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Results 601 - 650 of 2246
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Koo Bonyoung - - 2009
Two efficient methods to study relationships between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and emission sources are compared in the three-dimensional comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Particulate source apportionment technology (PSAT) is a tagged species method that apportions concentrations of PM components to their respective primary precursors, e.g., sulfate is ...
Moreno Natalia - - 2009
Remodelling works are frequent in harbour areas, given that they must adapt to rapidly changing market requirements. Depending on their nature (construction, demolition, etc.), these works may be carried out during long periods of time and thus exert a significant impact on the air quality at the harbours and their ...
Teye Frederick Kwame - - 2010
Ammonia emissions were estimated at five microclimatic locations in a free stall dairy building using four different methods. Measurements were performed simultaneously with the different methods to enable comparison. In the first method, the rate of ammonia emission from manure was theoretically modeled utilizing Fick's law and boundary layer theory. ...
Chen Ho-Wen - - 2009
One of the costs of Taiwan's massive economic development has been severe air pollution problems in many parts of the island. Since vehicle emissions are the major source of air pollution in most of Taiwan's urban areas, Taiwan's government has implemented policies to rectify the degrading air quality, especially in ...
Allen Joseph G - - 2010
Radon gas ((222)Rn) is a natural constituent of the environment and a risk factor for lung cancer that we are exposed to as a result of radioactive decay of radium ((226)Ra) in stone and soil. Granite countertops, in particular, have received recent media attention regarding their potential to emit radon. ...
Ueno Yuichiro - - 2009
Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological record. The calculated isotopic fractionation factors for ...
Rigét Frank - - 2010
A statistically robust method was applied to 316 time-series of 'legacy' persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic biota from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems with the purpose of generating a 'meta-analysis' of temporal trend data collected over the past two to three decades for locations from Alaska in the west ...
Canova C - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to test the effects of exposure to air pollutants on lung function. A panel of 19 adult asthmatics living in Padua (Italy) was followed for five 30-day periods during 2 yrs consecutively (1,492 morning and 1,434 evening measures analysed). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) ...
Roa J E - - 2009
An atmospheric neutrino oscillation tool that uses full three-neutrino oscillation probabilities and a full three-neutrino treatment of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, together with an analysis of the K2K, MINOS, and CHOOZ data, is used to examine the bounds on theta_{13}. The recent, more finely binned, Super-K atmospheric data are employed. For ...
Tong Daniel Q - - 2009
Human exposure to ambient ozone (O(3)) has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. The ozone level at a location is contributed by local production, regional transport, and background ozone. This study combines detailed emission inventory, air quality modeling, and census data to investigate the source-receptor relationships between ...
Hunter Nezahat - - 2009
Data collected as a part of a survey on radon concentrations from about 40 000 dwellings in England for six contrasting geological units were analysed to evaluate the impact of house-specific factors (building characteristics and construction dates) and of proximity to geological boundaries. After adjusting for temperature and outdoor radon, ...
Figueroa Veronica K - - 2009
Because municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills emit significant amounts of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, there is considerable interest in quantifying surficial methane emissions from landfills. The authors present a method to estimate methane emissions, using ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements taken above the surface of the landfill. ...
Zhai Haibo - - 2009
The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. ...
Jeong Sanghyup - - 2009
A traditional thermal inactivation kinetic model (D- and z-value) was modified to account for the effect of process humidity on thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 on the surface of almonds subjected to moist-air heating. Raw almonds were surface inoculated to approximately 10(8) CFU/g and subjected to moist-air heating in ...
Bishop Gary A - - 2009
As part of the National Park Service's Temporary Winter Use Plans Environmental Assessment, the University of Denver has been collecting in-use tailpipe emissions data from snowcoaches and snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park. During the winter of 2006, using a portable emissions monitoring system, tailpipe data were collected from 10 snowcoaches ...
Armitage James M - - 2009
A global-scale multispecies mass balance model was used to simulate the long-term fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight to thirteen carbons (C8-C13) and their conjugate bases, the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCs). The main purpose of this study was to assess the relative long-range transport (LRT) potential of each conjugate ...
