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Tosh Jonathan J Health Economics and Decision Science, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Regent Court, 30 Regent Street, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, S1 4DA, UK, - - 2014
The objective of the work reported in this paper was to critically assess how sequential disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been modelled in the context of economic evaluation of the use of DMARDs for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A secondary purpose was to identify the methodological challenges of modelling ...
Panter Jenna - - 2014
BackgroundActive commuting may make an important contribution to population health. Accurate measures of these behaviours are required, but it is unknown how self-reported estimates compare to those derived from objective measures. We sought to develop methods for objectively deriving time spent in specific travel behaviours from a combination of locational ...
Narikawa Kenji K 1Department of Sport and Medical Science Paramedic Course, Faculty of Medical Technology,Teikyo - - 2014
Introduction Shortening response time to an emergency call leads to the success of resuscitation by chest compression and defibrillation. However, response by ambulance or fire truck is not fast enough for resuscitation in Japan. In rural areas, response times can be more than 10 minutes. One possible way to shorten ...
Nikolakopoulou Adriani A Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, University Campus, Ioannina, 45110, - - 2014
Clinical trials are typically designed with an aim to reach sufficient power to test a hypothesis about relative effectiveness of two or more interventions. Their role in informing evidence-based decision-making demands, however, that they are considered in the context of the existing evidence. Consequently, their planning can be informed by ...
Taylor Jeremy M G JM Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, - - 2014
A recent article (Zhang et al., 2012, Biometrics 168, 1010-1018) compares regression based and inverse probability based methods of estimating an optimal treatment regime and shows for a small number of covariates that inverse probability weighted methods are more robust to model misspecification than regression methods. We demonstrate that using ...
Goode Adam P AP Duke Physical Therapy, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2014
Hamstring injury is a prevalent muscle injury in sports. Inconclusive evidence exists for eccentric hamstring strengthening to prevent hamstring injuries. One reason for this discrepancy may be the influence intervention non-compliance has on individual study estimates, and therefore pooled estimates. This systematic review aims to determine the effect of eccentric ...
Roberson Richard B - - 2014
Objective: Our objective was to examine the use and quality of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in articles published in Rehabilitation Psychology. Design: Trained raters examined 66 separate exploratory factor analyses in 47 articles published between 1999 and April 2014. The raters recorded the aim of the EFAs, the distributional statistics, ...
Wang Yang Y Department of Pharmacy, Wuhan Children's Hospital, 100th-Hong Kong Road, Wuhan 430016, - - 2014
Aim:To develop a population pharmacokinetics model of oxcarbazepine in Chinese pediatric patients with epilepsy, and to study the interactions between oxcarbazepine and other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).Methods:A total of 688 patients with epilepsy aged 2 months to 18 years were divided into model (n=573) and valid (n=115) groups. Serum concentrations of ...
Mitchell Emily M EM Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2014
The potential for research involving biospecimens can be hindered by the prohibitive cost of performing laboratory assays on individual samples. To mitigate this cost, strategies such as randomly selecting a portion of specimens for analysis or randomly pooling specimens prior to performing laboratory assays may be employed. These techniques, while ...
Cheng Cecilia - - 2014
Compared with the large body of literature on coping, coping flexibility has received relatively scant research attention, although more such studies have begun to emerge recently. Researchers have conceptualized coping flexibility in diverse ways: as a broad coping repertoire, a well-balanced coping profile, cross-situational variability in strategy deployment, a good ...
Martins A C M AC National Regulatory Agency for Private Health Insurance/Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil; National School of Public Health/Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, - - 2014
Studies in a number of countries have shown that adverse drug events (ADE) occur frequently among hospital inpatients. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of observational studies of the frequency of ADE in adult inpatients and to examine factors associated with observed heterogeneity in the ...
Rhemtulla Mijke M Programme Group Psychological Methods, Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Weesperplein 4, Room 208, 1018XA, Amsterdam, Netherlands, - - 2014
In planned missingness (PM) designs, certain data are set a priori to be missing. PM designs can increase validity and reduce cost; however, little is known about the loss of efficiency that accompanies these designs. The present paper compares PM designs to reduced sample (RN) designs that have the same ...
