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Szolnoki Attila A http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0907-0406 Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 49, 1525 Budapest, Hungary - - 2014
Rock is wrapped by paper, paper is cut by scissors and scissors are crushed by rock. This simple game is popular among children and adults to decide on trivial disputes that have no obvious winner, but cyclic dominance is also at the heart of predator-prey interactions, the mating strategy of ...
Maus Horst-Moritz HM Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory, Institute for Sport Science, Technical University Darmstadt, Magdalenenstr. 27, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany - - 2014
Blindfolded or disoriented people have the tendency to walk in circles rather than on a straight line even if they wanted to. Here, we use a minimalistic walking model to examine this phenomenon. The bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum exhibits asymptotically stable gaits with centre of mass (CoM) dynamics and ground ...
Raczynski Stanislaw S Universidad Panamericana, Mexico City, - - 2014
A model of the dynamics and interactions between organizations with self-organizing hierarchical structures is presented for discrete events. The active objects of the model are individuals (people, organization members). The parameters of an individual are ability, corruption level, resources, and lust for power, among others. Three organizations are generated and ...
Xiao Yanhui - - 2014
Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful technique to explore a parts-based representation by decomposing the original data matrix into a few parts-based basis vectors and encodings with nonnegative constraints. It has been widely used in image processing and pattern recognition tasks due to its psychological and physiological interpretation of ...
Tillich Ulrich M - - 2014
BackgroundHigh-throughput cultivation and screening methods allow a parallel, miniaturized and cost efficient processing of many samples. These methods however, have not been generally established for phototrophic organisms such as microalgae or cyanobacteria.ResultsIn this work we describe and test high-throughput methods with the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The required technical ...
Appiani Elena - - 2014
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is involved in numerous environmental processes, and its molecular size is believed to be important in many of these processes, such as DOM bioavailability, DOM sorptive capacity, and the formation of disinfection by-products during water treatment. The size and size distribution of the molecules composing DOM ...
Kindle Gerhard G aCenter for Chronic Immunodeficiency, University Medical Center Freiburg and University of Freiburg, Germany for the ESID Registry Working - - 2014
We provide an overview on the latest developments in primary immunodeficiency registries worldwide, on the basis of the recent literature amended by some older references to achieve completeness. New primary immunodeficiency registries are emerging worldwide, although existing databases continue to thrive and provide valuable insights for clinicians and researchers. In ...
Pappalardo Francesco F Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco-University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Excepting the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems, the Immune System is the most complex of somatic systems in higher animals. This complexity manifests itself at many levels from the molecular to that of the whole organism. Much insight into this confounding complexity can be gained through computational simulation. Such simulations ...
Gerber Sylvain S Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EQ, Cambridge, United - - 2014
Morphospaces are quantitative representations of phenotype space that are widely used in studies of morphological evolution. Do current conceptualizations of morphospaces, however, appropriately reflect the evolutionary dynamics of organisms depicted in these spaces? Most empirical morphospace studies implicitly consider variability of biological forms as isotropic, but such a view appears ...
Beresford N A NA Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK; School of Environment & Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester M4 4WT, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
A major source of uncertainty in the estimation of radiation dose to wildlife is the prediction of internal radionuclide activity concentrations. Allometric (mass-dependent) relationships describing biological half-life (T1/2b) of radionuclides in organisms can be used to predict organism activity concentrations. The establishment of allometric expressions requires experimental data which are ...
Nicholson Daniel J DJ Centre for the Study of Life Sciences (Egenis), University of Exeter, Byrne House, St. German's Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4PJ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in contemporary biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or ...
Addicoat Matthew Andrew - - 2014
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) and Covalent-Organic Frameworks (COFs) are recently notable examples of highly porous polymer frameworks with a raft of potential applications. Synthesis of these compounds is modular, with `connectors' and `linkers' able to be replaced almost at will in the fabrication of isoreticular frameworks - frameworks with the same ...
Smith Brian Tilston BT 1] Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA [2] Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024, USA - - 2014
Since the recognition that allopatric speciation can be induced by large-scale reconfigurations of the landscape that isolate formerly continuous populations, such as the separation of continents by plate tectonics, the uplift of mountains or the formation of large rivers, landscape change has been viewed as a primary driver of biological ...
