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Austin Matthew D MD Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA - - 2014
While the currently available estimators for the conditional Kendall's tau measure of association between truncation and failure are valid for testing the null hypothesis of quasi-independence, they are biased when the null does not hold. This is because they converge to quantities that depend on the censoring distribution. The magnitude ...
Fogarty Brian J BJ Department of Political Science, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 800 Tower, St. Louis, MO 63121, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper demonstrates the importance of proper model specification when analyzing time-series count data in political communication studies. It is common for scholars of media and politics to investigate counts of coverage of an issue as it evolves over time. Many scholars rightly consider the issues of time dependence and ...
Hogue Mark M *Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Bldg. 730-1B Rm 108, Aiken, SC - - 2014
Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential ...
McConnell Bridget L BL James Cook University, - - 2014
Recovery-from-extinction effects (e.g., spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, and facilitated reacquisition) have become the focus of much research in recent years. However, despite a great deal of empirical data, there are few theoretical explanations for these effects. This paucity poses a severe limitation on our understanding of these behavioral effects, impedes ...
Petersen Maya L ML From the Divisions of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health, Berkeley, - - 2014
The practice of epidemiology requires asking causal questions. Formal frameworks for causal inference developed over the past decades have the potential to improve the rigor of this process. However, the appropriate role for formal causal thinking in applied epidemiology remains a matter of debate. We argue that a formal causal ...
Sood Manish M MM aOttawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI), Department of Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa bFoothills Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary cHumber River Hospital dThe Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, Keenan Research Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, - - 2014
The optimal time at which to initiate chronic dialysis remains unknown. Using a contemporary knowledge translation approach (the knowledge-to-action framework), a pan-Canadian collaboration (CANN-NET) set out to study the scope of the problem, then develop and disseminate evidence-based guidelines addressing the timing of dialysis initiation. The purpose of this review ...
Galanter Marc M Department of Psychiatry, Division of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, Center for Spirituality and Healthcare, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New - - 2014
In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine ...
Ojwang╩╝ James K JK *Division of Global HIV/AIDS Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya; †Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health Allan Rosenfield Global Health Fellowship, Nairobi, Kenya; ‡HIV Implementation Sciences and Services, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; and §Directorate of Information and Communication Technology, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Nairobi, - - 2014
With improvements in technology, electronic data capture (EDC) for large surveys is feasible. EDC offers benefits over traditional paper-based data collection, including more accurate data, greater completeness of data, and decreased data cleaning burden. The second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was a population-based survey of persons aged 18 ...
Zhang Yun - - 2014
Integrating and analyzing heterogeneous genome-scale data is a huge algorithmic challenge for modern systems biology. Bipartite graphs can be useful for representing relationships across pairs of disparate data types, with the interpretation of these relationships accomplished through an enumeration of maximal bicliques. Most previously-known techniques are generally ill-suited to this ...
Silva Fredson Torres - - 2014
Only 10% of all compounds developed by pharmaceutical companies make it to the market. Of the 90% that do not make it to the market, 50% either have toxicity or pharmacokinetic issues. Thus, the need for ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) optimization during the early stages of drug ...
Lee Myoung-Jae MJ Department of Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South - - 2014
In difference in differences, a treatment is applied only to a qualified group at some time point. The qualification may be time-constant as in gender, or time-varying as in residential location. When the qualification is time-varying, there appear four groups: the newly qualified (in-movers), the already qualified (in-stayers), the newly disqualified ...
Zahadat Payam P Karl-Franzens University - - 2014
Abstract A controller of biological or artificial organism (e.g., in bio-inspired cellular robots) consists of a number of processes that drive its dynamics. For a system of processes to perform as a successful controller, different properties can be mentioned. One of the desirable properties of such a system is the ...
Weiss Jérôme J Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)/Université J. Fourier, 38402 St. Martin d'Hères Cedex, - - 2014
The larger structures are, the lower their mechanical strength. Already discussed by Leonardo da Vinci and Edmé Mariotte several centuries ago, size effects on strength remain of crucial importance in modern engineering for the elaboration of safety regulations in structural design or the extrapolation of laboratory results to geophysical field ...