Mauss Daniel D Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, - - 2014
The Allostatic Load Index (ALI) has been used to establish associations between stress and health-related outcomes. This review summarizes the measurement and methodological challenges of allostatic load in occupational settings. Databases of Medline, PubPsych, and Cochrane were searched to systematically explore studies measuring ALI in working adults following the PRISMA ...
Farah Breno Quintella BQ Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education, University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil; Study and Research Group on Hemodynamics and Exercise Metabolism-GEPHEME, University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, - - 2014
To examine the reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in adolescents and to analyse the inter- and intra-observer reliability of data analysis. The sample included 27 adolescents aged 14-19 years old. RR intervals were obtained for 10 min in the supine position on two different days (Day 1 and Day 8) ...
Schütz Helmut H Consultancy Services for Bioequivalence and Bioavailability Studies, Neubaugasse 36/11, 1070, Vienna, Austria, - - 2014
It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in ...
Gilbert Rebecca R School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK - - 2014
Case-control studies are potentially open to misclassification of disease outcome which may be unrelated to risk factor exposure (non-differential), thus underestimating associations, or related to risk factor exposure (differential), thus causing more serious bias. We conducted a systematic literature review for methods of adjusting for outcome misclassification in case-control studies. ...
Al Jadda Khalifeh K Department of Computer Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, - - 2014
In the field of glycomics research several different techniques are used for structure elucidation. Although multiple techniques are often used to increase confidence in structure assignments most glycomics databases allow only storing of a single type of experimental data. In addition the methods used to prepare a sample for analysis ...
Yan Mei-Si MS Department of Pathology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People's Republic of - - 2014
The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Systematic searches of electronic databases, reference lists of included articles, and the abstracts presented at related scientific societies meetings were performed. Statistical analyses were conducted using software ...
Suleiman Ahmed Abbas AA *Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; †Lung Cancer Group Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Cologne Bonn, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; and ‡Department of Nuclear Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Cologne Bonn, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, - - 2014
Pharmacostatistical models can quantify different relationships and improve decision making in personalized medicine and drug development. Our objectives were to develop models describing non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) dynamics during first-line treatment with erlotinib, and survival of the cohort. Data from patients with advanced NSCLC (n = 39) treated first-line with ...
Kothe Emily J EJ School of Psychology, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been criticized for not including interactions between major constructs thought to underlie behaviour. This study investigated the application of the TPB to the prediction of fruit and vegetable consumption across three prospective cohorts. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether ...
Jylhävä Juulia - - 2014
Prediction models for old-age mortality have generally relied upon conventional markers such as plasma-based factors and biophysiological characteristics. However, it is unknown whether the existing markers are able to provide the most relevant information in terms of old-age survival or whether predictions could be improved through the integration of whole-genome ...
Kierkels Roel G J RG University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recently, clinically validated multivariable normal tissue complication probability models (NTCP) for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients have become available. We test the feasibility of using multivariable NTCP-models directly in the optimiser for inverse treatment planning of radiotherapy to improve the dose distributions and corresponding NTCP-estimates in HNC patients. For ...
Collyer M L ML Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, - - 2014
The analysis of phenotypic change is important for several evolutionary biology disciplines, including phenotypic plasticity, evolutionary developmental biology, morphological evolution, physiological evolution, evolutionary ecology and behavioral evolution. It is common for researchers in these disciplines to work with multivariate phenotypic data. When phenotypic variables exceed the number of research subjects-data ...
Huffman Kristopher M KM *Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care, American College of Surgeons, Chicago, IL †Department of Surgery, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, and VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA ‡Department of Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis; Center for Health Policy and the Olin Business School at Washington University in St Louis; John Cochran Veterans Affairs Medical Center; and BJC Healthcare, St. Louis, - - 2014
To assess statistical reliability of hospital profiling models in ACS NSQIP (American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program). The ACS NSQIP January 2013 Semiannual Report provided risk-adjusted hospital quality assessments for 137 models. Median reliability and percentage of hospitals achieving acceptable reliability were computed for each model. Average ...
