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Results 401 - 450 of 2246
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Hallman Jason J - - 2010
Injury risk from side air bag deployment has been assessed using stationary out-of-position occupant test protocols. However, stationary conditions may not always represent real-world environments. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of torso side air bag deployment on close-proximity occupants, comparing a stationary test ...
Clark Nina A - - 2010
Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in ...
de Nazelle Audrey A University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2010
States in the USA are required to demonstrate future compliance of criteria air pollutant standards by using both air quality monitors and model outputs. In the case of ozone, the demonstration tests aim at relying heavily on measured values, due to their perceived objectivity and enforceable quality. Weight given to ...
Rehfuess Eva A - - 2010
Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is a significant risk factor for acute lower respiratory infections among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions that promote a switch to modern fuels hold a large health promise, but their effective design and implementation require an understanding of the web of upstream and ...
Leroy C - - 2010
Atmospheric releases of krypton-85, from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the AREVA NC facility at La Hague (France), were used to test Gaussian models of dispersion. In 2001-2002, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) studied the atmospheric dispersion of 15 releases, using krypton-85 as a ...
Goyal Radha - - 2011
Assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms of school buildings is of prime concern due to its potential effects on student's health and performance as they spend a substantial amount of their time (6-7 h per day) in schools. A number of airborne contaminants may be present in urban school ...
Kim YongSu - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive monitoring and diagnosis system for the air pollutants in a subway system using a lifting technique with a multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) which monitors the periodic patterns of the air pollutants and diagnoses the sources of the contamination. The ...
McLachlan Michael S - - 2010
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) is a volatile compound used in personal care products that is released to the atmosphere in large quantities. Although D(5) is currently under consideration for regulation, there have been no field investigations of its atmospheric fate. We employed a recently developed, quality assured method to measure D(5) concentration ...
Makra László - - 2011
Nonparametric time-varying regression methods were developed to forecast daily ragweed pollen concentration, and the probability of the exceedance of a given concentration threshold 1 day ahead. Five-day and 10-day predictions of the start and end of the pollen season were also addressed with a nonparametric regression technique combining regression analysis with ...
Lyons B P - - 2010
The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining 11 qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status (GES), such as demonstrating that "Concentrations ...
Pa Ann - - 2010
After a fatal accident during the discharge of wood pellets at Helsingborg, emissions from pellets during marine transportation became a concern for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets. In this paper, a two-compartment model has been developed for the first time to predict the concentrations of CO, CO₂, ...
Braun Sabine - - 2010
For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was ...
Vizuete William - - 2010
In 2007, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released guidance on demonstrating attainment of the federal ozone (O3) standard. This guidance recommended a change in the use of air quality model (AQM) predictions from an absolute to a relative way. This was accomplished by using a ratio, and not the ...
Weilenmann Martin F - - 2010
Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common ...
Di Tian - - 2010
Understanding ozone response to its precursor emissions is crucial for effective air quality management practices. This nonlinear response is usually simulated using chemical transport models, and the modeling results are affected by uncertainties in emissions inputs. In this study, a high ozone episode in the southeastern United States is simulated ...
Suh Helen H - - 2010
We examined whether more precise exposure measures would better detect associations between traffic-related pollution, elemental carbon (EC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and heart rate variability (HRV). Repeated 24-hour personal and ambient PM2.5, EC, and NO2 were measured for 30 people living in Atlanta, GA. The association between HRV and either ambient ...
Qi Ruifeng - - 2010
Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses ...
Chang Howard H - - 2010
There is a growing interest in quantifying the health impacts of climate change. This paper examines the risks of future ozone levels on non-accidental mortality across 19 urban communities in Southeastern United States. We present a modeling framework that integrates data from climate model outputs, historical meteorology and ozone observations, ...
Fioletov Vitali - - 2010
The UV Index was introduced in Canada in 1992 in response to growing concerns about the potential increase of ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to ozone depletion. The index was adopted as a standard indicator of UV levels by the World Meteorological Organization and World Health Organization in 1994. This survey ...
