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Williams Felicia N FN Shriners Hospital for Children, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, - - 2014
The article by van den Broek et al.(1) in a recent issue of Experimental Dermatology identifies some of the more pressing challenges for both scientists and physicians with regards to scar formation: the how, why, when, and who of hypertrophic scar formation. Despite our growing knowledge of the immune system, the ...
Jung Gwanghyun G Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, - - 2014
Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) represent a powerful new model system to study the basic mechanisms of inherited cardiomyopathies. hiPSC-CMs have been utilized to model several cardiovascular diseases, achieving the most success in the inherited arrhythmias, including long QT and Timothy syndromes (Moretti et al. N Engl J Med. ...
Saar Indrek I a Estonian Academy of Security - - 2014
ABSTRACT Objective: This paper examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Methods: Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions ...
Cameron Alexander M AM Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, and North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia From the Center for Regenerative Medicine, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia; the Disciplines of Surgery and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Adelaide; the Adult Burns Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital; and the Australasian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's - - 2014
The development of new therapies for hypertrophic scarring has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model. The authors' objective was to establish a reproducible murine model of hypertrophic scarring by infusing bleomycin over a prolonged period to stimulate dermal fibroproliferation. Osmotic pumps filled with 90 μl of ...
Smith James Andrew - - 2013
Induction of labour is poorly understood even though it is performed in 20% of births in the United States. One method of induction, the balloon dilator applied with traction to the interior os of the cervix, engages a softening process, permitting dilation and effacement to proceed until the beginning of ...
Brazzale Danny J - - 2013
Background: The recently generated spirometry reference equations from the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) provide a long-awaited opportunity for the adoption of a globally applicable set of normal reference values. Objective: The aim of this study was to document the likely interpretative effects of changing from commonly used current spirometry ...
Kahan Joshua - - 2013
Despite almost a decade since the introduction of Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM), there remains some confusion within the wider neuroimaging, neuroscience and clinical communities as to what DCM studies are probing, and what all the jargon means. We provide ten simple rules, and a theoretical example to gently introduce the ...
Bolin Elijah - - 2013
Appropriate interpretation of a screening test's validity poses a challenge to the clinician. The purpose of this review is to revisit the terms sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and pre- and posttest probability and their application to the clinical setting. For illustration, we use a recently published article in the American ...
Coskunpinar Ayca A Department of Psychology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, - - 2013
Although there is considerable support for the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use, the use of multidimensional conceptualizations of impulsivity and alcohol use has lead to varying relationship sizes across studies. The aims of the current meta-analysis are to (i) examine variability in the magnitude of the bivariate relationship between ...
Shah Arvind Kumar - - 2013
Background: Ascertaining the optimal depth of dilator progression is a crucial factor during tract dilation in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Dilation is generally guided under fluoroscopy, ultrasound or combination of both techniques and it is still difficult to prevent over-dilation causing perforation and vascular injury or under-dilation causing difficulty in establishment ...
Lowry J K JK Division of Invertebrate Zoology, Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.; Email: - - 2013
The Amphipoda includes a large clade defined by the presence of a previously unrecognised synapomorphy, apical robust setae on the rami of uropods 1-2. We term this clade the Senticaudata subord. nov. (Latin: sentis = thorn). It includes almost all freshwater species as well as a number of marine benthic ...
Liu H - - 2012
This study aims at investigating the efficiency of bimodal spectroscopy in detection of hypertrophic scar tissue on a preclinical model. Fluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance spectra were collected from 55 scars deliberately created on ears of 20 rabbits, amongst which some received tacrolimus injection to provide non-hypertrophic scar tissue. The spectroscopic ...
Lee Dong Won - - 2012
In this study, we evaluated the effects of silicone-based gel on the healing of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model. After 4-week application of silicone-based gel containing allantoin, dexpanthenol and heparin (Noscarna™) to scars in a rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring, significant improvements in hypertrophic scar healing and ...
Wu Tongning - - 2012
Digital human models are frequently obtained from supine-postured medical images or cadaver slices, but many applications require standing models. This paper presents the work of reconstructing standing Chinese adult anatomical models from supine postured slices. Apart from the previous studies, the deformation works on 2-D segmented slices. The surface profile ...
Molendijk Marc L - - 2012
Inconsistenties have been reported with regard to an association between val(66) met, a polymorphism on the BDNF gene, and hippocampal volume. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to determine the magnitude and direction of this putative association and estimated the potential influence of demographic, clinical, and methodological characteristics ...
Napolitano Antonio - - 2012
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and there is strong interest in noninvasive measurement of GABA levels to assess GABAergic dysfunction in a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases. GABA detection by proton MR spectroscopy is challenging due to its low ...
