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Cronin Adam L AL United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka 020-8550, Japan - - 2014
Individuals derive many benefits from being social, one of which is improved accuracy of decision-making, the so-called 'wisdom of the crowds' effect. This advantage arises because larger groups can pool information from more individuals. At present, limited empirical data indicate that larger groups outperform smaller ones during consensus decision-making in ...
Boran Fatih Emre - - 2014
Linguistic summarization has turned out to be an important knowledge discovery technique by providing the most relevant natural language-based sentences in a human consistent manner. While many studies on linguistic summarization have handled ordinary fuzzy sets [type-1 fuzzy set (T1FS)] for modeling words, only few of them have dealt with ...
Sheehan Nuala A NA Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The reconstruction of pedigrees from genetic marker data is relevant to a wide range of applications. Likelihood-based approaches aim to find the pedigree structure that gives the highest probability to the observed data. Existing methods either entail an exhaustive search and are hence restricted to small numbers of individuals, or ...
van Hees Vincent Theodoor VT Newcastle - - 2014
Background: Wearable acceleration sensors are increasingly used for the assessment of free-living physical activity. Acceleration sensor calibration is a potential source of error. This study aims to describe and evaluate an auto-calibration method to minimize calibration error using segments within the free-living records (no extra experiments needed). Methods: The auto-calibration ...
Guo Chengan - - 2014
Finding the optimal solution to the constrained l0-norm minimization problems in the recovery of compressive sensed signals is an NP-hard problem and it usually requires intractable combinatorial searching operations for getting the global optimal solution, unless using other objective functions (e.g., the l 1 norm or lp norm) for approximate ...
Raghuram Jayaram - - 2014
A new method for semisupervised learning from pairwise sample (must- and cannot-link) constraints is introduced. It addresses an important limitation of many existing methods, whose solutions do not achieve effective propagation of the constraint information to unconstrained samples. We overcome this limitation by constraining the solution to comport with a ...
Lee Eun Ju EJ Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Daegu University, Kyungsan, Kyungpook 712-714, Republic of - - 2014
This paper proposes a relative charge density model of prepared chitosan-fucoidan nanoparticles (CFNs) to provide insight into an analysis of the ionic interactions in terms of polyelectrolyte complexes. Using the relative charge density model, the extent of the ionic interactions is predicted in terms of the pH (2 through 6) ...
Wang Yong - - 2014
In the field of evolutionary computation, there has been a growing interest in applying evolutionary algorithms to solve multimodal optimization problems (MMOPs). Due to the fact that an MMOP involves multiple optimal solutions, many niching methods have been suggested and incorporated into evolutionary algorithms for locating such optimal solutions in ...
Bitbol Anne-Florence AF Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics and Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of - - 2014
Natural selection drives populations towards higher fitness, but crossing fitness valleys or plateaus may facilitate progress up a rugged fitness landscape involving epistasis. We investigate quantitatively the effect of subdividing an asexual population on the time it takes to cross a fitness valley or plateau. We focus on a generic ...
Conway Jessica M JM Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of - - 2014
Simple models of therapy for viral diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus assume that, once therapy is started, the drug has a constant effectiveness. More realistic models have assumed either that the drug effectiveness depends on the drug concentration or that the effectiveness varies over ...
Wang Xu - - 2014
Rate control (RC) optimization is indispensable for scalable video coding (SVC) with respect to bitstream storage and video streaming usage. From the perspective of centralized resource allocation optimization, the inner-layer bit allocation problem is similar to the bargaining problem. Therefore, bargaining game theory can be employed to improve the RC ...
Hens Bart B Drug Delivery & Disposition, KU Leuven, Gasthuisberg O&N 2, Herestraat 49, Box 921, 3000 Leuven, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to explore the transfer of drug solutions from stomach to small intestine and its impact on intraluminal drug concentrations in humans. The collected intraluminal data were used as reference to evaluate simulations of gastrointestinal transfer currently implemented in different in vitro and in silico ...
