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Steiger Georg G DSM Nutritional Products AG, Kaiseraugst, - - 2014
This article provides a comprehensive review of the currently available technologies for vitamin and mineral rice fortification. It covers currently used technologies, such as coating, dusting, and the various extrusion technologies, with the main focus being on cold, warm, and hot extrusion technologies, including process flow, required facilities, and sizes ...
Hoy Damian G DG School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, - - 2014
The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the strengths, limitations and lessons learned from estimating the burden from musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study (GBD 2010 Study). It should be read in conjunction with the other GBD 2010 Study papers published ...
Krishna Lalit Kumar Radha LK National Cancer Center Singapore, Singapore - - 2014
Recognition that the Principle of Respect for Autonomy fails to work in family-centric societies such as Singapore has recently led to the promotion of relational autonomy as a suitable framework within which to place healthcare decision making. However, empirical data, relating to patient and family opinions and the practices of ...
De Pascalis Riccardo R School of Mathematics , University of Manchester , Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, - - 2014
This paper offers a reappraisal of Fung's model for quasi-linear viscoelasticity. It is shown that a number of negative features exhibited in other works, commonly attributed to the Fung approach, are merely a consequence of the way it has been applied. The approach outlined herein is shown to yield improved ...
Greenville Aaron C AC Desert Ecology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Heydon-Laurence Building, A08, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia, - - 2014
Top predators are declining globally, in turn allowing populations of smaller predators, or mesopredators, to increase and potentially have negative effects on biodiversity. However, detection of interactions among sympatric predators can be complicated by fluctuations in the background availability of resources in the environment, which may modify both the numbers ...
Venetis Christos A CA Women's & Children's Health, St George Hospital, 2nd Level - Prichard Wing, Gray Street, Kogarah P.C. 2217, NSW, Australia School of Women's & Children's Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Australia venetis@gmail.com - - 2014
The management of poor ovarian response (POR) remains one of the most significant challenges of in vitro fertilization. Numerous interventions have been proposed, yet few have been shown to be beneficial. The most important problem in evaluating the available evidence has been the lack of a standardized definition of POR. ...
Law B E BE Oregon State University, Law, 328 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, - - 2014
Accurate assessments of forest response to current and future climate and human actions are needed at regional scales. Predicting future impacts on forests will require improved analysis of species-level adaptation, resilience, and vulnerability to mortality. Land system models can be enhanced by creating trait-based groupings of species that better represent ...
Senar Juan Carlos JC Natural History Museum of Barcelona Barcelona, - - 2014
A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The ...
Marsh Kevin K Evidera, Metro Building, 6th Floor, 1 Butterwick, London, W6 8DL, UK, - - 2014
Assessing the economic value of treatments for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is important but poses a number of challenges. This paper reviews economic models of CML treatment to learn lessons from this experience and support ongoing efforts to model CML. A search of databases and submissions to key health technology ...
Perkett Matthew R MR Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02474, - - 2014
Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures ...
Litman Leib L Department of Psychology, Lander College, 75-31 150th Street, Flushing, NY, 11367, USA, - - 2014
In this study, we examined data quality among Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers based in India, and the effect of monetary compensation on their data quality. Recent studies have shown that work quality is independent of compensation rates, and that compensation primarily affects the quantity but not the quality of ...
Pereira Edna F R EF University of Maryland School of - - 2014
The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: (i) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans ...
Kieser Meinhard M a Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg , - - 2014
Abstract When planning a single-armed clinical trial with binary endpoint, the sample size is determined such that the desired power is achieved for a single value of the target rate. However, there is usually some uncertainty with respect to the true treatment effect. It is therefore more realistic to specify ...
Zhu Jingyi J a Department of Statistics , Purdue University , 250 N. University Street, West Lafayette , IN - - 2014
Abstract Most clinical trials have heterogeneous treatment effect among patient individuals. It is desirable to identify a patient subpopulation, which has a stronger treatment effect than the rest of patients, so that researchers will be able to determine who will benefit the most or the least from the treatment and ...
Wei Chia-Po - - 2014
For the task of robust face recognition, we particularly focus on the scenario in which training and test image data are corrupted due to occlusion or disguise. Prior standard face recognition methods like Eigenfaces or state-of-the-art approaches such as sparse representation-based classification (SRC) did not consider possible contamination of data ...
Fox Natalie S - - 2014
The reproducibility of transcriptomic biomarkers across datasets remains poor, limiting clinical application. We and others have suggested that this is in-part caused by differential error-structure between datasets, and their incomplete removal by pre-processing algorithms. To test this hypothesis, we systematically assessed the effects of pre-processing on biomarker classification using 24 ...
Truyers Carla - - 2014
Intego is the only operational computerized morbidity registration network in Belgium based on general practice data. Intego collects data from over 90 general practitioners. All the information is routinely collected in the electronic health record during daily practice. In this article we describe the design and methods used within the ...
Duchêne Sebastián S School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Phylogenetic estimates of evolutionary timescales can be obtained from nucleotide sequence data using the molecular clock. These estimates are important for our understanding of evolutionary processes across all taxonomic levels. The molecular clock needs to be calibrated with an independent source of information, such as fossil evidence, to allow absolute ...
