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Speed Michael P MP Dept. of Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour, Institute of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZB. - - 2014
Warning signals within species, such as the bright colours of chemically defended animals, are usually considered mutualistic, monomorphic traits. Such a view is however increasingly at odds with the growing empirical literature, showing nontrivial levels of signal variation within prey populations. Key to understanding this variation, we argue, could be ...
Bennike S S Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Copenhagen, - - 2014
This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of ...
García Villar C C Unidad Clínica de Diagnóstico por Imagen, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, España. Electronic address: - - 2014
Different types of critically appraised topics (CATs) can be elaborated in diagnostic imaging: comparison of diagnostic tests, evaluation of techniques for early detection (screening), economical analyses, or therapeutic aspects, among others. Their design will vary in function of the question they aim to answer. For example, for treatment evaluation, clinical ...
Yu Xiang X Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong - - 2014
While the structural-acoustic coupling between flexible structures and closed acoustic cavities has been extensively studied in the literature, the modeling of structures coupled through open cavities, especially connected in cascade, is still a challenging task for most of the existing methods. The possible presence of micro-perforated panels (MPPs) in such ...
Stevens Nicholas N Regional and Urban Planning Program, Faculty of Arts and Business, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Footpaths provide an integral component of our urban environments and have the potential to act as safe places for people and the focus for community life. Despite this, the approach to designing footpaths that are safe while providing this sense of place often occurs in silos. There is often very ...
Tweedy Sean M SM The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement Studies, Brisbane, Australia∗; The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement Studies, Brisbane, Australia†; The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement Studies, Brisbane, Australia‡. Electronic address: - - 2014
Paralympic classification systems aim to promote participation in sport by people with disabilities by controlling for the impact of impairment on the outcome of competition. Valid systems of classification ensure that successful athletes are those who have the most advantageous combination of anthropometric, physiological, and/or psychological attributes, and who have ...
Svardal Hannes H Mathematics and Biosciences Group, Department of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern Platz 1, 1090, Vienna, Austria; Gregor Mendel Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1030, Vienna, Austria. - - 2014
We present two theoretical approaches to investigate whether organismal complexity, defined as the number of quantitative traits determining fitness, and the potential for adaptive diversification are correlated. The first approach is independent of any specific ecological model and based on curvature properties of the fitness landscape as a function of ...
Mostow Eliot E Wound Healing and Limb Preservation Center, Akron General Medical Center , Akron, - - 2014
Objective: To develop a tool to assist in the evaluation of treatment options based on clinically relevant parameters, thus enabling clinicians to heal patients more efficiently. Approach: Outlined here is the prototypic model of a comprehensive analysis tool to compare products by category, accounting for product characteristics, effectiveness data from ...
Nyame Theodore T TT Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A unique understanding of the components of mammalian skin has led to the development of numerous skin substitutes. These skin substitutes attempt to compensate for functional and physiologic deficits present in damaged tissue. Skin substitutes, when appropriately applied in optimized settings, offer a promising solution to difficult wound management. The ...
Cherian Anoop - - 2014
This paper presents a new nearest neighbor (NN) retrieval framework: robust sparse hashing (RSH). Our approach is inspired by the success of dictionary learning for sparse coding. Our key idea is to sparse code the data using a learned dictionary, and then to generate hash codes out of these sparse ...
Noel Camille E CE Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri - - 2014
Intensity-modulated adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been the focus of considerable research and developmental work due to its potential therapeutic benefits. However, in light of its unique quality assurance (QA) challenges, no one has described a robust framework for its clinical implementation. In fact, recent position papers by ASTRO and AAPM ...
Schoeman David S - - 2014
Sandy ocean beaches are iconic assets that provide irreplaceable ecosystem services to society. Despite their great socioeconomic importance, beaches as ecosystems are severely under-represented in the literature on climate-change ecology. Here, we redress this imbalance by examining whether beach biota have been observed to respond to recent climate change in ...
