the emerging high-resolution skeletal imaging modalities such as micro computed tomography (μCT) or clinical high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) using the individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) technique. It has been ...
Woodworth J T JT Department of Mathematics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA - - 2014
Given a discrete sample of event locations, we wish to produce a probability density that models the relative probability of events occurring in a spatial domain. Standard density estimation techniques do not incorporate priors informed by spatial data. Such methods can result in assigning significant positive probability to locations where ...
Yin Peter P Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19143, USA and Department of Pharmacology and Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19143, - - 2014
We present a Mendelian Randomization Pipeline (MeRP) to facilitate rapid, causal inference analysis through automating key steps in developing and analyzing genetic instruments obtained from publicly available data. Our tool uses the National Human Genome Research Institute catalog of associations to generate instrumental variable trait files, and provides methods for ...
Weatherholt Alyssa M AM Center for Translational Musculoskeletal Research, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, - - 2014
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is a popular tool for noninvasively estimating bone mechanical properties. Previous studies have demonstrated that pQCT provides precise estimates that are good predictors of actual bone mechanical properties at popular distal imaging sites (tibia and radius). The predictive ability and precision of pQCT at more ...
Ramasamy V V Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu, - - 2014
The activity concentrations ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) and mineralogical characterization of different layer (upper surface, first, second and third feet) Kerala beach sediments have been assessed with an aim of evaluating the radioactivity content profile, its relation to specific minerals and their distributions (spatial and depth wise). The eight different ...
Adusumilli Pratik P University of Leeds, Leeds, England (P.A., T.E.); and University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland (K.M.). - - 2014
The purpose of this project was to create a sonographic phantom model of the shoulder that was accurate in bone configuration. Its main purpose was for operator training to measure the acromiohumeral distance. A computerized 3-dimensional model of the superior half of the humerus and scapula was rendered and 3-dimensionally ...
Gharenazifam Mina M Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology , Tehran , Iran - - 2014
Abstract Using 3D models of bones can highly improve accuracy and reliability of orthopaedic evaluation. However, it may impose excessive computational load. This article proposes a fully automatic method for extracting a compact model of the femur from its 3D model. The proposed method works by extracting a 3D skeleton ...
Kaynia Narges - - 2014
This study investigated the effects of intra-specimen variations in tissue mineral density (TMD) on the apparent-level stiffness of human trabecular bone. High-resolution finite element (FE) models were created for each of twelve human trabecular bone specimens, using both micro computed tomography (μCT) and "gold-standard" synchrotron radiation μCT (SRμCT) data. Our ...
Cowtan Kevin K Department of Chemistry, University of York , York YO1 5DD, - - 2014
The crystallographic structure solution of nucleotides and nucleotide complexes is now commonplace. The resulting electron-density maps are often poorer than for proteins, and as a result interpretation in terms of an atomic model can require significant effort, particularly in the case of large structures. While model building can be performed ...
Howarth Samuel J SJ Associate Professor, Graduate Education and Research Programs, McMorland Family Research Chair in Mechanobiology, Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to compare the spine flexion angle time histories computed with the 2 described techniques (dot product [DP] and a modified joint coordinate system [JCS] approaches) that used vector algebra and used skin-mounted markers to the spine flexion angles derived using local coordinate systems constructed ...
Fitton Laura C LC Centre for Anatomical and Human Sciences, Hull York Medical School, University of York, - - 2014
In recent years, finite element analysis (FEA) has emerged as a useful tool for the analysis of skeletal form-function relationships. While this approach has obvious appeal for the study of fossil specimens, such material is often fragmentary with disrupted internal architecture and can contain matrix that leads to errors in ...
Granke Mathilde M UPMC Univ Paris 6, UMR 7623, Laboratoire d'Imagerie Paramétrique, 75005 Paris, France; CNRS, UMR 7623, Laboratoire d'Imagerie Paramétrique, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
An evidence gap exists in fully understanding and reliably modeling the variations in elastic anisotropy that are observed at the millimeter scale in human cortical bone. The porosity (pore volume fraction) is known to account for a large part, but not all, of the elasticity variations. This effect may be ...
Kazadi Mbamba Christian C Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Process simulation models used across the wastewater industry have inherent limitations due to over-simplistic descriptions of important physico-chemical reactions, especially for mineral solids precipitation. As part of the efforts towards a larger Generalized Physicochemical Modelling Framework, the present study aims to identify a broadly applicable precipitation modelling approach. The study ...
Adeleke Rasheed A RA ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Agricultural Research Council, 600, Belvedere Street, Arcadia, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa, - - 2014
The quest for quality mineral resources has led to the development of many technologies that can be used to refine minerals. Biohydrometallurgy is becoming an increasingly acceptable technology worldwide because it is cheap and environmentally friendly. This technology has been successfully developed for some sulphidic minerals such as gold and ...
