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Verity Robert R MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Imperial College London, London, UK; School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, United - - 2014
Estimates of the fixation index, FST , have been used as measures of population differentiation for many decades. However, there have been persistent voices in the literature suggesting that these statistics do not measure true differentiation. In particular, the statistics Nei's GST and Wier & Cockerham's θ have been criticised ...
Carvalho-Pereira Ticiana Soares de Andrade de TS Biology Institute - Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Campus de Ondina, 40170-115 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cultivation medium is one of the first aspects to be considered in zooplankton laboratory cultivation. The use of artificial media does not concern to reproduce natural conditions to the cultivations, which may be achieved by using natural organic compounds like humic substances (HS). This study aimed to evaluate the effects ...
Tingley Morgan W MW Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, Princeton, New - - 2014
As species adapt to a changing climate, so too must humans adapt to a new conservation landscape. Classical frameworks have distinguished between fine- and coarse-filter conservation strategies, focusing on conserving either the species or the landscapes, respectively, that together define extant biodiversity. Adapting this framework for climate change, conservationists are ...
Rhodes William W Abt Associates Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA - - 2014
Cluster randomization (CR) is often used for program evaluation when simple random assignment is inappropriate or infeasible. Pairwise cluster random (PCR) assignment is a more efficient alternative, but evaluators seemed to be deterred from PCR because of bias and identification problems. This article explains the problems, argues that they can ...
Diaby Vakaramoko V Division of Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University (FAMU), Tallahassee, FL, USA, - - 2014
Everolimus in combination with exemestane significantly improved progression-free survival compared to exemestane alone in patients previously treated with non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors in the BOLERO-2 trial. As a result, this combination has been approved by the food and drug administration to treat postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative ...
Einstein S - - 2014
This point-of-view commentary explores a selected range of issues relevant to alcoholic beverage drinking and nondrinking patterns documented by the AMPHORA European study which, with hind-sight, limits its generalizability, with fore-sight are generally inadequately considered and documented and, with ordinary insight, are not likely to affect the ongoing and future ...
Guidi Gabriele - - 2014
In this paper we present a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for the analysis of Heart Failure (HF) patients, providing various outputs such as an HF severity evaluation, HF type prediction, as well as a management interface that compares the different patient's follow-ups. The whole system is composed of a ...
Akay Altug - - 2014
Intelligently extracting knowledge from social media has recently attracted great interest from the Biomedical and Health Informatics community to simultaneously improve healthcare outcomes and reduce costs using consumergenerated opinion. We propose a two-step analysis framework that focuses on positive and negative sentiment, as well as the side effects of treatment, ...
Galvagne Loss Ana Teresa - - 2014
Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying ...
Manju Md Abu - - 2014
In this paper, the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person levels for each of two treatment arms are obtained for cluster randomized trials where the cost-effectiveness of treatments on a continuous scale is studied. The optimal sample sizes maximize the efficiency or power for a given budget or ...
Agarwal Gunjan G Microsystems Technology Laboratories (MTL), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2014
Precise, size-selective assembly and sorting are demonstrated in a low-cost system using manufacturable, replicated polymer templates to guide the assembly. Surface interactions between microscale objects and an assembly template are combined with fluid forces to drive site-selective organization of objects onto the template. Although controlling the organization of deformable objects ...
Chen Huey T HT Mercer University, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Current interests in enhancing the focus of external validity or transferability call for developing practical evaluation approaches and illustrating their applications in this area for meeting the need. This study takes the challenge by introducing an innovative evaluation approach, named the exhibited generalization approach, and applying it in evaluating the ...
Heller Ruth R Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel - - 2014
Identification of SNPs that are associated with a phenotype in more than one study is of great scientific interest in GWAS research. The empirical Bayes approach for discovering whether results have been replicated across studies was shown to be a reliable method, and close to optimal in terms of power. ...
Mazziotta Adriano A Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014, - - 2014
Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21(st) century. Landscape suitability for species under climate change is determined by several interacting factors including ...