Slabodnick Mark M MM Departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94122, - - 2014
In this Quick Guide, Salobnik and Marshall provide an overview of the ciliate Stentor coeruleus, which has a rich history as an experimental organism but was hidden from view for a number of years, only to re-emerge very recently as an important model to study regeneration, among other problems.
Gainforth Heather L HL University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7HB, UK, - - 2014
Knowledge mobilization (KM) has been described as putting research in the hands of research users. Network analysis is an empirical approach that has potential for examining the complex process of knowledge mobilization within community-based organizations (CBOs). Yet, conducting a network analysis in a CBO presents challenges. The purpose of this ...
Araujo Aluizio F R - - 2014
This paper presents an algorithm, self-organizing map-state trajectory generator (SOM-STG), to plan and control legged robot locomotion. The SOM-STG is based on an SOM with a time-varying structure characterized by constructing autonomously close-state trajectories from an arbitrary number of robot postures. Each trajectory represents a cyclical movement of the limbs ...
Chang Tsung-Yao TY Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2014
Therapies based on biologics involving delivery of proteins, DNA, and RNA are currently among the most promising approaches. However, although large combinatorial libraries of biologics and delivery vehicles can be readily synthesized, there are currently no means to rapidly characterize them in vivo using animal models. Here, we demonstrate high-throughput ...
Lanham Ana B AB REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department FCT-UNL, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study investigates, for the first time, the application of metabolic models incorporating polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) towards describing the biochemical transformations of full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For this purpose, it was required to modify previous ...
Showers Carolin J CJ University of - - 2014
Explores the hidden vulnerability of individuals with compartmentalized self-concept structures by linking research on self-organization to related models of self functioning. Across three studies, college students completed self-descriptive card sorts as a measure of self-concept structure and either the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale; Likert ratings of perceived authenticity of self-aspects; ...
Li Bochong B Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North - - 2014
Cellular processes are noisy due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions. As such, it is impossible to predict the exact quantity of a molecule or other attributes at the single-cell level. However, the distribution of a molecule over a population is often deterministic and is governed by the underlying ...
Chew Yin Hoon YH SynthSys and School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JD, United - - 2014
Understanding how dynamic molecular networks affect whole-organism physiology, analogous to mapping genotype to phenotype, remains a key challenge in biology. Quantitative models that represent processes at multiple scales and link understanding from several research domains can help to tackle this problem. Such integrated models are more common in crop science ...
Till John E JE *Risk Assessment Corporation, 417 Till Road, Neeses, SC 29107; †K-Spar Inc., 4835 W Foxtrail Lane, Idaho Falls, ID 83402; ‡U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, - - 2014
The suitability of a new facility in terms of potential impacts from routine and accidental releases is typically evaluated using conservative models and assumptions to assure dose standards are not exceeded. However, overly conservative dose estimates that exceed target doses can result in unnecessary and costly facility design changes. This ...
Kreyssig Peter P Bio Systems Analysis Group, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Jena Centre for Bioinformatics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany, Mathematics Department, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada, Instituto de Filosofía y Ciencias de la Complejidad - IFICC, Los Alerces 3024 Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile, Center Leo Apostel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium, Umm Al-Qura University, 1109 Makkah Al-Mukarramah and Al-Qunfudah Center for Scientific Research (QCSR), 21912 Al-Qunfudah, Kingdom of Saudi - - 2014
The functioning of many biological processes depends on the appearance of only a small number of a single molecular species. Additionally, the observation of molecular crowding leads to the insight that even a high number of copies of species do not guarantee their interaction. How single particles contribute to stabilizing ...
Laty M M Psychiatrist & Addictionologist at AGAPE Network, - - 2014
Bushido or Way of the Samurai originates from the samurai moral values, most commonly stressing combination of frugality, loyalty, honesty, martial arts mastery, and honor. Bushido is the code of moral principles which the samurai were required or instructed to observe. More frequently it is a code unuttered and unwritten ...
Ankeny Rachel A - - 2014
We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by ...