Parrish Kelly E KE a California Department of Motor Vehicles , Research and Development Branch , 2570 24th Street, MS H-126, Sacramento , CA 95818-2606 , - - 2014
ABSTRACT Objective. Although driver license suspension and revocation have been shown to improve traffic safety, suspended or revoked (SR) drivers who continue to drive-which appears to be the majority-are about three times more likely to be involved in crashes and to cause a fatal crash. In California and many other ...
Zhou Wenhu W Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Tongzipo Road #172, Changsha 410013, Hunan, PR China. - - 2014
Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acids that selectively bind to target molecules. Most aptamers are obtained through a combinatorial biology technique called SELEX. Since aptamers can be isolated to bind to almost any molecule of choice, can be readily modified at arbitrary positions and they possess predictable secondary structures, this platform ...
Cunanan Kristen - - 2014
Traditionally, phase I oncology trials are designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), defined as the highest dose with an acceptable probability of dose limiting toxicities(DLT), of a new treatment via a dose escalation study. An alternate approach is to jointly model toxicity and efficacy and allow dose escalation ...
Chen Wanqiu W Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Box 1363, San Francisco, CA, 94110, - - 2014
Patients harboring brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) are at life-threatening risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The pathogenesis of bAVM has not been completely understood. Current treatment options are invasive, and ≈ 20 % of patients are not offered interventional therapy because of excessive treatment risk. There are no specific medical ...
Lande R R Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Berkshire, - - 2014
Quantitative genetic models of evolution of phenotypic plasticity are used to derive environmental tolerance curves for a population in a changing environment, providing a theoretical foundation for integrating physiological and community ecology with evolutionary genetics of plasticity and norms of reaction. Plasticity is modelled for a labile quantitative character undergoing ...
Cardoso-Leite Pedro P Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, - - 2014
A briefly flashed target stimulus can become "invisible" when immediately followed by a mask-a phenomenon known as backward masking, which constitutes a major tool in the cognitive sciences. One form of backward masking is termed metacontrast masking. It is generally assumed that in metacontrast masking, the mask suppresses activity on ...
van den Berg Ronald R University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Performance on visual working memory tasks decreases as more items need to be remembered. Over the past decade, a debate has unfolded between proponents of slot models and slotless models of this phenomenon (Ma, Husain, Bays (Nature Neuroscience 17, 347-356, 2014). Zhang and Luck (Nature 453, (7192), 233-235, 2008) and ...
Osiurak François F Laboratoire d'Etude des Mécanismes Cognitifs, Université Lumière Lyon 2, 5, avenue Pierre Mendès-France, 69676, Bron-Cedex, France, - - 2014
Our understanding of human tool use comes mainly from neuropsychology, particularly from patients with apraxia or action disorganization syndrome. However, there is no integrative, theoretical framework explaining what these neuropsychological syndromes tell us about the cognitive/neural bases of human tool use. The goal of the present article is to fill ...
Donczo Boglarka B Horvath Laboratory of Bioseparation Sciences, University of Debrecen, - - 2014
Carbohydrate microarrays, comprising hundreds to thousands of different glycan structures on solid surfaces in a spatially discrete pattern, are sensitive and versatile tools for the analysis of glycosylation changes in complex biological samples. Glycoarrays are also suitable for monitoring multiple molecular interactions with biomolecules where sugars are involved, offering a ...
Nehrbass-Ahles Christoph C Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zürcherstrasse 111, CH-8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland; Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Zähringerstrasse 25, CH-3012, Bern, - - 2014
Tree-rings offer one of the few possibilities to empirically quantify and reconstruct forest growth dynamics over years to millennia. Contemporaneously with the growing scientific community employing tree-ring parameters, recent research has suggested that commonly applied sampling designs (i.e., how and which trees are selected for dendrochronological sampling) may introduce considerable ...
Fojtíková I I National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 28, 140 00 Prague 4, Czech - - 2014
Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. ...