Wang Duo Quan DQ National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Centre for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai 200025, - - 2014
It is important to understand the dynamics of malaria vectors in implementing malaria control strategies. Six villages were selected from different sections in the Three Gorges Reservoir for exploring the relationship between the climatic factors and its malaria vector density from 1997 to 2007 using the auto-regressive linear model regression ...
Golas Abhinav A University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2014
With the growth in world population, the density of crowds in public places has been increasing steadily, leading to a higher incidence of crowd disasters at high densities. Recent research suggests that emergent chaotic behavior at high densities-known collectively as crowd turbulence-is to blame. Thus, a deeper understanding of crowd ...
Sarkar Abhra A Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University, 3143 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3143 - - 2014
We consider the problem of estimating the density of a random variable when precise measurements on the variable are not available, but replicated proxies contaminated with measurement error are available for sufficiently many subjects. Under the assumption of additive measurement errors this reduces to a problem of deconvolution of densities. ...
Dragomir-Daescu Dan D Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, United States; Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to compare proximal femur strength and stiffness obtained experimentally with estimations from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models derived from Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans acquired at two different scanner settings. QCT/FEA models could potentially aid in diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis but several ...
Serov A S AS Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
We present a stream-tube model of oxygen exchange inside a human placenta functional unit (a placentone). The effect of villi density on oxygen transfer efficiency is assessed by numerically solving the diffusion-convection equation in a 2D+1D geometry for a wide range of villi densities. For each set of physiological parameters, ...
Chepelev Nikolai L NL Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, - - 2014
Reliable quantification of gene and protein expression has potential to contribute significantly to the characterization of hypothesized modes of action (MOA) or adverse outcome pathways for critical effects of toxicants. Quantitative analysis of gene expression by benchmark dose (BMD) modeling has been facilitated by the development of effective software tools. ...
Dahlgren Johan P JP Department of Biology and Max-Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of Aging, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230, Odense M, Denmark, - - 2014
Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field ...
Agetsuma Naoki N Wakayama Experimental Forest, Hokkaido University, Wakayama, - - 2014
Population densities of wildlife species tend to be correlated with resource productivity of habitats. However, wildlife density has been greatly modified by increasing human influences. For effective conservation, we must first identify the significant factors that affect wildlife density, and then determine the extent of the areas in which the ...
DeSilva Rebecca R Centre for Forensic Science, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, - - 2014
The forensic anthropologist is responsible for contributing to the identification of an unknown by constructing a biological profile from their skeletal remains. Towards achieving this goal, anthropologists can apply population and temporally specific standards with known error margins to morphometric data collected from a decedent. Recent research relating to the ...
Morris Richard M RM From the Academic Unit of Bone Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Northern General Hospital, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, England (R.M.M., L.Y., J.M.W.); and Centre for Computational Imaging & Simulation Technologies in Biomedicine (CISTIB), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England (M.A.M.F., J.M.P., - - 2014
Purpose To outline the conceptual development of dual-energy absorptiometric (DXA) region-free analysis, quantify its precision, and evaluate its application to quantify the change in longitudinal femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) in patients during the 12 months after total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods All subjects had undergone total hip ...
Evrard Séverine S Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Liege, CHU Sart-Tilman, Liege, - - 2014
The link between vascular calcification (VC) and increased mortality is now well established. Over time, as clinical importance of this phenomenon has begun to be fully considered, scientists have highlighted more and more physiopathological mechanisms and signaling pathways that underlie VC. Several conditions such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and renal diseases ...
Gama Inês I Forensic Sciences Centre (CENCIFOR), Largo da Sé Nova, s/n, 3000-213, Coimbra, Portugal, - - 2014
Biological sex estimation is one of the main parameters required in the construction of a biological profile of an unknown deceased person. In corpses in an advanced state of decomposition, skeletonized or severely mutilated, bone analysis may provide the only way to access biological sex. Although the hip bones are ...
Lin Hsien-Shu - - 2014
The current study aimed to compare the measurements of the mandible morphology using 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with those using 2D CBCT-synthesized cephalograms; to quantify errors in measurements based on 2D synthesized cephalograms; and to clarify the effects such errors have on the description of the mandibular ...
Lancaster Jill J Department of Resource Management and Geography, University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie Street, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia, - - 2014
Many communities comprise species that select resources that are patchily distributed in an environment that is otherwise unsuitable or suboptimal. Effects of this patchiness can depend on the characteristics of patch arrays and animal movements, and produce non-intuitive outcomes in which population densities are unrelated to resource abundance. Resource mosaics ...