Bock Michael - - 2010
The causes of past changes in the global methane cycle and especially the role of marine methane hydrate (clathrate) destabilization events are a matter of debate. Here we present evidence from the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core based on the hydrogen isotopic composition of methane [deltaD(CH4)] that clathrates ...
Zauli Sajani Stefano - - 2011
Because of practical problems associated with measurement of personal exposures to air pollutants in larger populations, almost all epidemiological studies assign exposures based on fixed-site ambient air monitoring stations. In the presence of multiple monitoring stations at different locations, the selection of them may affect the observed epidemiological concentration--response (C-R) ...
Hertel Sabine - - 2010
Daily to monthly variations in fine particulate matter have been linked to systemic inflammatory responses. It has been hypothesized that smaller particles resulting from combustion processes confer higher toxicity. We aim to analyze the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and systemic inflammation. We use baseline data ...
Zander Alexis - - 2011
Little attention has been paid on the carbon footprint of different healthcare service models. We examined this question for service models for patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We estimated carbon emissions associated with ambulance (patient) transport under a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) care model based in ...
Yuval - - 2010
Prediction of meteorological and air quality variables motivates a lot of research in the atmospheric sciences and exposure assessment communities. An interesting related issue regards the relative predictive power that can be expected at different time scales, and whether it vanishes altogether at certain ranges. An improved understanding of our ...
Chen Sheng-Po - - 2010
Although a number of gas-phase chemical mechanisms, such as CBM-IV, RADM2, and SAPRC have been successful in studying gas-phase atmospheric chemical processes, they all used different combinations of lumped organic species to describe the role of organics in gas-phase chemical processes. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) have been in use ...
Wood Alice M - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Outdoor air pollutants are associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality, but little longitudinal work has been undertaken in this area in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) typically exhibit faster decline of lung function than subjects with usual COPD and thus represent a group in ...
Manneh Rima - - 2010
Spatially differentiated intake fractions (iFs) linked to Canadian emissions of toxic organic chemicals were developed using the multimedia and multipathways fate and exposure model IMPACT 2002. The fate and exposure of chemicals released to the Canadian environment were modeled with a single regional mass-balance model and three models that provided ...
Niu Hao - - 2010
Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as ...
Hrga Ivana - - 2010
The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both ...
Saito Takuya - - 2010
The atmospheric mixing ratios of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), extremely potent greenhouse gases, have been continuously measured at two Japanese stations (Cape Ochiishi and Hateruma Island) since 2006, to infer their global and regional emissions. The baseline mixing ratios of the measured C(2)-C(4) PFCs [PFC-116 (C(2)F(6)), PFC-218 (C(3)F(8)), and PFC-318 (c-C(4)F(8))] showed ...
Moeckel Claudia - - 2010
Diel (24-h) concentration variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air were measured in the center of Zurich, Switzerland, and on Uetliberg, a hill about 5 km from the city center. Air samples were collected simultaneously at both sites over 4 h time periods for 3 consecutive days during a ...
van Donkelaar Aaron - - 2010
Epidemiologic and health impact studies of fine particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) are limited by the lack of monitoring data, especially in developing countries. Satellite observations offer valuable global information about PM2.5 concentrations.Objective: In this study, we developed a technique for estimating surface PM2.5 concentrations from satellite ...
Hernández-Ceballos Miguel A - - 2011
The main goal of the present study was to provide a detailed analysis of olive pollen transport dynamics in the province of Córdoba (south-western Spain) by applying back-trajectory analysis. Pollen data from 2006 and 2007 were analysed at four monitoring sites: Córdoba city in the centre of the province, Baena ...
Grinn-Gofroń Agnieszka - - 2011
Ganoderma sp. is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we analysed fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland, and its dependence on meteorological conditions. Statistical models for the airborne spore concentrations of Ganoderma sp.-one of ...
Beate Lettmeier - - 2010
Worldwide, approximately 30-50 millions of people are living in small scale gold mining areas and are primarily burdened by mercury vapour. In the frame of our study, 306 mercury (Hg) vapour burdened adults, working and/ or living in two small scale gold mining areas in Zimbabwe and Tanzania and 58 ...
