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Ainslie B - - 2009
A means of determining air emission source regions adversely influencing the city of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada from potential burning of isolated piles of mountain pine beetle-killed lodge pole pine is presented. The analysis uses the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to identify safe burning regions based on atmospheric stability ...
Bailey Robert E - - 2009
There are no longer any large scale uses of pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). Current emissions of PeCB to the environment are estimated to be about 121000kgy(-1), based on published information. The largest sources appear to be combustion of solid wastes, 32000kgy(-1), biomass burning, 45000kgy(-1) with degradation of an agricultural fungicide, quintozene, contributing ...
Huber-Humer M - - 2009
Methane emissions from active or closed landfills can be reduced by means of methane oxidation enhanced in properly designed landfill covers, known as "biocovers". Biocovers usually consist of a coarse gas distribution layer to balance gas fluxes placed beneath an appropriate substrate layer. The application of such covers implies use ...
Pollice Alessio - - 2010
In this paper, an analysis of air quality data is provided for the municipal area of Taranto (southern Italy) characterized by high environmental risks as formally decreed by the Italian government in the 1990s with two administrative measures. This is due to the massive presence of industrial sites with elevated ...
Sarnat Stefanie E SE Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. - - 2010
Relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of heterogeneous spatiotemporal pollutant distributions on health risk estimates in time-series analyses that use data from a central monitor to assign exposures. We present a method for examining the effects of exposure measurement error relating to spatiotemporal variability in ambient air pollutant concentrations ...
Lammel Gerhard - - 2009
The global atmospheric distribution and long-range transport (LRT) potential of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) - anthracene, fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene - are studied. The model used is a global aerosol-chemistry-transport-model, which is based on an atmospheric general circulation model. The model includes an in-built dynamic aerosol model coupled to two-dimensional ...
Huang Wei - - 2009
This study was designed to assess the association between visibility and air quality, and to determine whether the variations in daily mortality were associated with fluctuations in visibility levels in Shanghai, China. Mortality data were extracted from the death certificates, provided by Shanghai Municipal Center of Disease Control and Prevention, ...
Sivacoumar R - - 2009
Stone crushing in India is a small scale industry, where most of the operations are performed manually. A cluster of 72 stone crushing units located at Trisoolam in Chennai is a source of high levels of dust generation in the vicinity of the crushers and in the communities surrounding them. ...
Gonçalves María - - 2009
On-road traffic is the major contributor to pollutant emissions in urban areas. Nowadays different emission abatement strategies are being tested in order to improve urban air quality (e.g. the European Commission currently promotes the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel). Several feasible scenarios regarding the introduction of natural ...
Wu Yue - - 2009
There is a long history of studying the relationship between weather and maritime activities. This article analyzes the link between relative incident rate (RIR) and general weather factors within certain gridded areas and time periods. The study area, which encompasses a broad extent of Atlantic Canadian waters, includes fishing incidents ...
Shaw Melanie - - 2009
Many environments are subject to periodic fluctuations in pollutant concentrations. Passive samplers, which can provide time weighted average concentrations integrated over the period of deployment, are ideally suited as monitoring tools for these environments. However, the potential for fluctuating concentrations to limit the integrative period of sampling needs to be ...
Clack Herek L - - 2009
Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to ...
Zhou Liming - - 2009
Aerosol composition data from the Speciation Trends Network (STN) site (East 14th Street) in Cleveland, OH, were analyzed by advanced receptor model methods for source apportionment as well as by the standard positive matrix factorization (PMF) using PMF2. These different models are used in combination to test model limitations. These ...
Yildirim Muhammet - - 2009
The QUAL2E model was applied to the Büyüksu Stream, Bolu, Turkey, to predict the effect of conventional and industrial pollutant sources on stream quality. The model parameters were conditioned using data from eight sampling stations on a 24-km stretch of the stream during a steady-state period between May 2003 and ...
Khan A B M S - - 2009
Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the ...
Kuo Yu-Ming - - 2009
To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems ...
Gibson Mark D - - 2009
The spatiotemporal variability of ground-level ozone (GLO) in the rural Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia was investigated between August 29, 2006, and September 28, 2007, using Ogawa nitrite-impregnated passive diffusion samplers (PS). A total of 353 PS measurements were made at 17 ambient and 1 indoor locations over 18 sampling periods ...
Owen Tobias - - 2009
It is possible to make a consistent story for the origin of Titan's atmosphere starting with the birth of Titan in the Saturn subnebula. If we use comet nuclei as a model, Titan's nitrogen and methane could have easily been delivered by the ice that makes up approximately 50 per ...
