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Kitsche Andreas A Institut für Biostatistik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, Hannover, - - 2014
This study considers the detection of treatment-by-subset interactions in a stratified, randomised clinical trial with a binary-response variable. The focus lies on the detection of qualitative interactions. In addition, the presented method is useful more generally, as it can assess the inconsistency of the treatment effects among strata by using ...
Belciug Smaranda S Department of Computer Science, University of Craiova, Craiova 200585, Romania. Electronic address: - - 2014
Automated medical diagnosis models are now ubiquitous, and research for developing new ones is constantly growing. They play an important role in medical decision-making, helping physicians to provide a fast and accurate diagnosis. Due to their adaptive learning and nonlinear mapping properties, the artificial neural networks are widely used to ...
Iansavichus Arthur V AV Kidney Clinical Research Unit, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, - - 2014
Finding relevant articles in large bibliographic databases such as PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and EMBASE to inform care and future research is challenging. Articles relevant to chronic kidney disease (CKD) are particularly difficult to find because they are often published under different terminology and are found across a wide range of ...
Lahoz-Beneytez Julio J Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Computational Systems Biology, Leverkusen, 51368, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Biological systems are complex and comprehend multiple scales of organization. Hence, holistic approaches are necessary to capture the behaviour of these entities from the molecular and cellular to the whole organism level. This also applies to the understanding and treatment of different diseases. Traditional systems biology has been successful in ...
Batalha Natalie M NM National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, 94035 CA - - 2014
The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 ...
Janamian Tina T Centre of Research Excellence in Primary Health Care Microsystems, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. - - 2014
Objective: To review the available literature to identify the major challenges and barriers to implementation and adoption of the patient-centred medical home (PCMH) model, topical in current Australian primary care reforms. Study design: Systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Data sources: PubMed and Embase databases were searched in December 2012 for ...
Brummel-Ziedins Kathleen E KE Department of Biochemistry, Colchester Research Facility, University of Vermont, Colchester, Vermont, - - 2014
There exists an imbalance between our understanding of the physiology of the blood coagulation process and the translation of this understanding into useful assays for clinical application. As technology advances, the capabilities for merging the two areas have become more attainable. Global assays have advanced our understanding of the dynamics ...
Peccora Christian D CD Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Measuring and providing performance feedback to physicians has gained momentum not only as a way to comply with regulatory requirements, but also as a way to improve patient care. Measurement of structural, process, and outcome metrics in a reliable, evidence-based, specialty-specific manner maximizes the probability of improving physician performance. The ...
Razafimandimbison Sylvain G SG The Bergius Foundation at The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, - - 2014
• Premise of the study: The pantropical, species-rich Psychotrieae and Palicoureeae are sister tribes of mostly drupe-bearing and nonbacterial leaf-nodulating species with problematic generic limits. This problem is more complicated in Psychotrieae due to the paraphyly of the genus Psychotria, the lack of diagnostic characters for some major lineages, and ...
Escandell-Montero Pablo P Intelligent Data Analysis Laboratory, University of Valencia, Av. de la Universidad, s/n, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia), Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Anemia is a frequent comorbidity in hemodialysis patients that can be successfully treated by administering erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). ESAs dosing is currently based on clinical protocols that often do not account for the high inter- and intra-individual variability in the patient's response. As a result, the hemoglobin level of some ...
Horvath Monica M MM Duke Health Technology Solutions, Duke University Health System, Durham, NC. Electronic address: - - 2014
Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a ...
Ghosh Bapan B Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (Formerly Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur), Howrah-711103, West Bengal, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
We give answers to two important problems arising in current fisheries: (i) how maximum sustainable yield (MSY) policy is influenced by the initial population level, and (ii) how harvesting, oscillation and MSY are related to each other in prey-predator systems. To examine the impact of initial population on exploitation, we ...
Astrup Thomas Fruergaard TF Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: - - 2014
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were ...
