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Results 351 - 400 of 2217
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Vasconcelos Paulo - - 2010
The present study aimed at creating a so called "single-site baseline" (SSB) of imposex in the purple dye murex (Bolinus brandaris) from the Ria Formosa lagoon (Algarve coast, southern Portugal), at the moment that the IMO Antifouling System Convention (banning globally the use of organotin compounds in antifouling paints on ...
Miñarro Marta Doval - - 2011
The change in light intensity that takes place when an ambient air sample is drawn into the detection chamber of a chemiluminescence monitor generates changes in the concentrations of several species, such as NO(2), NO and O(3). Although this phenomenon has been known for several decades, there is still no ...
Huang Hui-Fen - - 2011
In dealing with the complex issues of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and climate change mitigation, many interrelated factors such as cost, level of technology development, supply and demand of energy, structure of industry, and expenditures on research and development exist. Using indicators to monitor environmental impacts and evaluate the efficacies ...
George Barbara Jane - - 2010
Regression models are developed to describe the relationship between ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) mass concentrations measured at a central-site monitor with those at residential outdoor monitors. Understanding the determinants and magnitude of variability and uncertainty in this relationship is critical for ...
Digar Antara - - 2010
An essential requirement of modeling for air quality management is to accurately simulate the responses of pollutant concentrations to changes in emissions. Uncertain model input parameters such as emission rates and reaction rate constants lead to uncertainty in model responses. However, traditional methods for characterizing parametric uncertainty are exceedingly computationally ...
Henderson Barron H - - 2010
Regions with concentrated petrochemical industrial activity (e.g., Houston or Baton Rouge) frequently experience large, localized releases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aircraft measurements suggest these released VOCs create plumes with ozone (O3) production rates 2-5 times higher than typical urban conditions. Modeling studies found that simulating high O3 productions requires ...
Sejian Veerasamy - - 2011
The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared ...
Kolovos Alexander - - 2010
Space-time data analysis and assimilation techniques in atmospheric sciences typically consider input from monitoring measurements. The input is often processed in a manner that acknowledges characteristics of the measurements (e.g., underlying patterns, fluctuation features) under conditions of uncertainty; it also leads to the derivation of secondary information that serves study-oriented ...
Liu Meng - - 2011
Stochastic competitive models with pollution and without pollution are proposed and studied. For the first system with pollution, sufficient criteria for extinction, nonpersistence in the mean, weak persistence in the mean, strong persistence in the mean, and stochastic permanence are established. The threshold between weak persistence in the mean and ...
von Waldow Harald - - 2010
The global distillation hypothesis states that fractionation patterns of persistent semivolatile chemicals in the environment are determined by the effect of spatially varying environmental temperature on the temperature-dependent phase partitioning coefficients of chemicals. Here, we use a model experiment and an analysis of monitoring data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to ...
Vizcaíno P - - 2010
The MAPPE GIS based multimedia model is used to produce a quantitative description of the behaviour of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) in Europe, with emphasis on continental surface waters. The model is found to reasonably reproduce gamma-HCH distributions and variations along the years in atmosphere and soil; for continental surface waters, concentrations ...
Knispel B - - 2010
Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this pulsar is likely a disrupted ...
Talwar B - - 2010
Prediction of respirable suspended particulate matter impacts of diesel generator sets used for pumping station has been made using meteorological data, information on stack characteristics and emission rate, baseline ambient particulate matter and Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST-3) model. It is observed that particulate matter emission from pumping station-S ...
Gasic Bojan - - 2010
We present estimated emission source strengths of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, a city that was affected by the civil war in Bosnia and Hercegovina (former Yugoslavia) in the 1990s. These emission estimates are compared to PCB emission rates estimated for the cities of Zurich, Switzerland, and ...
Astel Aleksander - - 2010
The present study deals with the application of N-way factor analysis for modeling and interpretation of a three-dimensional environmental data set acquired from monitoring of particulate matter (PM) collected at four different sampling locations in Lower Austria region (Central Europe). In the study the Tucker3 algorithm for N-way modeling was ...
