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Results 301 - 350 of 2216
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Sana Aria - - 2011
The diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) remains a clinical challenge. We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of clinical features, visualization of the gastrointestinal arteries, and evaluation of mucosal perfusion in patients clinically suspected of CGI. A total of 186 patients referred for suspicion of CGI were prospectively included ...
Grant Daniel T - - 2010
Flight capability for micro air vehicles is rapidly maturing throughout the aviation community; however, mission capability has not yet matured at the same pace. Maintaining trim during a descent or in the presence of crosswinds remains challenging for fixed-wing aircraft but yet is routinely performed by birds. This paper presents ...
Salway Ruth - - 2010
This paper describes the use of Bayesian latent variable models in the context of studies investigating the short-term effects of air pollution on health. Traditional Poisson or quasi-likelihood regression models used in this area assume that consecutive outcomes are independent (although the latter allows for overdispersion), which in many studies ...
Donovan Sally Maree - - 2011
The aim of this research was to predict the effect that the biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) diversion targets in the European Union landfill directive (99/31/EC) would have on landfill gas emissions. This is important for continued mitigation of these emissions. Work was undertaken in three stages using the GasSim model ...
Hammond Davyda - - 2011
Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient ...
Carlton Annmarie G - - 2010
Numerous scientific upgrades to the representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Additions include several recently identified SOA precursors: benzene, isoprene, and sesquiterpenes; and pathways: in-cloud oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, particle-phase oligomerization, and acid enhancement of isoprene SOA. NO(x)-dependent ...
Spatari Sabrina - - 2010
Renewable and low carbon fuel standards being developed at federal and state levels require an estimation of the life cycle carbon intensity (LCCI) of candidate fuels that can substitute for gasoline, such as second generation bioethanol. Estimating the LCCI of such fuels with a high degree of confidence requires the ...
Breen Michael S - - 2010
A critical aspect of air pollution exposure models is the estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) of individual homes, where people spend most of their time. The AER, which is the airflow into and out of a building, is a primary mechanism for entry of outdoor air pollutants and ...
Laner David - - 2011
Municipal solid waste landfills need to be managed after closure. This so-called aftercare comprises the treatment and monitoring of residual emissions as well as the maintenance and control of landfill elements. The measures can be terminated when a landfill does not pose a threat to the environment any more. Consequently, ...
Viana Mar - - 2010
African dust (AD) contributions to particulate matter (PM) levels may be reported by Member States to the European Commission during justification of exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV). However, the detection and subsequent quantification of the AD contribution to PM levels is complex, and only two measurement-based methods are ...
Lundstedt-Enkel Katrin - - 2010
Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus) is a pelagic, zoo-planktivorous fish and young (2-5 years old) individuals of this species are sampled annually in the Swedish marine monitoring program. This study determined concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in dorsal muscle from herring (n = 60) of varying ...
Ishizawa Yumiko - - 2011
General anesthetics are administered to approximately 50 million patients each year in the United States. Anesthetic vapors and gases are also widely used in dentists' offices, veterinary clinics, and laboratories for animal research. All the volatile anesthetics that are currently used are halogenated compounds destructive to the ozone layer. These ...
Venkatesh Aranya - - 2011
The climate change impacts of U.S. petroleum-based fuels consumption have contributed to the development of legislation supporting the introduction of low carbon alternatives, such as biofuels. However, the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions estimated for these policies using life cycle assessment methods are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that ...
Jacques David R - - 2010
A simplified building airflow model is presented that can be used to predict the spread of a contaminant agent from a chemical or biological attack. If the dominant means of agent transport throughout the building is an air-handling system operating at steady-state, a linear time-invariant (LTI) model can be constructed ...
Plevin Richard J - - 2010
The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions induced by increased biofuel consumption are highly uncertain: individual estimates vary from each other and each has a wide intrinsic error band. Using a reduced-form model, we estimated that the bounding range for emissions from indirect land-use change (ILUC) from US corn ethanol ...
Chakraborty Paromita - - 2010
India has extensive production and usage of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) for agriculture and vector control. Despite this, few data are available on the levels and distribution of OCPs in the urban atmosphere of India. Passive and active air sampling was therefore conducted between Dec 2006 and March 2007 in 7 ...
Schuster Jasmin K - - 2010
Long-term air monitoring data sets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro-Pollutants (TOMPS) program in the United Kingdom started in 1991, generating a data set for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The history and ...