Kleandrova Valeria V VV REQUIMTE/Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, - - 2014
Nanotechnology has brought great advances to many fields of modern science. A manifold of applications of nanoparticles have been found due to their interesting optical, electrical, and biological/chemical properties. However, the potential toxic effects of nanoparticles to different ecosystems are of special concern nowadays. Despite the efforts of the scientific ...
Lobo Daniel D Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology, and Department of Biology Tufts University, 200 Boston Avenue, Suite 4600, Medford, MA 02155, - - 2014
The ability of certain organisms to completely regenerate lost limbs is a fascinating problem, far from solved. Despite the extraordinary published efforts during the last centuries of scientists performing amputations, transplantations, and molecular experiments, no mechanistic model exists yet that can completely explain patterning during the limb regeneration process. The ...
Hessel R R Soil Physics and Land Use team, Alterra, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands, - - 2014
It has become increasingly clear that desertification can only be tackled through a multi-disciplinary approach that not only involves scientists but also stakeholders. In the DESIRE project such an approach was taken. As a first step, a conceptual framework was developed in which the factors and processes that may lead ...
Hendrickson Erik L EL Department of Chemical Engineering and Center for Microbial Proteomics, University of Washington, Box 355014, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a common oral organism that can provide adhesive and metabolic support to developing periodontal bacterial communities. It is within the context of these communities that disease occurs. We have previously reported whole cell proteomics analyses of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii in early-stage communities with each other ...
Hafemeister Christoph C Department of Biology, Center for Genomics & Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY, USA christoph.hafemeister@nyu.edu - - 2014
Experiments in animal models are often conducted to infer how humans will respond to stimuli by assuming that the same biological pathways will be affected in both organisms. The limitations of this assumption were tested in the IMPROVER Species Translation Challenge, where 52 stimuli were applied to both human and ...
Beer Randall D RD Indiana - - 2014
Abstract Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis defines the essential organization of living systems and serves as a foundation for their biology of cognition and the enactive approach to cognitive science. As an initial step toward a more formal analysis of autopoiesis, this article investigates its application to the compact, ...
Martinez N E NE Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, 342 Computer Ct, Anderson, SC 29625, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study develops and compares different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ absorbed radiation dose and dose rates from (131)I uptake in multiple organs. The models considered are: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing additional ...
Negroni Jacopo J Joint IRB-BSC-CRG Program in Computational Biology, Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), c/ Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, - - 2014
The structural modeling of protein interactions in the absence of close homologous templates is a challenging task. Recently, template-based docking methods have emerged to exploit local structural similarities to help ab-initio protocols provide reliable 3D models for protein interactions. In this work, we critically assess the performance of template-based docking in ...
Dalai Venkata V VV National Center for Cognitive Informatics and Decision Making in Healthcare School of Biomedical Informatics University of Texas Health Science Center, 7000 Fannin St, Houston, 77030 TX, - - 2014
Clinicians' attention is a precious resource, which in the current healthcare practice is consumed by the cognitive demands arising from complex patient conditions, information overload, time pressure, and the need to aggregate and synthesize information from disparate sources. The ability to organize information in ways that facilitate the generation of ...
Milavec Mojca M Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology (NIB), Ve─Źna pot 111, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia, - - 2014
Cultivation and marketing of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been unevenly adopted worldwide. To facilitate international trade and to provide information to consumers, labelling requirements have been set up in many countries. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently the method of choice for detection, identification and quantification of ...
Chen Alex Y AY Dart Neuroscience LLC, San Diego, California, United States of America; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States of America; Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York, United States of - - 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, constituting difficulties in walking and abnormal gait. Previous research shows that Drosophila expressing human α-synuclein A30P (A30P) develop deficits in geotaxis climbing; however, geotaxis climbing is a different movement modality from walking. Whether A30P flies would ...
Stewart Neil J NJ Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, United - - 2014
To assess the sensitivity of the hyperpolarized (129) Xe chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) technique for noninvasive quantification of changes to lung microstructure and function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Ten healthy volunteers, four subjects with SSc and four with IPF were scanned at 1.5 T. ...
Sinclair Stephen - - 2014
With real-time models of friction that take velocity as input, accuracy depends in great part on adequately estimating velocity from position measurements. This process can be sensitive to noise, especially at high sampling rates. In audio-haptic acoustic simulations, often characterized by friction-induced, relaxation-type stick-slip oscillations, this gives a gritty, dry ...