Macdonald Kate E - - 2012
Hippocampal pathology occurs early in Alzheimer disease (AD), and atrophy, measured by volumes and volume changes, may predict which subjects will develop AD. Measures of the temporal horn (TH), which is situated adjacent to the hippocampus, may also indicate early changes in AD. Previous studies suggest that these metrics can ...
Zheng Ying - - 2012
We have developed a model of the local field potential (LFP) based on the conservation of charge, the independence principle of ionic flows and the classical Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type intracellular model of synaptic activity. Insights were gained through the simulation of the HH intracellular model on the nonlinear relationship between ...
Lee Gang-Hui - - 2012
The etiology of epilepsy is a very complicated, multifactorial process that is not completely understood. Therefore, the availability of epilepsy animal models induced by different mechanisms is crucial in advancing our knowledge and developing new therapeutic regimens for this disorder. Considering the advantages of zebrafish, we have developed a seizure ...
Jocham Gerhard G Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. - - 2012
Although the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in reward-guided decision making, its exact role in this process has remained an unresolved issue. Here we show that, in accordance with models of decision making, vmPFC concentrations of GABA and glutamate in human volunteers predict both behavioral performance and ...
Maldjian J A - - 2012
The hippocampus is a widely recognized area of early change in AD, yet voxelwise analyses of FDG-PET activity differences between AD and CN controls have consistently failed to identify hippocampal hypometabolism. In this article, we propose a high-dimensional PET-specific analysis framework to determine whether important hippocampal metabolic FDG-PET activity differences ...
Dickens Laura S LS MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, P.O. Box 138, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, - - 2012
Formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) is a critical step in death receptor-mediated apoptosis, yet the mechanisms underlying assembly of this key multiprotein complex remain unclear. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we have delineated the stoichiometry of the native TRAIL DISC. While current models suggest that core DISC components are ...
Rattka Marta - - 2012
In patients at risk of developing epilepsy after an initial precipitating injury to the brain, the epileptogenic latent period may offer a window of opportunity for initiating potential antiepileptogenic therapy in an attempt to prevent epilepsy from developing. One potential target for antiepileptogenesis is the development of neuronal hyperexcitability during ...
Adluru Nagesh - - 2012
Extracting specific white matter tracts (e.g., uncinate fasciculus) from whole brain tractography has numerous applications in studying individual differences in white matter. Typically specific tracts are extracted manually, following replicable protocols which can be prohibitively expensive for large scale studies. A tract clustering framework is a suitable computational framework but ...
Kim Hosung - - 2012
In drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), detecting hippocampal atrophy on MRI is crucial as it allows defining the surgical target. In addition to atrophy, about 40% of patients present with malrotation, a developmental anomaly characterized by atypical morphologies of the hippocampus and collateral sulcus. We have recently shown that both ...
Schlerf John - - 2012
A central tenet of motor neuroscience is that the cerebellum learns from sensory prediction errors. Surprisingly, neuroimaging studies have not revealed definitive signatures of error processing in the cerebellum. Furthermore, neurophysiologic studies suggest an asymmetry, such that the cerebellum may encode errors arising from unexpected sensory events, but not errors ...
Grundmann Kathrin - - 2012
A mutation in the coding region of the Tor1A gene, resulting in a deletion of a glutamic acid residue in the torsinA protein (∆ETorA), is the major cause of the inherited autosomal-dominant early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1). The pathophysiological consequences of this amino acid loss are still not understood. Currently ...
Senkevitch Emilee - - 2012
All knockout mouse models of urea cycle disorders die in the neonatal period or shortly thereafter. Since N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency in humans can be effectively treated with N-carbamyl-l-glutamate (NCG), we sought to develop a mouse model of this disorder that could be rescued by biochemical intervention, reared to adulthood, ...
Demont-Guignard Sophie - - 2012
In partial epilepsies, interictal epileptic spikes (IESs) and fast ripples (FRs) represent clinically relevant biomarkers characteristic of epileptogenic networks. However, their specific significance and the pathophysiological changes leading to either FRs or IESs remain elusive. The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions in which hyperexcitable networks can ...
Hindriks Rikkert - - 2012
During the maintenance period of propofol-induced general anesthesia, specific changes in spontaneous EEG rhythms can be observed. These comprise increased delta and theta power and the emergence of alpha oscillations over frontal regions. In this study we use a meanfield model of the thalamo-cortical system to reproduce these changes and ...
Hansen Suzanne L - - 2012
The cortical wedge is a commonly applied model for in vitro screening of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and has been extensively used in characterization of well-known AEDs. However, the predictive validity of this model as a screening model has been questioned as, e.g., carbamazepine has been reported to lack effect ...
Young Oran R - - 2012
Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article ...
Thomson Elizabeth - - 2012
Opportunities for conceiving and bearing children are fewer when unions are not formed or are dissolved during the childbearing years. At the same time, union instability produces a pool of persons who may enter new partnerships and have additional children in stepfamilies. The balance between these two opposing forces and ...