Dee Scott - - 2010
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) are economically significant pathogens of pigs that can be spread between herds via the airborne route. As area/regional control and eradication programs for these pathogens move forward, it becomes critical to understand conditions associated with airborne transport and ...
Place S E - - 2010
Environmental concerns involving the dairy industry are shifting from an exclusive focus on water quality to encompass climate change and air quality issues. The dairy industry's climate change air emissions of concern are the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. With regard to air quality, the dairy industry's major emission ...
Bar-llan Amnon - - 2010
This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas/ Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The ...
Chien Tsung-Wen - - 2010
The Hsinta and Nanpu Power Stations are located in southern Taiwan. The Hsinta Power Station consists of five combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT), whereas the Nanpu Power Station consists of four. A project was undertaken to develop and deploy a predictive emissions monitoring system (PEMS) on CCGT unit 3 of Hsinta ...
Clark Nigel N - - 2010
A method is proposed to predict vehicle emissions over a driving cycle on the basis of the vehicle's emissions measured over other driving cycles and the properties of these cycles. These properties include average velocity, average inertial power, and average acceleration. This technique was demonstrated and verified using data from ...
Casey Kenneth D - - 2010
There is a need for robust and accurate techniques for the measurement of ammonia (NH3) and other atmospheric pollutant emissions from poultry production facilities. Reasonable estimates of NH3 emission rate (ER) from poultry facilities are needed to guide discussions about the industry's impact on local and regional air quality. The ...
Hallman Jason J - - 2010
Injury risk from side air bag deployment has been assessed using stationary out-of-position occupant test protocols. However, stationary conditions may not always represent real-world environments. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of torso side air bag deployment on close-proximity occupants, comparing a stationary test ...
Clark Nina A - - 2010
Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in ...
de Nazelle Audrey A University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2010
States in the USA are required to demonstrate future compliance of criteria air pollutant standards by using both air quality monitors and model outputs. In the case of ozone, the demonstration tests aim at relying heavily on measured values, due to their perceived objectivity and enforceable quality. Weight given to ...
Rehfuess Eva A - - 2010
Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is a significant risk factor for acute lower respiratory infections among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions that promote a switch to modern fuels hold a large health promise, but their effective design and implementation require an understanding of the web of upstream and ...
Leroy C - - 2010
Atmospheric releases of krypton-85, from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the AREVA NC facility at La Hague (France), were used to test Gaussian models of dispersion. In 2001-2002, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) studied the atmospheric dispersion of 15 releases, using krypton-85 as a ...
Goyal Radha - - 2011
Assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms of school buildings is of prime concern due to its potential effects on student's health and performance as they spend a substantial amount of their time (6-7 h per day) in schools. A number of airborne contaminants may be present in urban school ...
Kim YongSu - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive monitoring and diagnosis system for the air pollutants in a subway system using a lifting technique with a multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) which monitors the periodic patterns of the air pollutants and diagnoses the sources of the contamination. The ...
McLachlan Michael S - - 2010
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) is a volatile compound used in personal care products that is released to the atmosphere in large quantities. Although D(5) is currently under consideration for regulation, there have been no field investigations of its atmospheric fate. We employed a recently developed, quality assured method to measure D(5) concentration ...
Makra László - - 2011
Nonparametric time-varying regression methods were developed to forecast daily ragweed pollen concentration, and the probability of the exceedance of a given concentration threshold 1 day ahead. Five-day and 10-day predictions of the start and end of the pollen season were also addressed with a nonparametric regression technique combining regression analysis with ...
Lyons B P - - 2010
The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining 11 qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status (GES), such as demonstrating that "Concentrations ...
Pa Ann - - 2010
After a fatal accident during the discharge of wood pellets at Helsingborg, emissions from pellets during marine transportation became a concern for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets. In this paper, a two-compartment model has been developed for the first time to predict the concentrations of CO, CO₂, ...