Rhomberg Lorenz L Gradient, 20 University Road, Cambridge, MA, USA. - - 2014
Other papers in this symposium focus on combining direct observations or measurements of a phenomenon of interest. Here, I consider the distinct problem of integrating diverse kinds of data to address the scientific case for toxicological causation in view of information that usually contains gaps and outright contradictions. Existing weight-of-evidence ...
Melnyk Richard R School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, - - 2014
One of the most critical challenges to full integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) is the requirement to comply with CFR 14 Part 91.113 to "see and avoid" other aircraft. Various attempts have been made to develop systems to "sense and avoid" other aircraft ...
Jones Hayley E - - 2014
Capture-recapture methods, largely developed in ecology, are now commonly used in epidemiology to adjust for incomplete registries and to estimate the size of difficult-to-reach populations such as problem drug users. Overlapping lists of individuals in the target population, taken from administrative data sources, are considered analogous to overlapping "captures" of ...
Kubbinga Marlies M National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany; Medicines Evaluation Board, Utrecht, the - - 2014
Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on ...
Huybrechts T T BIOSYST-MeBioS, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sensors play a crucial role in the future of dairy farming. Modern dairy farms today are equipped with many different sensors for milk yield, body weight, activity, and even milk composition. The challenge, however, is to translate signals from these sensors into relevant information for the farmer. Because the measured ...
Milone Diego H - - 2014
It is a common practice in bioinformatics to validate each group returned by a clustering algorithmthrough manual analysis, according to a-priori biological knowledge. This procedure helps findingfunctionally related patterns to propose hypotheses for their behavior and the biological processesinvolved. Therefore, this knowledge is used only as a second step, after ...
Kooij V V Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Heart failure is a heterogeneous and complex syndrome, arising from various etiologies, which result in cellular phenotypes that vary from patient to patient. The ability to utilize genetic manipulation and biochemical experimentation in animal models has made them ...
Balendra Rubika R King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical - - 2014
ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. The stage of disease reached can be described using a simple system based on the number of central nervous system regions involved. Historically, datasets have not attempted to record clinical stage, but being able to re-analyse the data by stage would have several advantages. ...
Pennell Matthew W MW Department of Biological Sciences and Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, U.S.A., Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20013, U.S.A., Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, U.S.A., Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2014
Phylogenetic comparative methods are essential for addressing evolutionary hypotheses with interspecific data. The scale and scope of such data has increased dramatically in the last few years. Many existing approaches are either computationally infeasible or inappropriate for data of this size. To address both of these problems, we present geiger ...
Senda Kei - - 2014
Typical methods for solving reinforcement learning problems iterate two steps, policy evaluation and policy improvement. This paper proposes algorithms for the policy evaluation to improve learning efficiency. The proposed algorithms are based on the Krylov Subspace Method (KSM), which is a nonstationary iterative method. The algorithms based on KSM are ...
Liang Junli - - 2014
This paper develops a distributed dictionary learning algorithm for sparse representation of the data distributed across nodes of sensor networks, where the sensitive or private data are stored or there is no fusion center or there exists a Big Data application. The main contributions of this paper are: i)We decouple ...
Liu Pai P Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA, - - 2014
Creating accountable care organizations (ACOs) has been widely discussed as a strategy to control rapidly rising healthcare costs and improve quality of care; however, building an effective ACO is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders (payers, providers, patients) with their own interests. Also, implementation of an ACO is costly in ...
Golkowski Daniel D Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69115 Heidelberg, - - 2014
In drug development, bioequivalence studies are used to indirectly demonstrate clinical equivalence of a test formulation and a reference formulation of a specific drug by establishing their equivalence in bioavailability. These studies are typically run as crossover studies. In the planning phase of such trials, investigators and sponsors are often ...
Bielefeldt Klaus K Division of Gastroenterology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA, - - 2014
Dyspeptic symptoms are common with most patients suffering functional disorders that remain a therapeutic challenge for medical practitioners. Within the last three decades, gastric infection, altered motility, and hypersensitivity have gained and lost traction in explaining the development of functional dyspepsia. Considering these shifts, the aim of this review was ...
