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Results 701 - 750 of 2216
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Schenker Urs - - 2009
Present and future concentrations of DDT in the environment are calculated with the global multimedia model CliMoChem. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the importance of uncertainties in substance property data, emission rates, and environmental parameters for model results. Uncertainties in the model results, expressed as 95% confidence intervals ...
Ki Seo Jin - - 2009
Accurate simulation of the surf zone is a prerequisite to improve beach management as well as to understand the fundamentals of fate and transport of contaminants. In the present study, a diagnostic model modified from a classic solute model is provided to illuminate non-conservative pollutants behavior in the surf zone. ...
Szyszkowicz Mieczyslaw - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Ambient exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) has been previously associated with emergency department (ED) visits for migraine headaches. In the present study, the objective was to examine the relationship between ED visits for migraine and ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a time-series study of 1059 ...
Denholm Paul - - 2009
The electric power system in the Western United States was simulated to evaluate the potential of solar photovoltaics (PV) in reducing fossil-fuel use and associated emissions. The simulations used a utility production cost model to evaluate a series of PV penetrations where up to 10% of the region's electricity is ...
Mehaffey Megan - - 2009
Long term protection and maintenance of ecological communities and populations must consider the effect of atmospheric pollutants in addition to stressors that occur on the ground. We describe a technique for identifying species ranges and ecosystems across the landscape where there could be potential effects from air toxics releases. We ...
Healey Sean P - - 2009
Although significant amounts of carbon may be stored in harvested wood products, the extraction of that carbon from the forest generally entails combustion of fossil fuels. The transport of timber from the forest to primary milling facilities may in particular create emissions that reduce the net sequestration value of product ...
Obersteiner Michael - - 2009
The issues surrounding 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation' (REDD) have become a major component of continuing negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper aims to address two key requirements of any potential REDD mechanism: first, the generation of measurable, reportable and verifiable ...
Sahsuvaroglu Talar - - 2009
Predicting chronic exposure to air pollution at the intra-urban scale has been recognized as a priority area of research for environmental epidemiology. Exposure assessment models attempt to predict and proxy for individuals' personal exposure to ambient air pollution, and there are no studies to date that explicitly attempt to compare ...
Shrestha Kundan Lal - - 2009
High-resolution modeling approach is increasingly being considered as a necessary step for improving the monitoring and predictions of regional air quality. This is especially true for highly urbanized region with complex terrain and land-use. This study uses Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model coupled with MM5 mesoscale model for a ...
Kumie Abera - - 2009
Unprocessed biomass fuel is the primary source of indoor air pollution (IAP) in developing countries. The use of biomass fuel has been linked with acute respiratory infections. This study assesses sources of variations associated with the level of indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This study examines household factors affecting the level ...
Harris Paul - - 2009
A methodology is presented and validated through which long-term fixed site air quality measurements are used to characterise and remove temporal signals in sample-based measurements which have good spatial coverage but poor temporal resolution. The work has been carried out specifically to provide a spatial dataset of atmospheric ultrafine particle ...
Doherty Ruth M - - 2009
We describe a project to quantify the burden of heat and ozone on mortality in the UK, both for the present-day and under future emission scenarios. Mortality burdens attributable to heat and ozone exposure are estimated by combination of climate-chemistry modelling and epidemiological risk assessment. Weather forecasting models (WRF) are ...
Lessler Justin - - 2009
Air travel plays a key role in the spread of many pathogens. Modeling the long distance spread of infectious disease in these cases requires an air travel model. Highly detailed air transportation models can be over determined and computationally problematic. We compared the predictions of a simplified air transport model ...
Hu Zhiyong - - 2009
There are several known factors that cause ischemic heart disease. However, the part played by air pollution still remains something of a mystery. Recent attention has focused on the chronic effect of particulate matter on heart disease. Satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found to be correlated with PM2.5 in ...
Ramis Rebeca - - 2009
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER) is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along ...
Sun Yan - - 2009
Accurate forecasting of emergency department (ED) attendances can be a valuable tool for micro and macro level planning. Data for analysis was the counts of daily patient attendances at the ED of an acute care regional general hospital from July 2005 to Mar 2008. Patients were stratified into three acuity ...
Baudisch Christoph - - 2009
Quantitative measurements of mould enrichment of indoor air or house dust might be suitable surrogates to evaluate present but hidden moisture damage. Our intent was to develop a house-dust monitoring method to detect hidden moisture damage excluding the influence of outdoor air, accumulated old dust, and dust swirled up from ...