Martis Elvis A F EA a Molecular Simulations Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry , Bombay College of Pharmacy , Kalina, Santacruz [E], Mumbai , 400098 , - - 2014
Abstract There is a need for continued development of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that could prolong the life of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and also prevent the aggregation of amyloid peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease. The lack of a 3D-QSAR model which specifically deconvulates the type of interactions and quantifies ...
Liang S F SF Shao Fen Liang, 7th Floor, Capital House, 42 Weston Street, London, SE1 3QD, United Kingdom, E-mail: - - 2014
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Managing Interoperability and Complexity in Health Systems". Background: Data heterogeneity is one of the critical problems in analysing, reusing, sharing or linking datasets. Metadata, whilst adding semantic description to data, adds an additional layer ...
Wassmer Gernot G a Aptiv Solutions , 1925 Isaac Newton Square, Suite 100, Reston , VA 20190 , - - 2014
Summary Adaptive population enrichment designs enable the data-driven selection of one or more pre-specified subpopulations in an interim analysis, and the confirmatory proof of efficacy in the selected subset at the end of the trial. Sample size reassessment and other adaptive design changes can be performed as well. Strong control ...
Hellweg Stefanie S Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ecological Systems Design, HPZ E 31.2, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ecological Systems Design, HPZ E 31.2, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich, - - 2014
In the modern economy, international value chains-production, use, and disposal of goods-have global environmental impacts. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to track these impacts and assess them from a systems perspective, identifying strategies for improvement without burden shifting. We review recent developments in LCA, including existing and emerging applications aimed ...
Merz Kenneth M KM Jr Department of Chemistry and the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University , 578 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing Michigan 48824-1322, United - - 2014
Conspectus Quantum mechanics (QM) has revolutionized our understanding of the structure and reactivity of small molecular systems. Given the tremendous impact of QM in this research area, it is attractive to believe that this could also be brought into the biological realm where systems of a few thousand atoms and ...
Pickering Martin J MJ Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH9 9JZ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The use of forward models (mechanisms that predict the future state of a system) is well established in cognitive and computational neuroscience. We compare and contrast two recent, but interestingly divergent, accounts of the place of forward models in the human cognitive architecture. On the Auxiliary Forward Model (AFM) account, ...
Molina Juan Ramón JR Department of Forest Engineering, University of Córdoba, Edificio Leonardo da Vinci-Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
One of the main limiting aspects in the application of crown fire models at landscape scale has been the uncertainty derived to describe canopy fuel stratum. Available crown fuel and canopy bulk density are essential in order to simulate crown fire behaviour and are of potential use in the evaluation ...
Pressé Steve S Department of Physics, Indiana University-Purdue University , Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, United - - 2014
Extracting kinetic models from single molecule data is an important route to mechanistic insight in biophysics, chemistry, and biology. Data collected from force spectroscopy can probe discrete hops of a single molecule between different conformational states. Model extraction from such data is a challenging inverse problem because single molecule data ...
Díaz-Ordaz Karla K Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK - - 2014
Missing data are a potential source of bias, and their handling in the statistical analysis can have an important impact on both the likelihood and degree of such bias. Inadequate handling of the missing data may also result in invalid variance estimation. The handling of missing values is more complex ...
Farouk M M MM AgResearch Limited, Ruakura Research Centre, East Street, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of ...
Kush Rebecca R From the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium, Austin, TX (R.K.); and the Innovative Medicines Initiative, Brussels - - 2014
The diverse ways in which data are collected and reported in clinical studies make it hard to query across data sets, pool and share data, or integrate data for multi-trial analyses to gain new scientific insights. Use of standard data formats can solve these problems.
Cope Shannon - - 2014
The aim of this study is to outline a general process for assessing the feasibility of performing a valid network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to synthesize direct and indirect evidence for alternative treatments for a specific disease population. Several steps to assess the feasibility of an NMA ...
Kelleher J J Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Many species have an essentially continuous distribution in space, in which there are no natural divisions between randomly mating subpopulations. Yet, the standard approach to modelling these populations is to impose an arbitrary grid of demes, adjusting deme sizes and migration rates in an attempt to capture the important features ...
Ahmad Tariq T Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North - - 2014
Heart failure is a syndrome with a pathophysiological basis that can be traced to dysfunction in several interconnected molecular pathways. Identification of biomarkers of heart failure that allow measurement of the disease on a molecular level has resulted in enthusiasm for their use in prognostication and selection of appropriate therapies. ...
Vergara-Galicia Jorge - - 2014
Topological Indices (TIs) are numerical parameters useful to carry out Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) analysis and predict the effect of perturbations in many types of Complex Networks. This work focuses on a very powerful class of Tis called Galvez charge transfer indices. First, we review the classic concept and some ...
Cai Yi Y School of Software Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
With the increase in resource-sharing websites such as YouTube and Flickr, many shared resources have arisen on the Web. Personalized searches have become more important and challenging since users demand higher retrieval quality. To achieve this goal, personalized searches need to take users' personalized profiles and information needs into consideration. ...