Belland Kxis M - - 2010
In 1998, the Navy's center of excellence for advanced air wing combat operations, namely the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center (NSAWC), had a spike in Class A flight mishaps. The spike triggered an intense review of prior mishaps and current mishap-reduction practices using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification ...
Fernandez Linda - - 2011
We apply a fixed-effects model to examine the impact of trade and environmental policies on air quality at ports along the U.S.-Mexico border. We control for other factors influencing air quality, such as air quality of cities near the border, volume of traffic flows and congestion. Results show the air ...
Grinn-GofroĊ„ Agnieszka - - 2011
Fungal spores are an important component of bioaerosol and also considered to act as indicator of the level of atmospheric bio-pollution. Therefore, better understanding of these phenomena demands a detailed survey of airborne particles. The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of two the most important allergenic ...
Mölter A A Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Community Based Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. - - 2010
Over recent years land use regression (LUR) has become a frequently used method in air pollution exposure studies, as it can model intra-urban variation in pollutant concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, very few studies have used the LUR methodology to also model the temporal variation in air pollution ...
Masino Caterina - - 2010
This study estimates the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from 840 telemedicine consultations completed in a 6-month time period. Our model considers GHG emissions for both vehicle and videoconferencing unit energy use. Cost avoidance factors are also discussed. Travel distances in kilometers were calculated for each appointment using ...
Niisoe Tamon - - 2010
A publicly available atmospheric transport model, the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry Model ( http://ruc.noaa.gov/wrf/WG11/ ), was used to simulate atmospheric perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanoate (PFO) emitted from a point source in the Osaka urban area (also known as Keihanshin), Japan. The time period of the simulation was from ...
Atanassov D - - 2011
The tradition in tritium washout modeling is to unite the washout model with a Gaussian plume model describing dispersion of tritium vapour in the atmosphere. In the present study, an alternative approach is proposed. A numerical Eulerian model that describes washout independently of dispersion is developed. The sensitivity analysis to ...
Lonati Giovanni - - 2010
This work is intended to assess the impact on local air quality due to atmospheric emissions from port area activities for a new port in project in the Mediterranean Sea. The sources of air pollutants in the harbour area are auxiliary engines used by ships at berth during loading/offloading operations. ...
Gatenby Piers A C - - 2011
The NHS is responsible for approximately 30% of all public sector carbon emissions. The Climate Change Act 2008 introduced legally binding targets to cut emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by at least 80% of the 1990 baseline by 2050. This paper seeks to examine two different strategies for the treatment ...
Scharff Heijo - - 2011
Although many countries are increasing their efforts to recycle and to re-use waste materials, landfilling will still be needed in order to dispose of wastes which cannot be recycled or treated in other ways. Since landfills will most probably be present for a long time, measures will have to be ...
Gwinn Maureen R - - 2011
Quantifying the benefits of reducing hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) has been limited by gaps in toxicological data, uncertainties in extrapolating results from high-dose animal experiments to estimate human effects at lower doses, limited ambient and personal exposure monitoring data, and insufficient economic research to support valuation of ...
Epp Bastian - - 2010
A model of the cochlea was used to bridge the gap between model approaches commonly used to investigate phenomena related to otoacoustic emissions and more filter-based model approaches often used in psychoacoustics. In the present study, a nonlinear and active one-dimensional transmission line model was developed that accounts for several ...
Patterson Steven L - - 2010
Epidemiological studies have linked particulate matter (PM) exposure to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory disease. In order to monitor and assess the potential PM health risk to deployed military personnel, the U.S. Army must field a portable sampler that can accurately sample particles with an aerodynamic diameter less ...
Swanson Jacob - - 2010
This paper is part of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association's 2010 special issue on combustion aerosol measurements. The issue is a combination of papers that synthesize and evaluate ideas and perspectives that were presented by experts at a series of workshops sponsored by the Coordinating Research ...
Papasavva Stella - - 2010
In 2008, 95% of the vehicle fleet in the developed countries and 80% of fleet in the developing countries were equipped with mobile air conditioning systems (MACs). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted due to refrigerant leakage (direct emissions) and due to the energy consumed by MACs operation (indirect emissions). In ...
Rao Nagaraja - - 2010
Droplet evaporation has been known to bias cascade impactor measurement of aerosols generated by jet nebulizers. Previous work suggests that vibrating mesh nebulizers behave differently from jet nebulizers. Unlike jet nebulizers, vibrating mesh nebulizers do not rely on compressed air to generate droplets. However, entrained air is still required to ...