Bonawitz Elizabeth E Department of Psychology, Rutgers University - Newark, Newark, NJ USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
People can behave in a way that is consistent with Bayesian models of cognition, despite the fact that performing exact Bayesian inference is computationally challenging. What algorithms could people be using to make this possible? We show that a simple sequential algorithm "Win-Stay, Lose-Sample", inspired by the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift (WSLS) ...
Zhao Shishun S College of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, People's Republic of - - 2014
This paper discusses regression analysis of current status failure time data arising from the additive hazards model in the presence of informative censoring. Many methods have been developed for regression analysis of current status data under various regression models if the censoring is noninformative, and also there exists a large ...
Furlong Michael J MJ School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072, - - 2014
The importance of natural enemies as the foundation of integrated pest management (IPM) is widely accepted, but few studies conduct the manipulative field experiments necessary to directly quantify their impact on pest populations in this context. This is particularly true for predators. Studying arthropod predator-prey interactions is inherently difficult: prey ...
Cottereau Benoit R BR Université de Toulouse, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UPS, France; CNRS UMR 5549, CerCo, Toulouse, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
EEG and MEG have excellent temporal resolution, but the estimation of the neural sources that generate the signals recorded by the sensors is a difficult, ill-posed problem. The high spatial resolution of functional MRI makes it an ideal tool to improve the localization of the EEG/MEG sources using data fusion. ...
Herberstein M E ME Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Spiders are highly efficient predators in possession of exquisite sensory capacities for ambushing prey, combined with machinery for launching rapid and determined attacks. As a consequence, any sexually motivated approach carries a risk of ending up as prey rather than as a mate. Sexual selection has shaped courtship to effectively ...
Xiao Yingchao - - 2014
One-class classification (OCC) builds models using only the samples from one class (the target class) so as to predict whether a new-coming sample belongs to the target class or not. OCC widely exists in many application fields, such as fault detection. As an effective tool for OCC, one-class SVM (OCSVM) ...
Marchi S S Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado 80302, - - 2014
The history of the Hadean Earth (∼4.0-4.5 billion years ago) is poorly understood because few known rocks are older than ∼3.8 billion years old. The main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimetre zircon grains. Some of these zircons date back to ∼4.4 billion years ago when the Moon, ...
Greaves Ronda F RF School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Steroid analysis has always been complicated requiring a clear understanding of both the clinical and analytical aspects in order to accurately interpret results. The literature relating to this specialized area spans many decades and the intricacies of the steroid pathway have evolved with time. A number of key changes, including ...
Pérez-Chaparro P J PJ Department of Periodontology, Dental Research Division, Guarulhos University, Guarulhos, São Paulo, - - 2014
There is substantial evidence supporting the role of certain oral bacteria species in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Nevertheless, results of independent-culture diagnostic methods introduced about a decade ago have pointed to the existence of new periodontal pathogens. However, the data of these studies have not been evaluated together, ...
Biddle Jennifer C JC Department of Public and International Affairs, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601 S. College Rd. Leutze Hall, Wilmington, NC 28403-5607, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Collaborative governance critics continually call for evidence to support its prevalent use. As is often the case in environmental policy, environmental outcomes occur at a rate incompatible with political agendas. In addition, a multitude of possibly confounding variables makes it difficult to correlate collaborative governance processes with environmental outcomes. The ...
Sudha Arumugam A Department of Bioinformatics - - 2014
Abstract Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein tyrosine kinases are over expressed in several human cancers and considered as a promising target for developing novel anticancer drugs. In this study, the ligand-based pharmacophore mapping and atom-based 3D-QSAR approach was carried out on a series of 40 novel pyrrolo[3, 2-d]pyrimidine derivatives ...
Lin Neng-Huei NH Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan; Chemistry Department and Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand. Electronic address: - - 2014
The interactions between aerosols, clouds, and precipitation remain among the largest sources of uncertainty in the Earth's energy budget. Biomass-burning aerosols are a key feature of the global aerosol system, with significant annually-repeating fires in several parts of the world, including Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA in particular provides a "natural ...
Hou Chenping - - 2014
In many real applications of machine learning and data mining, we are often confronted with high-dimensional data. How to cluster high-dimensional data is still a challenging problem due to the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, we try to address this problem using joint dimensionality reduction and clustering. Different from ...