Swanson Eli M EM Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA - - 2014
Macro-evolutionary comparisons are a valued tool in evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, our understanding of how systems involved in molecular signaling change in concert with phenotypic diversification has lagged. We argue that integrating our understanding of the evolution of molecular signaling systems with phylogenetic comparative methods is an important step toward understanding ...
Godø Olav Rune OR Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, PO Box 1870, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
Environmental awareness and technological advances has spurred development of new monitoring solutions for the petroleum industry. This paper presents experience from a monitoring program off Norway. To maintain operation within the limits of the government regulations Statoil tested a new monitoring concept. Multisensory data were cabled to surface buoys and ...
Michalik Peter P Zoologisches Institut und Museum, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, J.-S.-Bach-Straße 11/12, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
The male reproductive system and spermatozoa of spiders are known for their high structural diversity. Spider spermatozoa are flagellate and males transfer them to females in a coiled and encapsulated state using their modified pedipalps. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the present state of knowledge of the primary ...
Huang Yangxin Y a Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics , College of Public Health, University of South Florida , Tampa , FL 33612 , - - 2014
Abstract Bivariate correlated (clustered) data often encountered in epidemiological and clinical research are routinely analyzed under a linear mixed-effected (LME) model with normality assumptions for the random-effects and within-subject errors. However, those analyses might not provide robust inference when the normality assumptions are questionable if the data set particularly exhibits ...
Merkel Olivia M OM Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
RNA interference (RNAi) has been thought of as the general answer to many unmet medical needs. After the first success stories, it soon became obvious that short interfering RNA (siRNA) is not suitable for systemic administration due to its poor pharmacokinetics. Therefore local administration routes have been adopted for more ...
Gelardi Matteo M Roma, Bracciano (Roma), - - 2014
Alessioporus and Pulchroboletus are proposed as new monotypic genera to accommodate the thermo- or xerophilic European species Xerocomus ichnusanus and X. roseoalbidus, respectively. The present research focused on both morphological features and multigene molecular phylogeny (nrITS, nrLSU and tef-1α data sets) to elucidate the taxonomic status of these two rare ...
Madin Joshua S JS Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, 2109, - - 2014
Understanding life history and demographic variation among species within communities is a central ecological goal. Mortality schedules are especially important in ecosystems where disturbance plays a major role in structuring communities, such as coral reefs. Here, we test whether a trait-based, mechanistic model of mechanical vulnerability in corals can explain ...
Frost Stephen R SR Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1218, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A large series of fossil cercopithecids has been recovered from the hominid-bearing Woranso-Mille site, Afar State, northeastern Ethiopia. Here we report the taxonomy of those specimens from the Am-Ado, Aralee Issie, Korsi Dora, Makah Mera, and Mesgid Dora collection areas, which are all roughly contemporaneous and dated to between 3.6 ...
Sadatsafavi Mohsen - - 2014
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) that use patient-specific data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) are popular, yet such CEAs are criticized because they neglect to incorporate evidence external to the trial. A popular method for quantifying uncertainty in a RCT-based CEA is the bootstrap. The objective of the present study was ...
Drake John M - - 2014
The future distribution of malaria in Africa is likely to be much more dependent on environmental conditions than the current distribution due to the effectiveness of indoor and therapeutic anti-malarial interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying for mosquitoes (IRS), artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT), and intermittent presumptive treatment (IPT). ...
Baldocchi Dennis D Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, 130 Mulford Hall, 95720, Berkeley, - - 2014
The application of the eddy covariance flux method to measure fluxes of trace gas and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere has exploded over the past 25 years. This opinion paper provides a perspective on the contributions and future opportunities of the eddy covariance method. First, the paper discusses the ...
Richard Ryan M RM Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio 43210, United - - 2014
Conspectus The past 15 years have witnessed an explosion of activity in the field of fragment-based quantum chemistry, whereby ab initio electronic structure calculations are performed on very large systems by decomposing them into a large number of relatively small subsystem calculations and then reassembling the subsystem data in order ...
Lerner Itamar I Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, The Hebrew University of - - 2014
Semantic priming has long been recognized to reflect, along with automatic semantic mechanisms, the contribution of controlled strategies. However, previous theories of controlled priming were mostly qualitative, lacking common grounds with modern mathematical models of automatic priming based on neural networks. Recently, we introduced a novel attractor network model of ...
Doucet J P JP a Itodys , Université Paris-Diderot , UMR 7086 , Paris , - - 2014
Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays a key role in the development and metamorphosis of holometabolous insects. Its inhibitors could possibly be targeted for insect control. Conversely, JHE may also be involved in endocrine disruption by xenobiotics, resulting in detrimental effects in beneficial insects. There is therefore a need to know ...
Khemlani Sangeet S Naval Research Laboratory, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
How do reasoners understand and formulate denials of compound assertions, such as conjunctions and disjunctions? A theory based on mental models postulates that individuals enumerate models of the various possibilities consistent with the assertions. It therefore predicts a novel interaction: in affirmations, conjunctions, A and B, which refer to one ...
Guay Kevin C KC The Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA, 02540-1644, - - 2014
Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in ...
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