Fernandez-Fontaina E E Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cometabolism is the ability of microorganisms to degrade non-growth substrates in the presence of primary substrates, being the main removal mechanism behind the biotransformation of organic micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants. In this paper, a cometabolic Monod-type kinetics, linking biotransformation of micropollutants with primary substrate degradation, was applied to a ...
Magistrale Giuseppe G Neurology and NeuroRehabilitation Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Santa Lucia, - - 2014
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-II) is a widely used generic assessment instrument for health and disability. However, a specific psychometric evaluation for this scale in multiple sclerosis (MS) is lacking. This study is aimed at the assessment of the psychometric properties of the WHODAS-II in MS with ...
Linge Svein O SO Telemark University College, - - 2014
Object The effect of craniovertebral decompression surgery on CSF flow dynamics in patients with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) has been incompletely characterized. The authors used computational fluid dynamics to calculate the effect of decompression surgery on CSF flow dynamics in the posterior fossa and upper cervical spinal canal. Methods ...
Tsukune Mariko M Graduate School of Creative Science/Institute of Advanced Active Aging Research, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, - - 2014
Accurate, noninvasive methods are sought for breast tumor detection and diagnosis. In particular, a need for noninvasive techniques that measure both the nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic properties of breast tissue has been identified. For diagnostic purposes, it is important to select a nonlinear viscoelastic model with a small number of ...
Mateo-Ortiz Daniel D Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Puerto - - 2014
New analytical methods are needed to understand and optimize the processes by which tablets are produced. Fette 3090 tablet presses are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry. A near-infrared (NIR) probe was installed into a Fette 3090 feed frame to understand and monitor the die filling process. The second objective ...
Abergel Daniel D Ecole Normale Supérieure, Departement de Chimie, UMR 7203 CNRS-UPMC-ENS, 24, rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
The analysis of NMR relaxation data is revisited along the lines of a Bayesian approach. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo strategy of data fitting, we investigate conditions under which relaxation data can be effectively interpreted in terms of internal dynamics. The limitations to the extraction of kinetic parameters that ...
Shadden Shawn C SC Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, 5126 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA , 94720-1740, USA, - - 2014
Recent advances in imaging, modeling, and computing have rapidly expanded our capabilities to model hemodynamics in the large vessels (heart, arteries, and veins). This data encodes a wealth of information that is often under-utilized. Modeling (and measuring) blood flow in the large vessels typically amounts to solving for the time-varying ...
Villeneuve Emma - - 2014
Hyperspectral imaging has been an area of active research in image processing and analysis for more than ten years, mainly for remote sensing applications. Astronomical ground-based hyperspectral imagers offer new challenges to the community, which differ from the previous ones in the nature of the observed objects, but also in ...
Yu Hao-Ran HR Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China and Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, - - 2014
So far there is only indirect evidence that the Universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The evidence for cosmic acceleration is based on the observation of different objects at different distances and requires invoking the Copernican cosmological principle and Einstein's equations of motion. We examine the direct observability using recession ...
Mitchell Jonathan S JS Committee on Evolutionary Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA Department of Science and Education, The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60615, USA - - 2014
Ecological divergence is thought to be coupled with evolutionary radiations, yet the strength of this coupling is unclear. When birds diversified ecologically has received much less attention than their hotly debated crown divergence time. Here, we quantify how accurately skeletal morphology can predict ecology in living and extinct birds, and ...
Tugnoli Alessandro A LISES - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica, Ambientale e dei Materiali, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, via Terracini n.28, 40131 Bologna - - 2014
The evaluation of the initial direction and velocity of the fragments generated in the fragmentation of a vessel due to internal pressure is an important information in the assessment of damage caused by fragments, in particular within the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of chemical and process plants. In the present ...
Kim Changwoo C Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791, Republic of - - 2014
Previously identified relationships between the attachment efficiency (α) and seepage velocity (US) of nanoparticles (NPs) were tested under simulated subsurface transport conditions, where the value of US is typically much less than the US on which they are based. This found an increase in the α value of TiO2 NPs ...
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