Jordi C - - 2010
The goal of our project is to mimic fish-like movement in air, propelling an airship by undulating its hull and a caudal fin. The activation of the fish-like body in air is realized by dielectric elastomers. These actuators are quite unique for their soft light-weight membrane structure and they are ...
Pan Li - - 2010
East Asia is the largest source region of global anthropogenic mercury emissions, and contributes to atmospheric mercury concentration and deposition in other regions. Similarly, mercury from the global pool also plays a role in the chemical transport of mercury in East Asia. Annual simulations of atmospheric mercury in East Asia ...
Butt Craig M - - 2010
Poly- and perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous in the Arctic environment. Several modeling studies have been conducted in attempt to resolve the dominant transport pathway of PFCs to the arctic-atmospheric transport of precursors versus direct transport via ocean currents. These studies are generally limited by their focus on perfluorooctanoate ...
Bidmead A M - - 2010
This paper contains the recommendations of the high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy working party of the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The recommendations consist of a Code of Practice (COP) for the UK for measuring the reference air kerma rate (RAKR) of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. ...
Geiser Linda H - - 2010
Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry, and total N deposition ...
Fu Chao - - 2010
Estimating and analyzing the temporal and spatial patterns of methane emissions from agriculture (MEA) will help China formulate mitigation and adaptation strategies for the nation's agricultural sector. Based on the Tier 2 method presented in the 2006 guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and on existing reports, ...
Oterhals Age - - 2010
A factorial experimental design based on temperature, feed rate and addition of "working fluid" (WF; fatty acid ethyl esters) was used to model a short-path distillation process applied for removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish oil. Decontamination effect was assessed by measuring the level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and ...
Moore Kelly - - 2010
The authors evaluated the association between ambient ozone levels and cardiac mortality in California's South Coast Air Basin during the period 1983-2000 and compared inferences from several types of marginal structural model (MSM) estimators. The authors undertook an ecologic study during the high-ozone seasons among persons over age 55 years. ...
Carlton Annmarie G - - 2010
The implicit assumption that biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is natural and can not be controlled hinders effective air quality management. Anthropogenic pollution facilitates transformation of naturally emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the particle phase, enhancing the ambient concentrations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). It is therefore conceivable ...
Garcia Valerie C - - 2010
Air quality surfaces representing pollutant concentrations across space and time are needed for many applications, including tracking trends and relating air quality to human and ecosystem health. The spatial and temporal characteristics of these surfaces may reveal new information about the associations between emissions, pollution levels, and human exposure and ...
Christopher Sundar A - - 2010
Satellite assessments of particulate matter (PM) air quality that use solar reflectance methods are dependent on availability of clear sky; in other words, mass concentrations of PM less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) cannot be estimated from satellite observations under cloudy conditions or bright surfaces such as snow/ice. ...
Ginsbach Jake W - - 2010
The resuspension of large volumes of sediments that are contaminated with chlorinated pollutants continues to threaten environmental quality and human health. Whereas kinetic models are more accurate for estimating the environmental impact of these events, their widespread use is substantially hampered by the need for costly, time-consuming, site-specific kinetics experiments. ...
Weber Stephanie A - - 2010
Using satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) to estimate surface concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a well-established technique in the air quality community. In this study, the relationships between PM2.5 concentrations measured at five monitor locations in the Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC region and AOD from Moderate Resolution ...
Brauer Michael - - 2010
Epidemiology has played an important role in the understanding of air pollution as a risk factor for respiratory disease and in the evidence base for air quality standards. With the widespread availability of genetic information and increasingly sophisticated measurements of molecular markers of adverse effects, there is a need for ...
Frey H Christopher - - 2010
Vehicle-specific microscale fuel use and emissions rate models are developed based upon real-world hot-stabilized tailpipe measurements made using a portable emissions measurement system. Consecutive averaging periods of one to three multiples of the response time are used to compare two semiempirical physically based modeling schemes. One scheme is based on ...
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