Maricq M Matti - - 2010
The Coordinating Research Council convened two Real-Time PM Measurement Workshops in December 2008 and March 2009 to take an intensive look at the current status and future directions of combustion aerosol measurement. The purpose was to examine the implications of parallel rapid developments over the past decade in ambient aerosol ...
Goldman Gretchen T - - 2010
In time-series studies of ambient air pollution and health in large urban areas, measurement errors associated with instrument precision and spatial variability vary widely across pollutants. In this paper, we characterize these errors for selected air pollutants and estimate their impacts on epidemiologic results from an ongoing study of air ...
Clougherty J E - - 2011
Source contributions to urban fine particulate matter (PM(2.5) ) have been modelled using land use regression (LUR) and factor analysis (FA). However, people spend more time indoors, where these methods are less explored. We collected 3-4- day samples of nitrogen dioxide and PM(2.5) inside and outside of 43 homes in ...
McLaughlin J - - 2010
An account is given of the behaviour of thoron and its progeny in the indoor environment. Emphasis is placed on the spatial distribution of these radionuclides in room air and on their interactions with indoor aerosols. How these aspects of thoron and progeny behaviour give rise to special problems for ...
Abushammala Mohammed F M - - 2011
The decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfills under anaerobic conditions produces landfill gas (LFG) containing approximately 50-60% methane (CH(4)) and 30-40% carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by volume. CH(4) has a global warming potential 21 times greater than CO(2); thus, it poses a serious environmental problem. As landfills are the ...
Jiménez E - - 2010
Saharan dust outbreaks are a common phenomenon in the Madrid atmosphere. The current Directive 2008/50 CE governing air quality in European cities, draws no distinction between which particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5) or PM(10-2.5)) would be the best indicator on days with/without Saharan dust intrusions. This study sought to identify the ...
Pandey Divya - - 2011
Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for ...
Ishimori Y - - 2010
Thoron progeny concentrations were determined using the time-integrated method around closed uranium mine sites in Japan. Because the time-integrated radon progeny monitor developed by the authors has the function to detect (212)Po, time-integrated monitoring of thoron progeny concentration is also available with the monitor. Assuming that contribution of (216)Po is ...
Mölter A A Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Community Based Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. - - 2010
A common limitation of epidemiological studies on health effects of air pollution is the quality of exposure data available for study participants. Exposure data derived from urban monitoring networks is usually not adequately representative of the spatial variation of pollutants, while personal monitoring campaigns are often not feasible, due to ...
Yang Albert C - - 2011
Research has implicated environmental risk factors, such as meteorological variables, in suicide. However, studies have not investigated air pollution, known to induce acute medical conditions and increase mortality, in suicide. This study comprehensively assesses the temporal relationship between suicide and air pollution, weather, and unemployment variables in Taipei City from ...
Gouge Brian - - 2010
Macroscale emissions modeling approaches have been widely applied in impact assessments of mobile source emissions. However, these approaches poorly characterize the spatial distribution of emissions and have been shown to underestimate emissions of some pollutants. To quantify the implications of these limitations on exposure assessments, CO, NO(X), and HC emissions ...
Fruergaard Thilde - - 2010
Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human ...
Liu Zhen - - 2010
We analyze the observations of near-surface peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and its precursors in Beijing, China in August of 2007. The levels of PAN are remarkably high (up to 14 ppbv), surpassing those measured over other urban regions in recent years. Analyses employing a 1-D version of a chemical transport ...
Zhuo W - - 2010
For estimating indoor thoron ((220)Rn) progeny concentrations with (220)Rn measurements, both theoretical studies and field measurements were carried out in this work. Based on the theoretical study, it was found that the exhalation rate of (220)Rn (E(Tn)) could be optimally assessed with the (220)Rn concentration measured at a point of ...
Li Ying - - 2010
This study quantifies the national burden of disease attributed to particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O(3)) in ambient air in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a rapidly growing nation in which economic development and climatic conditions pose important challenges for air quality management. Estimates of population exposure to these air ...
Kotrappa P - - 2010
Electret ion chambers (EICs), commercially available under brand name E-PERM(®), are widely used for measuring indoor and outdoor (222)Rn concentrations in air. These are designed to respond only to (222)Rn and not to (220)Rn by restricting diffusional entry area. Such radon EIC (R EIC) monitors are modified by increasing the ...
Vasconcelos Paulo - - 2010
The present study aimed at creating a so called "single-site baseline" (SSB) of imposex in the purple dye murex (Bolinus brandaris) from the Ria Formosa lagoon (Algarve coast, southern Portugal), at the moment that the IMO Antifouling System Convention (banning globally the use of organotin compounds in antifouling paints on ...
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