Yang Wei W Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, - - 2014
Propensity scores are widely used to control for confounding when estimating the effect of a binary treatment in observational studies. They have been generalized to ordinal and continuous treatments in the recent literature. Following the definition of propensity function and its parameterizations (called the propensity parameter in this paper) proposed ...
Liu Zhun-Ga - - 2014
The classification of incomplete patterns is a very challenging task because the object (incomplete pattern) with different possible estimations of missing values may yield distinct classification results. The uncertainty (ambiguity) of classification is mainly caused by the lack of information of the missing data. A new prototype-based credal classification (PCC) ...
Zhang Bijun B Department of Life Science Informatics, B-IT, LIMES Program Unit Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Dahlmannstr. 2, 53113, Bonn, - - 2014
Activity landscapes (ALs) of compound data sets are rationalized as graphical representations that integrate similarity and potency relationships between active compounds. ALs enable the visualization of structure-activity relationship (SAR) information and are thus computational tools of interest for medicinal chemistry. For AL generation, similarity and potency relationships are typically evaluated ...
Porter Stephanie S SS Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 1001 Valley Life Science Building #3140, Berkeley, California, 94720-3140, - - 2014
The primary dilemma in evolutionarily stable mutualisms is that natural selection for cheating could overwhelm selection for cooperation. Cheating need not entail parasitism; selection favours cheating as a quantitative trait whenever less-cooperative partners are more fit than more-cooperative partners. Mutualisms might be stabilised by mechanisms that direct benefits to more-cooperative ...
Rafferty Anna N AN Computer Science Division , University of California , Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2014
Computer games can be motivating and engaging experiences that facilitate learning, leading to their increasing use in education and behavioural experiments. For these applications, it is often important to make inferences about the knowledge and cognitive processes of players based on their behaviour. However, designing games that provide useful behavioural ...
Suki Béla B Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Emphysema is a progressive disease characterized by deterioration of alveolar structure and decline in lung function. While morphometric and molecular biology studies have not fully uncovered the underlying mechanisms, they have produced data to advance computational modeling. In this review, we discuss examples in which modeling has led to novel ...
Kertzscher G G 1 Centre for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, - - 2014
The error types during brachytherapy (BT) treatments and their occurrence rates are not well known. The limited knowledge is partly attributed to the lack of independent verification systems of the treatment progression in the clinical workflow routine. Within the field of in vivo dosimetry (IVD), it is established that real-time ...
Le Thi Hoai An HA Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied Computer Science EA 3097 University of Lorraine, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz, France; Lorraine Research Laboratory in Computer Science and its Applications CNRS UMR 7503, University of Lorraine, 54506 Nancy, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this paper, we consider the problem of feature selection for linear SVMs on uncertain data that is inherently prevalent in almost all datasets. Using principles of Robust Optimization, we propose robust schemes to handle data with ellipsoidal model and box model of uncertainty. The difficulty in treating ℓ0-norm in ...
Oztaner Serdar - - 2014
The incorporation of pharmacogenomics information into the drug dosing estimation formulations has been shown to increase the accuracy in drug dosing and decrease the frequency of adverse drug effects in many studies in the literature. In this paper, an estimation framework based on Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling which is driven ...
Almeida Eveline Lopes EL a Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Engineering , University of Campinas , Campinas , São Paulo , - - 2014
ABSTRACT Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process ...
Slob Wout W National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven , The - - 2014
Evaluating dose-response data using the Benchmark dose (BMD) approach rather than by the no observed adverse effect (NOAEL) approach implies a considerable step forward from the perspective of the Reduction, Replacement, and Refinement, three Rs, in particular the R of reduction: more information is obtained from the same number of ...
Ensor Joe E JE The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA - - 2014
Biomarker validation, like any other confirmatory process based on statistical methodology, must discern associations that occur by chance from those reflecting true biological relationships. Validity of a biomarker is established by authenticating its correlation with clinical outcome. Validated biomarkers can lead to targeted therapy, improve clinical diagnosis, and serve as ...