Taha Mutasem O MO Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) is member of a family of enzymes involved in cancer pathogenesis. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been carried out to develop new PI3Kγ inhibitors. Towards this end we explored the pharmacophoric space of PI3Kγ using three diverse sets of inhibitors. Subsequently, we employed genetic algorithm-based QSAR analysis ...
Mangel Marc M Center for Stock Assessment Research and Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, - - 2014
I describe how stochastic dynamic programming (SDP), a method for stochastic optimization that evolved from the work of Hamilton and Jacobi on variational problems, allows us to connect the physiological state of organisms, the environment in which they live, and how evolution by natural selection acts on trade-offs that all ...
Liu Qing Q a Experimental & Analytical Science, AbacusCloud, LLC , P. O.Box 236, Long Valley , NJ - - 2014
Abstract Clinical trials are mostly designed to provide data that allow direct inference of the underlying hypotheses. This, however, is not the case for non-inferiority trials where placebo controls are absent due to ethical considerations, resulting in the need for indirect inference about the underlying hypotheses of the treatment effect ...
Li Ben B Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, 5714 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sedimentation is one of the most important processes that determine the performance of the activated sludge process (ASP), and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) have been frequently investigated with the mathematical models for design and operation optimization. Nevertheless their performance is often far from satisfactory. The starting point of this paper ...
Xu Siyan S a Boston University , Biostatistics , 801 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston MA - - 2014
Non-inferiority (NI) clinical trials are getting a lot of attention of late due to its direct application in biosimilar studies. Because of missing placebo arm, NI is an indirect approach to demonstrate efficacy of a test treatment. One of the key assumptions on the NI test is constancy assumption, that ...
Jackson Alice F AF Program in Neuroscience & Cognitive Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA; Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, - - 2014
A thorough understanding of the EEG signal and its measurement is necessary to produce high quality data and to draw accurate conclusions from those data. However, publications that discuss relevant topics are written for divergent audiences with specific levels of expertise: explanations are either at an abstract level that leaves ...
Huang Yangxin Y Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA yhuang@health.usf.edu - - 2014
It is a common practice to analyze longitudinal data frequently arisen in medical studies using various mixed-effects models in the literature. However, the following issues may standout in longitudinal data analysis: (i) In clinical practice, the profile of each subject's response from a longitudinal study may follow a "broken stick" ...
Foster Charles - - 2014
Property-based models of the ownership of body parts are common. They are inadequate. They fail to deal satisfactorily with many important problems, and even when they do work, they rely on ideas that have to be derived from deeper, usually unacknowledged principles. This article proposes that the parent principle is ...
Zhang Zhang Z CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Biocuration involves adding value to biomedical data by the processes of standardization, quality control and information transferring (also known as data annotation). It enhances data interoperability and consistency, and is critical in translating biomedical data into scientific discovery. Although China is becoming a leading scientific data producer, biocuration is still ...
Abrahamyan Lusine L Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Hemophilia A is a rare, sex-linked genetic disorder treated with intravenous administration of factor VIII (FVIII) to prevent bleeding; however, approaches vary across and within countries. Value-of-information (VOI) methods identify situations in which the cost-benefit evidence is sufficient to adopt one treatment strategy over another; when the evidence is insufficient, ...
Nagasaki Masayuki M a Biostatistics Group, Center for Product Evaluation, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency , - - 2014
Abstract In recent years, development of biosimilar products has attracted considerable attention. Because of the structural complexity of biologics, it is difficult to demonstrate that a biosimilar product is identical to the reference product. Therefore, for the development of biosimilar products, we need to adopt an approach that is different ...
Wang Xiang - - 2014
To control the southern corn leaf blight (SCLB), a severe disease of maize around the world, a combination of fungicides is often more potent than using individual fungicides. However, the number of possible combinations increases exponentially with the increase of the number of fungicides combined and their concentrations. It is ...