Braun Sabine - - 2010
For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was ...
Vizuete William - - 2010
In 2007, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released guidance on demonstrating attainment of the federal ozone (O3) standard. This guidance recommended a change in the use of air quality model (AQM) predictions from an absolute to a relative way. This was accomplished by using a ratio, and not the ...
Weilenmann Martin F - - 2010
Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common ...
Di Tian - - 2010
Understanding ozone response to its precursor emissions is crucial for effective air quality management practices. This nonlinear response is usually simulated using chemical transport models, and the modeling results are affected by uncertainties in emissions inputs. In this study, a high ozone episode in the southeastern United States is simulated ...
Suh Helen H - - 2010
We examined whether more precise exposure measures would better detect associations between traffic-related pollution, elemental carbon (EC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and heart rate variability (HRV). Repeated 24-hour personal and ambient PM2.5, EC, and NO2 were measured for 30 people living in Atlanta, GA. The association between HRV and either ambient ...
Qi Ruifeng - - 2010
Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses ...
Chang Howard H - - 2010
There is a growing interest in quantifying the health impacts of climate change. This paper examines the risks of future ozone levels on non-accidental mortality across 19 urban communities in Southeastern United States. We present a modeling framework that integrates data from climate model outputs, historical meteorology and ozone observations, ...
Fioletov Vitali - - 2010
The UV Index was introduced in Canada in 1992 in response to growing concerns about the potential increase of ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to ozone depletion. The index was adopted as a standard indicator of UV levels by the World Meteorological Organization and World Health Organization in 1994. This survey ...
Bock Michael - - 2010
The causes of past changes in the global methane cycle and especially the role of marine methane hydrate (clathrate) destabilization events are a matter of debate. Here we present evidence from the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core based on the hydrogen isotopic composition of methane [deltaD(CH4)] that clathrates ...
Zauli Sajani Stefano - - 2011
Because of practical problems associated with measurement of personal exposures to air pollutants in larger populations, almost all epidemiological studies assign exposures based on fixed-site ambient air monitoring stations. In the presence of multiple monitoring stations at different locations, the selection of them may affect the observed epidemiological concentration--response (C-R) ...
Hertel Sabine - - 2010
Daily to monthly variations in fine particulate matter have been linked to systemic inflammatory responses. It has been hypothesized that smaller particles resulting from combustion processes confer higher toxicity. We aim to analyze the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and systemic inflammation. We use baseline data ...
Zander Alexis - - 2011
Little attention has been paid on the carbon footprint of different healthcare service models. We examined this question for service models for patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We estimated carbon emissions associated with ambulance (patient) transport under a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) care model based in ...
Yuval - - 2010
Prediction of meteorological and air quality variables motivates a lot of research in the atmospheric sciences and exposure assessment communities. An interesting related issue regards the relative predictive power that can be expected at different time scales, and whether it vanishes altogether at certain ranges. An improved understanding of our ...
Chen Sheng-Po - - 2010
Although a number of gas-phase chemical mechanisms, such as CBM-IV, RADM2, and SAPRC have been successful in studying gas-phase atmospheric chemical processes, they all used different combinations of lumped organic species to describe the role of organics in gas-phase chemical processes. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) have been in use ...
Wood Alice M - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Outdoor air pollutants are associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality, but little longitudinal work has been undertaken in this area in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) typically exhibit faster decline of lung function than subjects with usual COPD and thus represent a group in ...
Manneh Rima - - 2010
Spatially differentiated intake fractions (iFs) linked to Canadian emissions of toxic organic chemicals were developed using the multimedia and multipathways fate and exposure model IMPACT 2002. The fate and exposure of chemicals released to the Canadian environment were modeled with a single regional mass-balance model and three models that provided ...
Niu Hao - - 2010
Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as ...
Hrga Ivana - - 2010
The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both ...
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