Horlacher Nora N Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hohenheim, 70599, Stuttgart, - - 2014
2-Aminoacetophenone (AAP) was recognized as the key compound for the so-called untypical aging off-flavor (UTA) in Vitis vinifera wines. In this study, it was shown that AAP can be formed by photooxidation of free and protein-bound tryptophan (TRP) in combination with a subsequent storage in model wine. Solutions of TRP ...
Kuo Jonny J Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC), Monash University, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) allow researchers to discreetly observe everyday, real-world driving to better understand the risk factors that contribute to hazardous situations. In particular, NDS designs provide high ecological validity in the study of driver distraction. With increasing dataset sizes, current best practice of manually reviewing videos to classify ...
Grose Margaret J MJ Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, University of Melbourne, Grattan Street, Carlton, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ecologists often feel that they need complete data before they are able to advise or make decisions. Thinking backwards, an idea from mathematics, suggests that we need to focus on the desired outcome to tell us which way to go for practical solutions for our ecological ambitions.
Gong Wenyin - - 2014
Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful evolutionary algorithm (EA) for numerical optimization. Combining with the constraint-handling techniques, recently, DE has been successfully used for the constrained optimization problems (COPs). In this paper, we propose the adaptive ranking mutation operator (ARMOR) for DE when solving the COPs. The ARMOR is expected ...
Huang Yong Y Center for Ecological Research, Northeast Forestry University, No. 26 Hexing RD., Xiangfan District, Harbin, 150040, - - 2014
This paper evaluates the performance of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating annual and decadal temperature in the Mekong River Basin from 1950 to 2005. By use of Bayesian multi-model averaging method, the future projection of temperature variation under different scenarios are also analyzed. The results ...
Ward Barbara J - - 2014
The developing world faces dual crises of escalating energy demand and lack of urban sanitation infrastructure that pose significant burdens on the environment. This paper presents results of a study evaluating the feasibility of using human feces-derived char as a solid fuel for heating and cooking, and a potential way ...
Li Hanlin H State Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, National Center for Mathematics and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, - - 2014
By considering the influence of volume exclusion on the solvent dielectric, a variable dielectric Poisson-Boltzmann (VDPB) model is explored for molecular solvation studies by using a dielectric as an explicit function of ionic sizes and concentrations. A finite element method is adopted and an iterative strategy is introduced to numerically ...
van Veelen Matthijs M Department of Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam, Roeters-straat 11, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, 1 Brattle Square, Suite 6, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A widespread claim in evolutionary theory is that every group selection model can be recast in terms of inclusive fitness. Although there are interesting classes of group selection models for which this is possible, we show that it is not true in general. With a simple set of group selection ...
Weruaga Luis - - 2014
Fitting a multivariate Gaussian mixture to data represents an attractive, as well as challenging problem, in especial when sparsity in the solution is demanded. Achieving this objective requires the concurrent update of all parameters (weight, centers, and precisions) of all multivariate Gaussian functions during the learning process. Such is the ...
Nir Oded O Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion - IIT, Haifa 32000, Israel. Electronic address: - - 2014
Measuring and modeling pH in concentrated aqueous solutions in an accurate and consistent manner is of paramount importance to many R&D and industrial applications, including RO desalination. Nevertheless, unified definitions and standard procedures have yet to be developed for solutions with ionic strength higher than ∼0.7 M, while implementation of conventional ...
Deng Keng K a Department of Mathematics , University of Louisiana at Lafayette , Lafayette , LA 70504-1010 , - - 2014
In this paper, we develop a second-order characteristic line scheme for a nonlinear hierarchical juvenile-adult population model of amphibians. The idea of the scheme is not to follow the characteristics from the initial data, but for each time step to find the origins of the grid nodes at the previous ...
Waniewski Jacek J 1. Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland 2. Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, - - 2014
The three pore model (3PM) includes large pores for the description of protein leak to the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis. However, the reliability of this description has been not fully tested against clinical data yet.Peritoneal transport parameters were estimated using 3PM, extended 3p model (with estimation of fraction of ...