Martill David M DM School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3QL, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Pterosaur fossils are among the rarest and their eggs are even rarer. How then can we get an insight into the lifestyle of these flying reptiles? A wealth of new pterosaur fossils, including eggs, from China now provides exactly that.
Atobe Takashi T Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, - - 2014
Habitat connectivity is considered to have an important role on the persistence of populations in the face of habitat fragmentation, in particular, for species with conservation concern. However, it can also impose indirect negative effects on native species through the spread of invasive species. Here, we investigated direct and indirect ...
Li Alex Ning - - 2014
Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team ...
Kramer Andrei A Institute for Systems Theory and Automatic Control, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany - - 2014
We present a new C implementation of an advanced Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for the sampling of ODE model parameters. The software MCMC_CLIB uses the simplified manifold Metropolis adjusted Langevin algorithm (SMMALA), which is locally adaptive; it uses the parameter manifold's geometry (the Fisher Information) to make efficient ...
van der Veen Egbert E ORTEC, Houtsingel 5, 2719, EA, Zoetermeer, the Netherlands, - - 2014
We propose a mathematical programming formulation that incorporates annualized hours and shows to be very flexible with regard to modeling various contract types. The objective of our model is to minimize salary cost, thereby covering workforce demand, and using annualized hours. Our model is able to address various business questions ...
Bonte Pieter P Ghent University, Ghent, BelgiumGhent University, Ghent, Belgium Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium - - 2014
Doping scandals can reveal unresolved tensions between the meritocratic values of equal opportunity + reward for effort and the "talentocratic" love of hereditary privilege. Whence this special reverence for talent? We analyze the following arguments: (1) talent is a unique indicator of greater potential, whereas doping enables only temporary boosts ...
Xu Jun-Fang JF National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 207 Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai 200025, People's Republic of China; Medicine school, Hubei University for Nationalities, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Modelling is an important tool for the exploration of S. japonicum transmission patterns. It provides a general theoretical framework for decision-makers and lends itself specifically to assessing the progress of the national control programme by following the outcome of surveys. The challenge of keeping up with the many changes of ...
Green Sara S Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Science Studies, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, - - 2014
Adaptationism has prompted many a debate in philosophy of biology but the focus is usually on empirical and explanatory issues rather than methodological adaptationism (MA). Likewise, the context of evolutionary biology has provided the grounding for most discussions of the heuristic role of adaptationism. This paper extends the debate by ...
Ma Yunbei Y School of Statistics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu, Sichuan, - - 2014
For time-to-event data in a randomized clinical trial, we proposed two new methods for selecting an optimal treatment for a patient based on the covariate-specific treatment effect curve, which is used to represent the clinical utility of a predictive biomarker. To select an optimal treatment for a patient with a ...
Rafe Vahid V Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak, 38156-8-8349, Iran, - - 2014
The evolution of wireless communication technologies opened the way to the definition of innovative e-Health systems aimed at providing a continuous and remote support to patients and new instruments to improve the workflow of the medical personnel. Nowadays, pervasive healthcare systems are a major step in this regard. The safety-critical ...
Antón Susan C SC Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, Rufus D. Smith Hall, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, USA. E-mail: - - 2014
Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history ...
Oniki Thomas A TA Department of Medical Informatics, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah, - - 2014
Intermountain Healthcare has a long history of using coded terminology and detailed clinical models (DCMs) to govern storage of clinical data to facilitate decision support and semantic interoperability. The latest iteration of DCMs at Intermountain is called the clinical element model (CEM). We describe the lessons learned from our CEM ...
Bishop Roderick O RO Department of Emergency Medicine, Nepean Hospital, Penrith, NSW, - - 2014
This investigation was initiated after the introduction of a new information system into the Nepean Hospital Emergency Department. A retrospective study determined that the problems introduced by the new system led to reduced efficiency of the clinical staff, demonstrated by deterioration in the emergency department's (ED's) performance. This article is ...