Stucky Brian J - - 2014
Recent years have brought great progress in efforts to digitize the world's biodiversity data, but integrating data from many different providers, and across research domains, remains challenging. Semantic Web technologies have been widely recognized by biodiversity scientists for their potential to help solve this problem, yet these technologies have so ...
Kramer Andrei - - 2014
Parameter estimation for differential equation models of intracellular processes is a highly relevantbu challenging task. The available experimental data do not usually contain enough information toidentify all parameters uniquely, resulting in ill-posed estimation problems with often highly correlatedparameters. Sampling-based Bayesian statistical approaches are appropriate for tackling thisproblem. The samples are ...
McCarrey John R JR Department of Bilogy, University of Texas at San Antonio. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recent studies have described numerous environmentally-induced disruptions of the epigenome (epimutations) in mammals. While some of these appear to be corrected by normal germline-specific epigenetic reprogramming and are therefore not transmitted transgenerationally, others are not corrected and are transmitted over multiple subsequent generations. The mechanism(s) that distinguish transgnerational and non-transgenerational ...
Thomson Robert C RC Department of Biology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822; - - 2014
Recent progress in resolving the tree of life continues to expose relationships that resist resolution, which drives the search for novel sources of information to solve these difficult phylogenetic problems. A recent example, the presence and absence of microRNA families, has been vigorously promoted as an ideal source of phylogenetic ...
Roepcke Stefan - - 2014
Objective: Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide-2 (GLP-2) that was recently approved by the US and European regulatory agencies FDA and EMA for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). The objectives of this work were, firstly, to develop a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model based on the ...
Sewell Fiona F UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), Gibbs Building, 215 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BE, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
An international expert group which includes 30 organisations (pharmaceutical companies, contract research organisations and regulatory bodies) has shared data on the use of recovery animals in the assessment of pharmaceutical safety for early development. These data have been used as an evidence-base to make recommendations on the inclusion of recovery ...
Mulder Martijn J MJ Department of Psychology, University of - - 2014
In this review we summarize findings published over the past 10 years focusing on the neural correlates of perceptual decision-making. Importantly, this review highlights only studies that employ a model-based approach, i.e., they use quantitative cognitive models in combination with neuroscientific data. The model-based approach allows capturing latent decision-making processes ...
Wolfe Charles T CT Department of Philosophy and Moral Sciences, Sarton Centre for History of Science, Ghent University, Blandijnberg 2, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
The organism is neither a discovery like the circulation of the blood or the glycogenic function of the liver, nor a particular biological theory like epigenesis or preformationism. It is rather a concept which plays a series of roles-sometimes overt, sometimes masked-throughout the history of biology, and frequently in very ...
Wills W H WH Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 - - 2014
Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple ...
Sonnhammer Erik E Stockholm Bioinformatics Center, Swedish eScience Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory, Box 1031, SE-17121 Solna, Sweden erik.sonnhammer@scilifelab.se - - 2014
Given the rapid increase of species with a sequenced genome, the need to identify orthologous genes between them has emerged as a central bioinformatics task. Many different methods exist for orthology detection, which makes it difficult to decide which one to choose for a particular application. Here, we review the ...
Solomon Stephanie S Albert Gnaegi Center for Healthcare Ethics, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, Mo., - - 2014
Biobank donors and biobank governance face a conceptual challenge akin to clinical patients and their designated surrogate decision-makers, the necessity of making decisions and policies now that must be implemented under future unknown circumstances. We propose that biobanks take advantage of this parallel to learn lessons from the historical trajectory ...
Liu Junmin - - 2014
Recently, low-rank representation (LRR) method has achieved great success in subspace clustering (SC), which aims to cluster the data points that lie in a union of low-dimensional subspace. Given a set of data points, LRR seeks the lowest rank representation among the many possible linear combinations of the bases in ...
Meade Michelle A MA Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan School of Medicine , Ann Arbor, MI , USA - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding healthcare disparities experienced by individuals with disabilities. While health disparities are the result of factors deeply rooted in culture, life style, socioeconomic status, and accessibility of resources, healthcare disparities are a subset of health disparities that reflect differences in access ...