Miraldo Pedro - - 2014
Pose estimation is a relevant problem for imaging systems whose applications range from augmented reality to robotics. In this paper we propose a novel solution for the minimal pose problem, within the framework of generalized camera models and using a planar homography. Within this framework and considering only the geometric ...
Xu Xiaojiang X Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, - - 2014
Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide ...
Brockhoff Dimo D DOLPHIN team, INRIA Lille-Nord Europe, 59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. - - 2014
Abstract In multiobjective optimization, set-based performance indicators are commonly used to assess the quality of a Pareto front approximation. Based on the scalarization obtained by these indicators, a performance comparison of multiobjective optimization algorithms becomes possible. The R2 and the Hypervolume (HV) indicator represent two recommended approaches which have shown ...
Banerjee Indranil I Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, - - 2014
A vast majority of Indian population are engaged in agriculture. While pesticides help in increasing crop production, inappropriate pesticide storage practice and inadequate protective measures frequently causes accidental poisoning among farmers. The present study was conducted to explore the pattern of pesticide use among farmers in a district of India ...
Skou Soren S Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, - - 2014
With recent advances in data analysis algorithms, X-ray detectors and synchrotron sources, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has become much more accessible to the structural biology community. Although limited to ∼10 Å resolution, SAXS can provide a wealth of structural information on biomolecules in solution and is compatible with a wide ...
Hildebrandt Torsten T Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH (BIBA) an der Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany. - - 2014
Abstract One way to accelerate evolutionary algorithms with expensive fitness evaluations is to combine them with surrogate models. Surrogate models are efficiently computable approximations of the fitness function, derived by means of statistical or machine learning techniques from samples of fully evaluated solutions. But these models usually require a numerical ...
Köllmann Claudia C Faculty of Statistics, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, - - 2014
Research in the field of nonparametric shape constrained regression has been intensive. However, only few publications explicitly deal with unimodality although there is need for such methods in applications, for example, in dose-response analysis. In this article, we propose unimodal spline regression methods that make use of Bernstein-Schoenberg splines and ...
Hosseini Mahdi - - 2014
Numerous total variation (TV) regularizers, engaged in image restoration problem, encode the gradients by means of simple [-1, 1] FIR filter. Despite its low computational processing, this filter severely distorts signal's high frequency components pertinent to edge/discontinuous information and cause several deficiency issues known as texture and geometric loss. This ...
Agrawal M M Department of Mathematics, MANIT, Bhopal, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
The investigators in the past have developed some models of temperature distribution in the human limb assuming it as a regular circular or elliptical tapered cylinder. But in reality the limb is not of regular tapered cylindrical shape. The radius and eccentricity are not same throughout the limb. In view ...
Chakraborty Rudrasis R Electronics and Communication Sciences Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, - - 2014
For many applications, to reduce the processing time and the cost of decision making, we need to reduce the number of sensors, where each sensor produces a set of features. This sensor selection problem is a generalized feature selection problem. Here, we first present a sensor (group-feature) selection scheme based ...
Planqué Robert R Department of Mathematics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Background Glycolysis is the central pathway in energy metabolism in the majority of organisms. In a recent paper, Van Heerden et al.[1] showed experimentally and computationally that glycolysis can exist in two states, a global steady state and a so-called imbalanced state. In the imbalanced state, intermediary metabolites accumulate at ...
Abdelaziz Ramadan R Institute for Geology, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has received considerable attention as a global optimization technique from scientists of different disciplines around the world. In this article, we illustrate how to use PSO for inverse modeling of a coupled flow and transport groundwater model (MODFLOW2005-MT3DMS) in a fractured gneiss aquifer. In particular, the ...
Lascaris Erik E Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2014
Previous research has indicated the possible existence of a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) in models of silica at high pressure. To clarify this interesting question we run extended molecular dynamics simulations of two different silica models (WAC and BKS) and perform a detailed analysis of the liquid at temperatures much ...