Joyner Kara - - 2012
Researchers continue to question fathers' willingness to report their biological children in surveys and the ability of surveys to adequately represent fathers. To address these concerns, this study evaluates the quality of men's fertility data in the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and ...
Elmenhorst David - - 2012
This study evaluates the reproducibility of the quantification of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR(5) ) densities in rats using the PET radiotracer [(11) C]ABP688 and pharmacokinetic models that are based on an input function which is derived from a reference tissue. Seven rats underwent dynamic PET scans (60 min) ...
Hector Katie L - - 2012
1. 'Compensatory growth' and 'catch-up growth' are often used interchangeably to describe the faster than optimal growth that occurs following a period of dietary restriction in the development of many animals. Concerns about the statistical analysis of these studies have drawn attention to the risk of false detection in reports of ...
Andrello Marco - - 2012
  Effective population size (N (e) ) determines the strength of genetic drift and can influence the level of genetic diversity a population can maintain. Assessing how changes in demographic rates associated with environmental variables and management actions affect N (e) thus can be crucial to the conservation of endangered ...
Bondar M L - - 2012
PURPOSE: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 ...
Varughese Jobin Kotakkathu - - 2012
Object Small vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are often conservatively managed and treated only upon growth. Growth is usually reported in mm/year, but describing the growth of a 3D structure by a single diameter has been questioned. As a result, VS growth dynamics should be further investigated. In addition, baseline clinical parameters ...
Cullings Harry M - - 2012
The computational phantoms used in dosimetry system DS86 and re-used in DS02 were derived from models and methods developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) in the US, but referred to Japanese anthropometric data for the Japanese population of 1945, from studies conducted at the Japanese National Institute of Radiological ...
Wu Chih-Da - - 2012
Pollution exhibits significant variations horizontally and vertically within cities; therefore, the size and three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of population are significant determinants of urban health. This paper presents a novel methodology, 3D digital geography (3DIG) methodology, for investigating 3D spatial distributions of population in close proximity to traffic, thus the ...
Neal Peter - - 2012
We consider the spread of an epidemic through a population divided into n sub-populations, in which individuals move between populations according to a Markov transition matrix Σ and infectives can only make infectious contacts with members of their current population. Expressions for the basic reproduction number, R(0), and the probability ...
Tomasik Martin J - - 2012
Globalized labor markets confront many adults, both employed and unemployed, with demands arising from career uncertainty that have the potential to jeopardize their occupational planning. This article investigated how individuals in different regions of Germany, which are characterized by different economic opportunities, negotiate such demands to pursue a career. The ...
Pons Josep - - 2012
In dry areas such as Mediterranean ecosystems, fluctuations in seed production are typically explained by resource (water) availability. However, acorn production in cork oak (Quercus suber) populations shows a very low relationship to weather. Because cork oak trees produce acorns with different maturation patterns (annual and biennial), we hypothesized that ...
Rand David G - - 2012
Classical economic models make behavioral predictions based on the assumption that people are fully rational and care only about maximizing their own payoffs. Although this approach successfully explains human behavior in many situations, there is a wealth of experimental evidence demonstrating conditions where people deviate from the predictions of these ...
Covshoff Sarah - - 2012
The growth rate of the human population is faster than improvements in crop yields. To feed people in the future, multiple strategies are required. One proposed approach is to raise the yield potential of C(3) crops by modifying photosynthesis to the more efficient C(4) pathway. Owing to complex changes associated ...
DaSilva Ligia - - 2012
Postharvest growth of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters can increase risk of human infection. Unfortunately, limited information is available regarding V. vulnificus growth and survival patterns over a wide range of storage temperatures in oysters harvested from different estuaries and in different oyster species. In this study, we developed a predictive ...
Crisci Jessica L - - 2012
The recent availability of whole-genome sequencing data affords tremendous power for statistical inference. With this, there has been great interest in the development of polymorphism-based approaches for the estimation of population genetic parameters. These approaches seek to estimate, for example, recently fixed or sweeping beneficial mutations, the rate of recurrent ...
Richards Michael R - - 2012
Although male circumcision (MC) has been a widespread practice in some regions, while relatively new in others, it has recently ascended in popularity as a HIV-reduction intervention, particularly in areas with high rates of HIV but low rates of MC. However, the uptake and potential effectiveness of MC may be ...
Suryawanshi Kulbhushansingh R - - 2012
Mountain ungulates around the world have been threatened by illegal hunting, habitat modification, increased livestock grazing, disease and development. Mountain ungulates play an important functional role in grasslands as primary consumers and as prey for wild carnivores, and monitoring of their populations is important for conservation purposes. However, most of ...
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