Brandstätter Christian C Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226-2, 1040 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2014
Municipal solid waste landfills pose a threat on environment and human health, especially old landfills which lack facilities for collection and treatment of landfill gas and leachate. Consequently, missing information about emission flows prevent site-specific environmental risk assessments. To overcome this gap, the combination of waste sampling and analysis with ...
Floros Georgios D GD 1 2nd Department of - - 2014
Summary.-This study assessed the results from the parallel application of two alternate personality models, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman trait model and Bond's Defense Styles, in a sample of 268 Greek medical students (172 women, M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 1.1; 95 men, M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 1.2) ...
Wei Wen-Hua WH 1] Arthritis Research UK Centre for Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. [2] Medical Research Council (MRC) Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. - - 2014
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have become the focus of the statistical analysis of complex traits in humans, successfully shedding light on several aspects of genetic architecture and biological aetiology. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are usually modelled as having additive, cumulative and independent effects on the phenotype. Although evidently a useful approach, ...
Jones-Jordan Lisa A LA College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, 649 Fry Hall, 338 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, United States - - 2014
Purpose: To determine the correlation between sibling refractive errors adjusted for shared and unique environmental factors using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods: Refractive error from subjects' last study visits was used to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between siblings. The ...
Perez S Ivan SI División Antropología, Museo de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Electronic address: - - 2014
Phylogenetic or species trees reflect the branching process of lineages and have direct and indirect interest for several branches of evolutionary anthropology. Estimating phylogenetic trees is a necessary first step toward understanding the factors responsible for the ecological and phenotypic diversification of a primate clade. The platyrrhines have become well ...
Chalmers Peter N PN Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.. Electronic address: - - 2014
Shoulder instability frequently recurs in young patients without operative treatment. Both open and arthroscopic approaches to shoulder stabilization with labral repair and capsulorrhaphy have been described and are routinely used. Multiple trials have been conducted to compare these approaches, with multiple meta-analyses performed to synthesize these trials; however, the results ...
Hall Anette A Institute of Clinical Medicine, Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, - - 2014
Background: The Disease State Index (DSI) prediction model measures the similarity of patient data to diagnosed stable and progressive mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases to identify patients who are progressing to Alzheimer's disease. Objectives: We evaluated how well the DSI generalizes across four different cohorts: DESCRIPA, ADNI, AddNeuroMed, and the ...
Serra-Sogas Norma N Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P5, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Oily discharges from vessel operations have been documented in Canada's Pacific region by the National Aerial Surveillance Program (NASP) since the early 1990s. We explored a number of regression methods to explain the distribution and counts per grid cell of oily discharges detected from 1998 to 2007 using independent predictor ...
Jackson Dan D - - 2014
Background Meta-regression is becoming increasingly used to model study level covariate effects. However this type of statistical analysis presents many difficulties and challenges. Here two methods for calculating confidence intervals for the magnitude of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models are developed. A further suggestion for calculating ...
Fernandes Paulo M PM Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal; Departamento de Ciências Florestais e Arquitetura Paisagista, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
The assumption that increased wildfire incidence in the Mediterranean Basin during the last decades is an outcome of changes in land use warrants an objective analysis. In this study we examine how annual area burned (BA) in the Portuguese public forest varied in relation to environmental and human-influenced drivers during ...
Shen Yuanyuan Y Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2014
Ordinal outcomes arise frequently in clinical studies when each subject is assigned to a category and the categories have a natural order. Classification rules for ordinal outcomes may be developed with commonly used regression models such as the full continuation ratio (CR) model (fCR), which allows the covariate effects to ...
Marsh Kimberly K aUNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland bDepartment of Global Health and Population, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA cDepartment of Health Statistics and Information Systems, World Health Organization, Geneva, - - 2014
To assess differences between HIV prevalence estimates derived from national population surveys and antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites and to improve the calibration of ANC-derived estimates in Spectrum 2013 to more appropriately account for differences between these data. Retrospective analysis of national population survey and ANC surveillance data from 25 ...
Yang Limin - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the survival of pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) using parameters that are measured during routine clinical management. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated in 1679 pediatric patients with RMS registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) ...
Mondragón-Ancelmo Jaime J Centro Universitario UAEM Temascaltepec, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Temascaltpec, Mexico, - - 2014
The objective of the present study was to quantify the marketing margins of cold sheep carcass and barbacoa meat in the southern state of Mexico. Data were obtained from the production chain links (production, industrialization, and marketing) where the marketing margins were calculated along with the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. In ...