Petruny Loren M LM Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) faces increasing pressure from commercial shipping traffic and proposed marine renewable energy developments. Drawing upon the successful Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary model, we propose a multi-stakeholder marine spatial planning process that considers both appropriate positioning of offshore wind farms and redefining commercial ...
Foth Christian C 1] Staatliche Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Bayerns, Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, Richard-Wagner-Straße 10, 80333 Munich, Germany [2] Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and GeoBioCenter, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Richard-Wagner-Straße 10, 80333 Munich, - - 2014
Discoveries of bird-like theropod dinosaurs and basal avialans in recent decades have helped to put the iconic 'Urvogel' Archaeopteryx into context and have yielded important new data on the origin and early evolution of feathers. However, the biological context under which pennaceous feathers evolved is still debated. Here we describe ...
Patterson Fiona F Work Psychology Group , Derby , UK - - 2014
Abstract Background: Selection for entry into UK medical specialty training is a high-stakes, high-volume process. For selection into General Practice, a large number of assessors and simulators are involved in the delivery of the selection centre, which represents the final stage of selection. Aim: In order to standardize and quality-assure ...
Migliavacca Mirco M Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, PO Box 100164, Jena, 07701, Germany; Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab, DISAT, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, Milan, - - 2014
Understanding the environmental and biotic drivers of respiration at the ecosystem level is a prerequisite to further improve scenarios of the global carbon cycle. In this study we investigated the relevance of physiological phenology, defined as seasonal changes in plant physiological properties, for explaining the temporal dynamics of ecosystem respiration ...
Peppas Nicholas A NA Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering and College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, - - 2014
In this review we present some of the seminal contributions that have established the mathematical foundations of controlled dug delivery and led to the modern models. Mathematical modeling is no longer just a dry exercise in generating more and more complex models or a parametric fitting process, but rather an ...
Hopp Katharina K Division of Nephrology and Hypertension - - 2014
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a leading cause of ESRD. A central defect associated with ADPKD pathology is elevated levels of 3', 5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP). Compounds such as tolvaptan and pasireotide, which indirectly reduce adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6) activity, have hence proven effective in slowing cyst progression. Here, ...
Kumar Singh Puneet - - 2014
Different systems biology approaches may have a significant consequence in deciphering microbial interactions. Here, we endeavor to summarize, epigrammatic description of sophisticated techniques and software that provides an enhanced understanding of metagenomics data analysis. Apparently, such techniques are helpful to catalog various analysis categories and components that add appraisal to ...
Moss Darren Michael DM Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, - - 2014
The delivery of therapeutic agents is characterized by numerous challenges including poor absorption, low penetration in target tissues and non-specific dissemination in organs, leading to toxicity or poor drug exposure. Several nanomedicine strategies have emerged as an advanced approach to enhance drug delivery and improve the treatment of several diseases. ...
Bache R R R. Bache, Dept. of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, Floor 7, Capital House, Weston Street, London SE1 3QD, - - 2014
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Managing Interoperability and Complexity in Health Systems". Objectives: The increasing availability of electronic clinical data provides great potential for finding eligible patients for clinical research. However, data heterogeneity makes it difficult for clinical researchers ...
Putze Felix F Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Cognitive Systems Lab, Karlsruhe, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Adaptive cognitive technical systems are capable of sensing the internal state of its user and of adapting its behavior appropriately to those measurements to improve the usability of the system. One important example of such user state is the user's mental workload level. This paper gives an introduction to the ...
Huang Qingbiao Q Institute of Computational Comparative Medicine, Kansas State University , Manhattan, KS 66506 , USA - - 2014
Introduction: Interspecies allometric scaling provides a simple and fast option to interpolate or extrapolate drug dose or pharmacokinetic parameters to a species of interest. Over the years, new scaling methods have been developed in order to improve the performance of these predictions. It is critical to choose appropriate allometric scaling ...
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