Richmond-Bryant J - - 2009
An air quality study was performed outside a cluster of schools in the East Harlem neighborhood of New York City. PM(2.5) and black carbon concentrations were monitored using real-time equipment with a one-minute averaging interval. Monitoring was performed at 1:45-3:30 PM during school days over the period October 31-November 17, ...
Dodson Robin E RE Silent Spring Institute, Newton, MA 02458, USA. - - 2009
Accurate modeling of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over a large study population depends on proper characterization of concentrations in the indoor residential environment. However, owing to the high expense of field sampling campaigns for determining indoor air concentrations, such studies have only been conducted for limited populations. Therefore, ...
Groves-Kirkby C J - - 2009
Using a methodology derived from Economics, the Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient are introduced as tools for investigating and quantifying seasonal variability in environmental radon gas concentration. While the Lorenz Curve presents a graphical view of the cumulative exposure during the course of the time-frame of interest, typically one year, ...
Paciorek Christopher J - - 2009
Recent research highlights the promise of remotely sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD) as a proxy for ground-level particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <or= 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)). Particular interest lies in estimating spatial heterogeneity using AOD, with important application to estimating pollution exposure for public health purposes. Given the correlations reported ...
Saral Arslan - - 2009
An air pollution modeling study was conducted to investigate the odorous effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a sanitary landfill area on ambient air quality. The atmospheric dispersion of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and 22 VOCs was modeled. Industrial Source Complex v3 Short Term (ISCST3) model was used to ...
Kowalkowski Tomasz - - 2009
Eutrophication of the Baltic sea still remains one of the biggest problems in the north-eastern area of Europe. Recognizing the sources of nutrient emission, classification of their importance and finding the way towards reduction of pollution are the most important tasks for scientists researching this area. This article presents the ...
Armitage James M - - 2009
The global-scale fate and transport processes of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanoate (PFO) emitted from direct sources were simulated using a multispecies mass balance model over the period 1950 to 2010. The main goal of this study was to assess the atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport potential of direct source ...
Millet Dylan B - - 2009
We use recent aircraft measurements of a comprehensive suite of anthropogenic halocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and related tracers to place new constraints on North American halocarbon emissions and quantify their global warming potential. Using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) we find that the ensemble of observations are consistent with our ...
Grote Rüdiger - - 2009
In many ecosystems drought cycles are common during the growing season but their impact on volatile monoterpene emissions is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate a process-based modelling approach to explore the explanatory power of likely mechanisms. The biochemically based isoprene and monoterpene emission model SIM-BIM2 has been ...
Powell Adrian - - 2009
A new formulation of existing mass balance models for bioaccumulation is derived and applied to organisms that respire either water or air. This model employs characteristic time parameters and equations that are mathematically equivalent to those used in existing concentration-rate constant and fugacity models. The equivalence of these traditional formulations ...
Zhang Tao - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the environmental and technical efficiencies of China's industrial sectors and provide appropriate advice for policy makers in the context of rapid economic growth and concurrent serious environmental damages caused by industrial pollutants. METHODS: A data of envelopment analysis (DEA) framework crediting both reduction of pollution outputs and ...
Lackey Laura W - - 2009
Ozonation of a synthetic wastewater contaminated with acid yellow 17 dye and glucose was evaluated in a semi-batch bubble column. Data collected during this study suggests that the ozonation process removed color (represented as A400) more efficiently than chemical oxygen demand (COD) regardless of initial experimental conditions. With a 40-minute ...
Peters Annette - - 2009
Around the world, daily variations in ambient air pollution have been consistently associated with variations in daily mortality. The aim of the study presented here was to assess the effects of ambient air pollution on daily mortality during a period of tremendous changes in air quality in the city of ...
Dutton Steven J - - 2009
Many studies have identified associations between adverse health effects and short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5)). These effects, however, are not consistent across geographical regions. This may be due in part to variations in the chemical make-up of PM(2.5) resulting from unique combinations of ...
Wu Po Lam - - 2009
A novel homologues series of diphenylamino and 1,2,4-triazole endcapped pi-conjugated oligofluorenes has been synthesized using palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling of 9,9-dibutyl-7-(diphenylamino)-2-fluorenylboronic acid, and 1,2,4,-triazole-substituted oligofluorenyl halide was used as a key step. Efficient two- and three-photon excited photoluminescence and lasing were obtained by pumping with near-infrared femto-second lasers. The three-photon absorption ...