Osczevski Randall J RJ , York Region, ON, Canada, - - 2014
Ben Shabat et al. (Int J Biometeorol 56(4):639-51, 2013) present revised charts for wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCET) and facial skin temperatures (FST) that differ significantly from currently accepted charts. They credit these differences to their more sophisticated calculation model and to the human-based equation that it used for finding ...
Cho Heera - - 2014
To investigate the effect of temperature on the formation of furan, various furan models were conducted at 90, 121, and 150°C. A total 15 models, including alanine (ALA), serine (SER), ribose (RIB), RIB/ALA, RIB/SER, glucose (GLU), GLU/ALA, GLU/SER, sucrose (SUC), SUC/ALA, SUC/SER, furoic acid (FUR), GLU/FUR, acetaldehyde (ACET), and GLU/ACET ...
Biswas Saurabh S Department of Mechanical Engineering , IIT Kanpur , Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, - - 2014
Hysteresis in material behaviour includes both signum nonlinearities as well as high dimensionality. Available models for component-level hysteretic behaviour are empirical. Here, we derive a low-order model for rate-independent hysteresis from a high-dimensional massless frictional system. The original system, being given in terms of signs of velocities, is first solved ...
Yoshida Norio N Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, - - 2014
The three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) method was efficiently implemented in the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. The method is referred to as the FMO/3D-RISM method, and allows us to treat electronic structure of the whole of a macromolecule, such as a protein, as well as the solvent distribution ...
Koren Ilan I Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100, Israel. - - 2014
Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base and cold top. Here, we provide evidence from observations and numerical modeling of a dramatic aerosol effect on warm clouds. ...
Meckel Yoav Y 1Life Science Department, Zinman College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Wingate Institute, Israel 2Child Health and Sport Center, Pediatric Department, Meir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to determine young (16.9±0.5 yr) soccer players' repeated sprint ability (RSA) at different game stages. Players performed repeated sprint test (RST) (12X20 m) after warm-up prior to a game, at half-time and after a full soccer game, each on a different day, in random ...
Seifert W W Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 Halle, - - 2014
The conventional analysis of a Peltier cooler approximates the material properties as independent of temperature using a constant properties model (CPM). Alternative concepts have been published by Bian and Shakouri (2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 212101), Bian (et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245208) and Snyder et al (2012 ...
Calandriello Daniele D Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Semi-supervised clustering aims to introduce prior knowledge in the decision process of a clustering algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised clustering algorithm based on the information-maximization principle. The proposed method is an extension of a previous unsupervised information-maximization clustering algorithm based on squared-loss mutual information to effectively ...
Wang Hui-Yuan HY The Gene & Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, United - - 2014
Microalgae's aquatic, non-edible, highly genetically modifiable nature and fast growth rate are considered ideal for biomass conversion to liquid fuels providing promise for future shortages in fossil fuels and for reducing greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from combustion. We demonstrate adaptability of PRO/II software by simulating a microalgae photo-bio-reactor and ...
Ackleh Azmy S AS a Department of Mathematics , University of Louisiana at Lafayette , Lafayette , LA 70504 , - - 2014
We consider a size-structured population model where individuals may be recruited into the population at different sizes. First- and second-order finite difference schemes are developed to approximate the solution of the model. The convergence of the approximations to a unique weak solution is proved. We then show that as the ...
Pérez-Escudero Alfonso A 0000000247826139 Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, - - 2014
Animals in groups touch each other, move in paths that cross, and interact in complex ways. Current video tracking methods sometimes switch identities of unmarked individuals during these interactions. These errors propagate and result in random assignments after a few minutes unless manually corrected. We present idTracker, a multitracking algorithm ...
Melnik Sergey S MACSI, Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Limerick, - - 2014
We develop a new ensemble of modular random graphs in which degree-degree correlations can be different in each module, and the inter-module connections are defined by the joint degree-degree distribution of nodes for each pair of modules. We present an analytical approach that allows one to analyze several types of ...
Lawrence David J - - 2014
Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use-related reductions in riparian shading have caused ...
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