Atari Dominic Odwa - - 2009
Land use regression (LUR) modelling is proposed as a promising approach to meet some of the challenges of assessing the intra-urban spatial variability of ambient air pollutants in urban and industrial settings. However, most of the LUR models to date have focused on nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. This study ...
Hu Zhiyong - - 2009
Numerous studies have found adverse health effects of acute and chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Air pollution epidemiological studies relying on ground measurements provided by monitoring networks are often limited by sparse and unbalanced spatial distribution of the monitors. Studies have found correlations between satellite aerosol optical depth ...
Santos Jane Meri - - 2009
Four different empirical expressions have been compared for estimating the removal of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) from wastewater by chemical oxidation during its treatment in an aerated biofilter. The relative importance of this removal process is considered in a mass balance proposed by an emission model. Two of the four models ...
Hersch Roger David - - 2008
I propose a model for predicting the total reflectance of color halftones printed on paper incorporating fluorescent brighteners. The total reflectance is modeled as the additive superposition of the relative fluorescent emission and the pure reflectance of the color print. The fluorescent emission prediction model accounts for both the attenuation ...
Tetsuya Tsurumi, Shunsuke Managi
The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesises an inverse U-shaped relationship between a measure of environmental pollution and per capita income levels. In this study, we apply non-parametric estimation of local polynomial regression (local quadratic fitting) to allow more flexibility in local estimation. This study uses a larger and globally representative ...
Schenker Urs - - 2008
A global multimedia model is used to calculate the fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the environment. Special emphasis is given to the importance of direct photolysis, which has been shown to be an important degradation mechanism for highly brominated PBDEs and is believed to result in the formation ...
Englund Edvard - - 2008
Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 129I, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era atthe early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 129I concentrations in sediment archives from Sweden and Finland covering the ...
Ackbarow Theodor - - 2009
Here we report a constitutive model that characterizes the strength of an alpha-helical protein domain subjected to tensile deformation, covering more than ten orders of magnitude in timescales. The model elucidates multiple physical mechanisms of failure in dependence on the deformation rate, quantitatively linking atomistic simulation results with experimental strength ...
Zeeman Matthias J - - 2008
The application of (13)C/(12)C in ecosystem-scale tracer models for CO(2) in air requires accurate measurements of the mixing ratios and stable isotope ratios of CO(2). To increase measurement reliability and data intercomparability, as well as to shorten analysis times, we have improved an existing field sampling setup with portable air ...
Sun Gang - - 2008
It is vital to forecast gas and particle matter concentrations and emission rates (GPCER) from livestock production facilities to assess the impact of airborne pollutants on human health, ecological environment, and global warming. Modeling source air quality is a complex process because of abundant nonlinear interactions between GPCER and other ...
Nieto R - - 2008
Cut-off low pressure systems (COLs) are defined as closed lows in the upper troposphere that have become completely detached from the main westerly current. These slow-moving systems often affect the weather conditions at the earth's surface and also work as a mechanism of mass transfer between the stratosphere and the ...
Hidalgo Julia - - 2008
Cities interact with the atmosphere over a wide range of scales from the large-scale processes, which have a direct impact on global climate change, to smaller scales, ranging from the conurbation itself to individual buildings. The review presented in this paper analyzes some of the ways in which cities influence ...
Nizzetto Luca - - 2008
Forest canopies represent an extensive organic surface available for partitioning of semivolatile organic pollutants with the atmosphere. To date, the ability of forests to sequester such compounds (the so-called "forest filter effect") has been investigated using indirect methods that yield time integrated deposition fluxes and scenario-dependent deposition velocities. In the ...
Brimblecombe Peter - - 2009
Damage functions from a range of sources are used to estimate deterioration of carbonate stone, iron and copper, in addition to the rate of blackening of stone surfaces in London across the period 1100-2100 CE. Meteorological and pollution input is available for only a relatively short part of this span, ...
Moussiopoulos N - - 2009
This paper aims at imprinting the urban air quality status and assessing the impact of various emission reduction scenarios on the photochemical and particulate matter air pollution levels in the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece. In particular, it is investigated under which conditions compliance with the EU air quality legislation can ...
Mendes, José F. G.
The urban argument assumes currently an extreme level of relevance for the governments and the society in general, due to the exponential increase of people living in cities and the consequent associated degradation of quality of life growth is continuously applying pressures over resources, infrastructures and facilities, affecting negatively the ...
Yanosky Jeff D - - 2009
Chronic epidemiologic studies of particulate matter (PM) are limited by the lack of monitoring data, relying instead on citywide ambient concentrations to estimate exposures. This method ignores within-city spatial gradients and restricts studies to areas with nearby monitoring data. This lack of data is particularly restrictive for fine particles (PM ...