Mac Nally Ralph R Institute for Applied Ecology, The University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, 2617, Australia, - - 2014
Accounting for differences in abundances among species remains a high priority for community ecology. While there has been more than 80 years of work on trying to explain the characteristic S shape of rank-abundance distributions (RADs), there has been recent conjecture that the form may not depend on ecological processes per ...
Navega David D Forensic Sciences Centre (CENCIFOR), Largo da Sé Nova, s/n, 3000-213, Coimbra, Portugal, - - 2014
Sex estimation is extremely important in the analysis of human remains as many of the subsequent biological parameters are sex specific (e.g., age at death, stature, and ancestry). When dealing with incomplete or fragmented remains, metric analysis of the tarsal bones of the feet has proven valuable. In this study, ...
Enns-Bray William S WS Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6; Roger Jackson Centre for Health and Wellness Research, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6; McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N - - 2014
Finite element (FE) models of bone derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) rely on realistic material properties to accurately predict bone strength. QCT cannot resolve bone microarchitecture, therefore QCT-based FE models lack the anisotropy apparent within the underlying bone tissue. This study proposes a method for mapping femoral anisotropy using ...
Shedge Sapana V SV Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4, - - 2014
Recent application of the Frozen-Density Embedding Theory based continuum model of the solvent, which is used for calculating solvatochromic shifts in the UV/Vis range, are reviewed. In this model, the solvent is represented as a non-uniform continuum taking into account both the statistical nature of the solvent and specific solute-solvent ...
Henn Julian J Emil-Warburg-Weg 6, 95447 Bayreuth, - - 2014
In order to detect and graphically visualize the absence or presence of systematic errors in fit data, conditional probabilities are employed to analyze the statistical independence or dependence of fit residuals. This concept is completely general and applicable to all scientific fields in which model parameters are fitted to experimental ...
Banerjee D D Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and - - 2014
Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird ...
Quinn Thomas P TP School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, WA, 98195-5020, USA, - - 2014
It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult ...
Kanchan Tanuj T From the *Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, †Manipal University, Manipal; ‡Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh; and §Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India; and ‖Department of Forensic Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu University, - - 2014
Human skull has been the most extensively studied bone for establishing the taxonomies at evolutionary levels. Crania are also the most commonly used skeletal elements in population studies because they are known to be more genetically driven and less affected by environmental factors. The craniofacial indices are considered as clinical ...
Krabben A - - 2014
Treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is rarely personalized, since predictors of disease course are lacking. The severity of RA can be measured objectively by radiographic progression. The most reliable way to measure radiographic progression is in a longitudinal cohort with serial time points, scoring on a quantitative scale, ...
Escuredo Olga O Department of Vegetal Biology and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2015
Consumers demand to know the floral origins of honeys. Therefore, the use of simple and reliable techniques for differentiating among honeys by their origins is necessary. Multivariate statistical techniques and near infrared spectroscopy applied to palynological and mineral characteristics make it possible to differentiate among the types of honey collected ...
Chen Li-Sheng - - 2014
Abstract Although the trade-off between the two misclassifications (false-positive fraction and false-negative fraction), corresponding to type I and type II error in statistical hypothesis testing based on Neyman-Pearson lemma, to determine the optimal cutoff in the province of evaluating the accuracy of medical diagnosis and disease screening using interval-scaled biomarkers ...
Bae Tae Soo - - 2014
Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, there is little research on the intervertebral load in accordance with anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints ...
Di Virgilio Giovanni G School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, - - 2014
Previous research focusing on broad-scale or geographically invariant species-environment dependencies suggest that temperature-related variables explain more of the variation in reptile distributions than precipitation. However, species-environment relationships may exhibit considerable spatial variation contingent upon the geographic nuances that vary between locations. Broad-scale, geographically invariant analyses may mask this local variation ...
Mostafa Nesrine Z NZ Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, - - 2014
Suitable animal models are necessary to test the efficacy of new bone grafting therapies in cleft palate surgery. Rodent models of cleft palate are available but have limitations. This study compared and modified mid-palate cleft (MPC) and alveolar cleft (AC) models to determine the most reliable and reproducible model for ...
Naito Kanta K Department of Mathematics, Shimane University, Japan - - 2014
This paper is concerned with the development process of human fetuses. Though the development process of human fetuses still includes many unknown issues, it is known that a certain harmonious relationship between the organs can be observed. This knowledge is based on our intuition, but we have no theory which ...
Williams Felicia N FN Shriners Hospital for Children, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, - - 2014
The article by van den Broek et al.(1) in a recent issue of Experimental Dermatology identifies some of the more pressing challenges for both scientists and physicians with regards to scar formation: the how, why, when, and who of hypertrophic scar formation. Despite our growing knowledge of the immune system, the ...
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