Fjodorova N N a National Institute of Chemistry , Hajdrihova, Ljubljana , - - 2014
The primary goal of this study was to describe and compare the criteria used to assess carcinogenic activity. The statistically-based predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on the counter propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) algorithm, and knowledge-based expert systems based on a decision tree structural alert (SA) approach (Toxtree ...
Diao Liqun L Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14642, United - - 2014
A copula-based model is described which enables joint analysis of multiple progressive multistate processes. Unlike intensity-based or frailty-based approaches to joint modeling, the copula formulation proposed herein ensures that a wide range of marginal multistate processes can be specified and the joint model will retain these marginal features. The copula ...
van Schie S S Department of Methodology and Statistics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Often only a limited number of clusters can be obtained in cluster randomised trials, although many potential participants can be recruited within each cluster. Thus, active recruitment is feasible within the clusters. To obtain an efficient sample size in a cluster randomised trial, the cluster level and individual level variance ...
Ribera Pibernat M M Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Universitari de Sabadell Corporació Parc Taulí, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Sabadell, Barcelona, España. Electronic address: - - 2014
The Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (AEDV) has decided that a Strategic Plan is needed to help the association adapt to new circumstances and anticipate future developments. 1) To position the AEDV as a medical association that can exert an influence in everything related to dermatology. 2) To contribute ...
Bucci Vanni V Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02747, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The intestinal microbiota is an ecosystem susceptible to external perturbations such as dietary changes and antibiotic therapies. Mathematical models of microbial communities could be of great value in the rational design of microbiota-tailoring diets and therapies. Here, we discuss how advances in another field, engineering of microbial communities for wastewater ...
Prieto D D Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Western Michigan University, 1903 W. Michigan Ave., Kalamazoo, MI, 49008-5336, USA, - - 2014
Uncertainty of pandemic influenza viruses continue to cause major preparedness challenges for public health policymakers. Decisions to mitigate influenza outbreaks often involve tradeoff between the social costs of interventions (e.g., school closure) and the cost of uncontrolled spread of the virus. To achieve a balance, policymakers must assess the impact ...
Luz Adriana Gomes - - 2014
The Brazilian Network for the Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity was developed in Brazil with the participation of 27 centers in different regions of the country. The objective of the network project was to evaluate the frequency of severe maternal morbidity (near-miss and potentially life-threatening conditions) and the factors involved ...
Moreno E E Department of Statistics, University of Granada, Granada, E-18071, - - 2014
This paper presents a Bayesian model for meta-analysis of sparse discrete binomial data, which are out of the scope of the usual hierarchical normal random-effect models. Treatment effectiveness data are often of this type. The crucial linking distribution between the effectiveness conditional on the healthcare center and the unconditional effectiveness ...
Wallner Björn B Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden. - - 2014
Model Quality Assessment Programs (MQAP) are used to predict the quality of modeled protein structures. These usually use two approaches: methods using consensus of many alternative models and methods only requiring a single model to do its prediction. The consensus methods are useful to improve overall accuracy, however they frequently ...
Bayley Peter J - - 2014
Many investigators are interested in recruiting veterans from recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Researchers pursuing such studies may experience problems in recruiting sufficient numbers unless effective strategies are used. Currently, there is very little information on recruitment strategies ...
Ritschel Tina - - 2014
Drug-induced cholestasis is a frequently observed side effect of drugs and is often caused by an unexpected interaction with the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). BSEP is the key membrane transporter responsible for the transport of bile acids from hepatocytes into bile. Here, we developed a pharmacophore model that describes ...
Arroyo-Rodríguez Víctor V Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Morelia, Michoacán, - - 2014
With accelerated deforestation and fragmentation through the tropics, assessing the impact that landscape spatial changes may have on biodiversity is paramount, as this information is required to design and implement effective management and conservation plans. Primates are expected to be particularly dependent on the landscape context; yet, our understanding on ...
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