Alvarez Sergio S Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 400 South Monroe Street, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0800, USA; University of Florida, P.O. Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611-0240, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
At an estimated 206 million gallons, the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) is the largest marine oil spill in the history of the United States. In this paper we develop a series of random utility models of site choice by saltwater anglers in the Southeast US and estimate monetary compensation for recreational ...
Gavin Daniel G DG Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, 97403, - - 2014
I. II. Approaches for reconstructing refugia: strengths, limitations and recent advances III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Climate refugia, locations where taxa survive periods of regionally adverse climate, are thought to be critical for maintaining biodiversity through the glacial-interglacial climate changes of the Quaternary. A critical research need is to ...
Jankowski Tomasz T Institute of Psychology, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mindfulness training has proven to be an efficacious therapeutic tool for a variety of clinical and nonclinical health problems and a booster of well-being. In this paper we propose a multi-level metacognitive model of mindfulness. We postulate and discuss following hypothesis: (1) mindfulness is related to the highest level of ...
Duarte Fernanda F Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (ICM), Uppsala University, BMC Box 596, S-751 24 Uppsala, - - 2014
Recent years have seen enormous progress in the development of methods for modeling (bio)molecular systems. This has allowed for the simulation of ever larger and more complex systems. However, as such complexity increases, the requirements needed for these models to be accurate and physically meaningful become more and more difficult ...
Tappenden Paul P Health Economics and Decision Science, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, - - 2014
Health economic models have become the primary vehicle for undertaking economic evaluation and are used in various healthcare jurisdictions across the world to inform decisions about the use of new and existing health technologies. Models are required because a single source of evidence, such as a randomised controlled trial, is ...
Gensure Robert C RC Pediatric Endocrinology, Children's Hospital at Montefiore and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, - - 2014
While the effects of PTHrP have been studied for almost 20 years, most of these studies have focused on effects on the termination of the anagen phase, giving an incomplete picture of the overall effect of PTHrP on the hair cycle. PTHrP was determined in several experimental models to promote ...
Miller Benjamin B University Transportation Research Center, Region 2, 910 Marshak Hall, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Truck-based collection of municipal solid waste imposes significant negative externalities on cities and constrains the efficiency of separate collection of recyclables and organics and of unit-price-based waste-reduction systems. In recent decades, hundreds of municipal-scale pneumatic collection systems have been installed in Europe and Asia. Relatively few prior studies have compared ...
Richter Franziska F Institute of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, - - 2014
Animal models are pivotal for studies of pathogenesis and treatment of disorders of the central nervous system which in its complexity cannot yet be modeled in vitro or using computer simulations. The choice of a specific model to test novel therapeutic strategies for a human disease should be based on ...
Deng Xinyang X School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, - - 2014
As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of ...
Shen Ye Y Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, 30602, GA, - - 2014
The tumor burden (TB) process is postulated to be the primary mechanism through which most anticancer treatments provide benefit. In phase II oncology trials, the biologic effects of a therapeutic agent are often analyzed using conventional endpoints for best response, such as objective response rate and progression-free survival, both of ...
Paul Sudeshna S Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Professional physician networks can potentially influence clinical practices and quality of care. With the current focus on coordinated care, discerning influences of naturally occurring clusters and other forms of dependence among physicians' relationships based on their attributes and care patterns is an important area of research. In this paper, two ...
Horvath Dragos D Laboratoire de Chémoinformatique, UMR 7140 CNRS (LCS) - Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Blaise Pascal, 6700 Strasbourg (France). - - 2014
This work describes a collaborative effort to define and apply a protocol for the rational selection of a general-purpose screening library, to be used by the screening platforms affiliated with the EU-OPENSCREEN initiative. It is designed as a standard source of compounds for primary screening against novel biological targets, at ...
van der Harst Eugenie E Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study used multiple data sets and modelling choices in an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare typical disposable beverage cups made from polystyrene (PS), polylactic acid (PLA; bioplastic) and paper lined with bioplastic (biopaper). Incineration and recycling were considered as waste processing options, and for the PLA and ...