Liu Yang - - 2009
Studies of chronic health effects due to exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters <or= 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) are often limited by sparse measurements. Satellite aerosol remote sensing data may be used to extend PM(2.5) ground networks to cover a much larger area. In this study we examined the benefits ...
Arnold D - - 2009
An analysis of 10-year radon progeny data, provided by the Spanish automatic radiological surveillance network, in relation to meteorology is presented. Results show great spatial variability depending mainly on the station location and thus, the surrounding radon exhalation rate. Hourly averages show the typical diurnal cycle with an early morning ...
Machol Janet L - - 2009
The Ozone Profiling Atmospheric Lidar is a scanning four-wavelength ultraviolet differential absorption lidar that measures tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Derived profiles from the lidar data include ozone concentration, aerosol extinction, and calibrated aerosol backscatter. Aerosol calibrations assume a clear air region aloft. Other products include cloud base heights, aerosol layer ...
Knibbs L D - - 2009
For many people, a relatively large proportion of daily exposure to a multitude of pollutants may occur inside an automobile. A key determinant of exposure is the amount of outdoor air entering the cabin (i.e. air change or flow rate). We have quantified this parameter in six passenger vehicles ranging ...
Tuovinen J-P
In this paper, some shortcomings involved in the modelling of ozone fluxes in the context of local-scale risk assessment are discussed, especially as related to the data collected within the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). An enhanced monitoring strategy, that ...
Mannina Giorgio - - 2009
Over the last few years there has been a growing attention regarding the receiving water body quality state. As a matter of a fact, the Directive 91/271 of the European Union (EU) replaced the "emission standard" concept that fixes discharge limits depending on polluting emission characteristics, with the "stream standard" ...
McCarthy D T - - 2009
The behaviour of microorganisms in urban stormwater should be thoroughly investigated and understood to (a) design treatment technologies that can reduce the human health risks of utilising stormwater and (b) develop models which can accurately predict the levels of microorganisms in urban stormwater to aid in health risk assessments. A ...
Schenker Urs - - 2009
Present and future concentrations of DDT in the environment are calculated with the global multimedia model CliMoChem. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the importance of uncertainties in substance property data, emission rates, and environmental parameters for model results. Uncertainties in the model results, expressed as 95% confidence intervals ...
Ki Seo Jin - - 2009
Accurate simulation of the surf zone is a prerequisite to improve beach management as well as to understand the fundamentals of fate and transport of contaminants. In the present study, a diagnostic model modified from a classic solute model is provided to illuminate non-conservative pollutants behavior in the surf zone. ...
Szyszkowicz Mieczyslaw - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Ambient exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) has been previously associated with emergency department (ED) visits for migraine headaches. In the present study, the objective was to examine the relationship between ED visits for migraine and ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a time-series study of 1059 ...
Denholm Paul - - 2009
The electric power system in the Western United States was simulated to evaluate the potential of solar photovoltaics (PV) in reducing fossil-fuel use and associated emissions. The simulations used a utility production cost model to evaluate a series of PV penetrations where up to 10% of the region's electricity is ...
Mehaffey Megan - - 2009
Long term protection and maintenance of ecological communities and populations must consider the effect of atmospheric pollutants in addition to stressors that occur on the ground. We describe a technique for identifying species ranges and ecosystems across the landscape where there could be potential effects from air toxics releases. We ...
Healey Sean P - - 2009
Although significant amounts of carbon may be stored in harvested wood products, the extraction of that carbon from the forest generally entails combustion of fossil fuels. The transport of timber from the forest to primary milling facilities may in particular create emissions that reduce the net sequestration value of product ...
Obersteiner Michael - - 2009
The issues surrounding 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation' (REDD) have become a major component of continuing negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper aims to address two key requirements of any potential REDD mechanism: first, the generation of measurable, reportable and verifiable ...
Sahsuvaroglu Talar - - 2009
Predicting chronic exposure to air pollution at the intra-urban scale has been recognized as a priority area of research for environmental epidemiology. Exposure assessment models attempt to predict and proxy for individuals' personal exposure to ambient air pollution, and there are no studies to date that explicitly attempt to compare ...
Shrestha Kundan Lal - - 2009
High-resolution modeling approach is increasingly being considered as a necessary step for improving the monitoring and predictions of regional air quality. This is especially true for highly urbanized region with complex terrain and land-use. This study uses Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model coupled with MM5 mesoscale model for a ...
Kumie Abera - - 2009
Unprocessed biomass fuel is the primary source of indoor air pollution (IAP) in developing countries. The use of biomass fuel has been linked with acute respiratory infections. This study assesses sources of variations associated with the level of indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This study examines household factors affecting the level ...
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