M'Gonigle L K LK Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, California, USA, 94720. Electronic address: - - 2014
Explaining patterns of diversity has long been a central focus in ecology. One of the most challenging problems has been to understand how species occupying similar ecological niches can co-exist because, with limited resources, demographic stochasticity is expected to lead to the eventual extinction of all but one of them. ...
Schmidt Henning H Advanced Quantitative Sciences, Novartis Pharma AG, Postfach, 4002, Basel, Switzerland, - - 2014
Population pharmacokinetic (popPK) analyses are at the core of Pharmacometrics and need to be performed regularly. Although these analyses are relatively standard, a large variability can be observed in both the time (efficiency) and the way they are performed (quality). Main reasons for this variability include the level of experience ...
Waltham Nathan J NJ Gold Coast City Council, GCMC, PO Box 5042, Gold Coast, QLD, 9729, Australia, - - 2014
The Gold Coast City is the tourist center of Australia and has undergone rapid and massive urban expansion over the past few decades. The Broadwater estuary, in the heart of the City, not only offers an array of ecosystems services for many important aquatic wildlife species, but also supports the ...
O'Hara Timothy D TD Museum Victoria, GPO Box 666, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Our understanding of the origin, evolution, and biogeography of seafloor fauna is limited because we have insufficient spatial and temporal data to resolve underlying processes [1]. The abundance and wide distribution of modern and disarticulated fossil Ophiuroidea [2], including brittle stars and basket stars, make them an ideal model system for ...
Cho Jin-Hee - - 2014
In a military tactical network, maintaining trust among members in a mission group is critical to successful mission completion. However, maintaining high trust among group members in a resource-restricted tactical environment detrimentally reduces system lifetime, which may lead to mission failure or low mission effectiveness. In this paper, we aim ...
Blob Richard W RW *Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA; Department of Biology, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521, USA - - 2014
Locomotion is fundamental to the survival of many animal species, and terrestrial environments are one of the primary habitats through which a wide range of animals (including humans) must move. Many recent efforts have been made to broaden the approaches and systems used to understand how terrestrial locomotion is executed ...
Huang He - - 2014
This brief considers the guaranteed H ∞ performance state estimation problem of delayed static neural networks. An Arcak-type state estimator, which is more general than the widely adopted Luenberger-type one, is chosen to tackle this issue. A delay-dependent criterion is derived under which the estimation error system is globally asymptotically ...
Kufareva Irina I Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92039, - - 2014
Despite tremendous successes of GPCR crystallography, the receptors with available structures represent only a small fraction of human GPCRs. An important role of the modeling community is to maximize structural insights for the remaining receptors and complexes. The community-wide GPCR Dock assessment was established to stimulate and monitor the progress ...
Compernolle T T Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Many studies on technology adoption demonstrate that uncertainty leads to a postponement of investments by integrating a wait option in the economic analysis. The aim of this study however is to demonstrate how the investment in new technologies can be stimulated by integrating an option to abandon. Furthermore, this real ...
Xiao Yanhui - - 2014
Independent component analysis with soft reconstruction cost (RICA) has been recently proposed to linearly learn sparse representation with an overcomplete basis, and this technique exhibits promising performance even on unwhitened data. However, linear RICA may not be effective for the majority of real-world data because nonlinearly separable data structure pervasively ...
Perogamvros Lampros L Department of Psychiatry, Geneva University Hospitals, and Department of Neuroscience, University of Geneva, Geneva, - - 2014
Philosophers, psychiatrists and neuroscientists have all expressed interest in and formulated hypotheses on the nature of hallucinations, but no sufficient integration of these models exists to this date. The objective of this article is to present a neurophilosophical model of psychosis linking the neurobiology with the phenomenology of hallucinations and ...
Rosen Michael A MA The Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2014
There is a strong link between teamwork and patient safety. Emerging evidence supports the efficacy of teamwork improvement interventions. However, the availability of reliable, valid, and practical measurement tools and strategies is commonly cited as a barrier to long-term sustainment and spread of these teamwork interventions. This article describes the ...
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