Czaczkes Tomer J TJ Biologie I, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ant foraging is an important model system in the study of adaptive complex systems. Many ants use trail pheromones to recruit nestmates to resources. Differential recruitment depending on resource quality coupled with positive feedback allows ant colonies to make rapid and accurate collective decisions about how best to allocate their ...
Carsetti Arturo A La Nuova Critica, Rome, Italy, - - 2014
At the biological level, what is innate is the result of an evolutionary process and is "programed" by natural selection. Natural selection is the "coder" (once linked to the emergence of meaning). This coupled process is indissolubly correlated with the continuous construction of new formats in accordance with the unfolding ...
Cox Christopher E CE Duke University, Medicine , Box 102043 , Durham, North Carolina, United States , 27710 , 919-681-7232 , 919-681-8359 ; - - 2014
In the setting of a complex critical illness, preference-sensitive decision making-choosing between two or more reasonable treatment options-can be difficult for patients, families, and clinicians alike. A common challenge to making high-quality decisions in this setting is a lack of critical information access and sharing among participants. Decision aids-brochures, web ...
Kandori Michihiro M Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; and - - 2014
Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong ...
Chai C C a Centre for Infrastructure Systems, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Nanyang Technological University , 50 Nanyang Avenue, - - 2014
ABSTRACT Objective This study applies a simulation technique to evaluate the hypothesis that red-light cameras (RLCs) exert important effects on accident risks. Conflict occurrences are generated by simulation and compared at intersections with and without RLCs to assess the impact of RLCs on several conflict types under various traffic conditions. ...
Lomnitz Jason G - - 2014
Considerable progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the component parts of genetic oscillators, which play central roles in all organisms. Nonlinear interaction among components is sufficiently complex that mathematical models are required to elucidate their elusive integrated behavior. Although natural and synthetic oscillators exhibit common architectures, there are ...
Sacchi Emanuele E The University of British Columbia, Department of Civil Engineering, 2002, 6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Z4. Electronic address: - - 2014
Collision modification factors (CMFs) are commonly used to quantify the impact of safety countermeasures. The CMFs obtained from observational before-after (BA) studies are usually estimated by averaging the safety impact (i.e., index of effectiveness) for a group of treatment sites. The heterogeneity among the treatment locations, in terms of their ...
Robertson Lain L - - 2014
There is a pressing need for improved bio-optical models of high biomass waters as eutrophication of coastal and inland waters becomes an increasing problem. Seasonal boom conditions in the Southern Benguela and persistent harmful algal production in various inland waters in Southern Africa present valuable opportunities for the development of ...
Erev Ido I Industrial Engineering and Management, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel;Warwick Business School, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom; and alroth@stanford.edu - - 2014
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is ...
Smolen Paul P Laboratory of Origin: Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, W. M. Keck Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, United States of America. Electronic address: - - 2014
Congenital cognitive dysfunctions are frequently due to deficits in molecular pathways that underlie the induction or maintenance of synaptic plasticity. For example, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is due to a mutation in cbp, encoding the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP). CBP is a transcriptional co-activator for CREB, and induction of CREB-dependent ...
Marsh Kevin K Evidera, Metro Building, 6th Floor, 1 Butterwick, W6 8DL, London, UK, - - 2014
Assessing the economic value of treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is necessary to support healthcare decision makers; however, it poses a number of challenges. This paper reviews economic models of CLL treatment to learn the lessons from this experience and support ongoing model efforts. A search of databases and ...
Abe Yasuyo Y IMPAQ International, 1333 Broadway, Suite 300 , Oakland, CA 94612, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of conducting well-thought-out sensitivity analyses for handling clustered data (data in which individuals are grouped into higher order units, such as students in schools) that arise from cluster randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This is particularly relevant given the rise in rigorous impact evaluations ...
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