Scheike Thomas H TH Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1014, Copenhagen, Denmark, - - 2014
We consider data from the Danish twin registry and aim to study in detail how lifetimes for twin-pairs are correlated. We consider models where we specify the marginals using a regression structure, here Cox's regression model or the additive hazards model. The best known such model is the Clayton-Oakes model. ...
Kübler André A Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, London, UK; Center for Tuberculosis Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Active tuberculosis (TB) often presents with advanced pulmonary disease, including irreversible lung damage and cavities. Cavitary pathology contributes to antibiotic failure, transmission, morbidity and mortality. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-1 are implicated in TB pathogenesis. We explored the mechanisms relating MMP/TIMP imbalance to cavity formation in a modified rabbit ...
Pew Jack J Department of Mathematics and Computing Science, Saint Mary's University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3C3, - - 2014
Analyses of pairwise relatedness represent a key component to addressing many topics in biology. However, such analyses have been limited because most available programs provide a means to estimate relatedness based on only a single estimator, making comparison across estimators difficult. Second, all programs to date have been platform-specific, working ...
Baltieri Danilo Antonio DA a ABC Medical School, Santo André , São Paulo, Neurosciences , São Paulo , - - 2014
ABSTRACT Few measures are available to examine pornography-use constructs, and this can compromise the reliability of statements regarding harmful use of pornography. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) in a sample of male Brazilian university students. The PCI is ...
Alcover Amengual Maria Magdalena - - 2014
Although the Mediterranean island of Majorca is an endemic area of leishmaniosis, there is a lack of up-to-date data on its sand fly fauna, the last report dating from 1989. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the current sand fly distribution, the potential environmental factors ...
Churilov Leonid L Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; RMIT University, Melbourne, - - 2014
Developing improved methods for analysis of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) remains a critical issue for the stroke research community. A recently proposed permutation-based approach is assumption-free and easily interpretable but computationally intensive and does not provide confidence intervals to quantify the precision of the effect size estimate. We aimed ...
Cao Shaolong S Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America; Center for Bioinformatics and Genomics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of - - 2014
Joint adjustment of cryptic relatedness and population structure is necessary to reduce bias in DNA sequence analysis; however, existent sparse regression methods model these two confounders separately. Incorporating prior biological information has great potential to enhance statistical power but such information is often overlooked in many existent sparse regression models. ...
Wallace Matthew M School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Roxby Building, Liverpool L69 7ZT, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Previous research shows low mortality for most immigrants compared to natives in host countries. This advantage is often attributed to health selection processes in migration and to protective health behaviours. Little research has examined the role of data quality, especially the registration of moves. Registration errors relating to moves between ...
Snowden Jonathan M JM 1] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA [2] Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, - - 2014
Health effects of ambient air pollution are most frequently expressed in individual studies as responses to a standardized unit of air pollution changes (e.g., an interquartile interval), which is thought to enable comparison of findings across studies. However, this approach does not necessarily convey health effects in terms of a ...
Buchanan Ashley L AL The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Biostatistics , 135 Dauer Drive , 3101 McGavran-Greenberg Hall , CB #7420 , Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599 , 617-733-5208 ; - - 2014
In an observational study with a time-to-event outcome, the standard analytical approach is the Cox proportional hazards regression model. As an alternative to the standard Cox model, in this paper we present a method that uses inverse probability (IP) weights to estimate the effect of a baseline exposure on a ...
Dancz Christina E CE From the Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to compare the utility of 2 surgical models for obstetric anal sphincter repair for improving resident knowledge, confidence level, and repair technique. Third- and fourth-year obstetrics and gynecology residents at LAC + USC Medical Center performed simulated anal sphincter repair on both sponge and ...
Kujala M M Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Turku, FI - 20014, - - 2014
Lipidomics is an emerging field of science that holds the potential to provide a readout of biomarkers for an early detection of a disease. Our objective was to identify an efficient statistical methodology for lipidomics-especially in finding interpretable and predictive biomarkers useful for clinical practice. In two case studies, we ...
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