Yeh Sonia - - 2008
Few integrated analysis models examine significant U.S. transportation greenhouse gas emission reductions within an integrated energy system. Our analysis, using a bottom-up MARKet ALocation (MARKAL) model, found that stringent system-wide CO2 reduction targets will be required to achieve significant CO2 reductions from the transportation sector. Mitigating transportation emission reductions can ...
Zeng Tao - - 2008
Prescribed burning is a large aerosol source in the southeastern United States. Its air quality impact is investigated using 3-D model simulations and analysis of ground and satellite observations. Fire emissions for 2002 are calculated based on a recently developed VISTAS emission inventory. March was selected for the investigation because ...
Cheng Wei - - 2009
The classification and regression tree (CART) model integrated with geographical information systems and the assessment of heavy-metals pollution system was developed to assess the heavy metals pollution in Fuyang, Zhejiang, China. The integration of the decision tree model with ArcGIS Engine 9 using a COM implementation in Microsoft Visual Basic ...
Jiang Geng-Ming - - 2008
This work intercompared two Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) models, the modified Minnaert's model and the RossThick-LiSparse-R model, in the estimation of the directional emissivity in Middle Infra-Red (MIR) channel from the data acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the first Meteosat Second Generation (MSG1). ...
Labbé Nicole - - 2008
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is being proposed more and more as a high-throughput technology to assess the elemental composition of materials. When a specific element is of interest, semiquantification is possible by building a calibration model using the emission line intensity of this element for known samples. However, a unique ...
Zhai Haibo - - 2008
Emissions during a trip often depend on transient vehicle dynamics that influence the instantaneous engine load. Vehicle specific power (VSP) is a proxy variable for engine load that has been shown to be highly correlated with emissions. This study estimates roadway link average emission rates for diesel-fueled transit buses based ...
Woo Jung-Hun - - 2008
An assessment of how future climate change will impact regional air quality requires projecting emissions many decades into the future in a consistent manner. An approach that integrates the impact of both the current regulations and the longer-term national and global trends is developed to construct an emissions inventory (EI) ...
Schafer Millie P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Upper-room air UV germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is an effective environmental control measure for mitigating the transmission of airborne infections. Many factors influence the efficacy of an upper-room air UVGI system, including the levels and distribution of radiation. The radiation levels experienced by airborne microorganisms can be estimated by measuring ...
Fontanilles Guillaume - - 2008
The thermal infrared radiance simulation with aggregation modeling (TITAN) model, presented here, is an innovative transfer radiative code in the infrared domain (3-14 microm). It takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the landscape and simulates all the radiative components introduced by this 3D structure, which are due to ...
Librando Vito - - 2009
Mathematical models were developed to simulate the production and dispersion of aerosol phase atmospheric pollutants which are the main cause of the deterioration of monuments of great historical and cultural value. This work focuses on Particulate Matter (PM) considered the primary cause of monument darkening. Road traffic is the greatest ...
Mukherjee A - - 2009
The concentrations of biocides leached from antifouling coatings are monitored in most of the developed countries. However, in India and many other developing countries, there is very little data available on the concentrations of biocides in ports and harbours. The first step was to obtain the order of magnitude levels ...
Ifarraguerri Agustin - - 2008
A computational model to simulate the effects of boundary layer isotropic atmospheric turbulence on the radiative transfer process is presented. We perform a large number of simulations with stochastic ambient conditions to estimate the statistics necessary to predict the detection limit of a given trace gas. We find that the ...
Mui K W - - 2009
Atmospheric visibility impairment has gained increasing concern as it is associated with the existence of a number of aerosols as well as common air pollutants and produces unfavorable conditions for observation, dispersion, and transportation. This study analyzed the atmospheric visibility data measured in urban and suburban Hong Kong (two selected ...
Aucott Michael L - - 2009
Two and a half years of data of ambient concentrations of elemental mercury (Hg(0)), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)) were collected at measurement sites at Elizabeth, New Jersey and New Brunswick, New Jersey with Tekran sampling units. The data were processed, summarized, and analyzed from a variety ...
Pregger Thomas - - 2009
Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple ...
Paschalidou A K - - 2009
The present work describes the adaptation and application of an operational air quality forecast model in a net grid of (1 x 1) km(2) emission source resolution, covering the Greater Area of Athens, Greece. The model is used to estimate the hourly concentrations of nitrogen oxides at a receptor grid ...
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