Faulkner William B - - 2009
Almond harvest accounts for substantial particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) emissions in California each harvest season. This paper addresses the reduction of harvester ground speed from a standard 8 km/hr (5 mph) to 4 km/hr (2.5 mph) as a possible mitigation measure for reducing PM10 ...
St-Amand Annick D - - 2009
A simple modeling concept was previously applied to study air-foliage exchange of both polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using field measurements. In this paper, the predictive capabilities of this framework were tested using an independent set of data collected at the same sampling location for a ...
Kostrzewa Aude - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Fine particles (PM(2.5)) are an important component of air pollution. Epidemiological studies have shown health effects due to ambient air particles, particularly allergies in children. Since the main difficulty is to determine exposure to such pollution, traffic air pollutant (TAP) dispersions models have been developed to improve the estimation ...
Hoff Raymond - - 2009
A system has been developed to combine remote sensing and ground-based measurements of aerosol concentration and aerosol light scattering parameters into a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere over the United States. Utilizing passive and active remote sensors from space and the ground, the system provides tools to visualize particulate air ...
Yamamoto N - - 2010
We report approximately 500 indoor-outdoor air exchange rate (AER) calculations based on measurements conducted in residences in three US metropolitan areas in 1999-2001: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Overall, a median AER across these urban areas and seasons was 0.71 air changes per hour (ACH, ...
Silva Humberto R - - 2010
A zero-dimensional energy balance model was previously developed to serve as a user-friendly mitigation tool for practitioners seeking to study the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Accordingly, this established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage ...
Denier van der Gon Hugo - - 2009
Large-scale use of leaded gasoline was an important source of the neurotoxin lead in the European environment. After a sequence of regulations on the allowed gasoline lead content and, eventually, a ban on the use of lead additives in gasoline, road transport was no longer considered a source of atmospheric ...
Fent Kenneth W - - 2009
We conducted a repeated exposure-assessment survey for task-based breathing-zone concentrations (BZCs) of monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) during spray painting on 47 automotive spray painters from North Carolina and Washington State. We report here the use of linear mixed modeling to identify the primary determinants of the measured BZCs. ...
Bortoli Daniele - - 2009
The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 - 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of ...
Jiménez-Hornero Francisco J - - 2010
High concentrations of ground-level ozone have a negative impact on human health and the environment, especially in urban places. Detailed knowledge on the effects of nitrogen dioxide on the ozone seasonal pattern is convenient to prevent these undesirable effects. Thus, the joint multifractal approach has been used to complete the ...
Agrawal Harshit - - 2009
The impact of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from ship emissions within the Southern California Air Basin is quantified by comparing in-stack vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni) measurements from in-use ocean-going vessels (OGVs) with ambient measurements made at 10 monitoring stations throughout Southern California. V and Ni are demonstrated as ...
Jain Suresh - - 2010
This paper presents a method for constructing a membership function (MF) for the fuzzy sets that expert systems deal with. This paper introduces a Bezier curve-based mechanism for constructing MFs of convex normal fuzzy sets. The mechanism can fit any given data set with a minimum level of discrepancy. In ...
Gurney Kevin R - - 2009
Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon ...
Matassoni Luca - - 2009
The relevance of dust outbreaks from the Sahara into Italy was evaluated for the period from 2001 to 2007. To this end, days affected by Saharan dust were recognized at four PM(10) background stations belonging to the Regional Agencies for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring networks (one working in the 2005-2007 ...
Chakravarty Shoibal - - 2009
We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among ...
Theophanides Mike - - 2009
This study presents an improved methodology for analysing atmospheric pollution around airports using Gaussian-plume numerical simulation integrated with Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The new methodology focuses on streamlining the lengthy analysis process for Airport Environmental Impact Assessments by integrating the definition of emission sources, simulating and displaying the results in ...
Al-Hamdan Mohammad Z - - 2009
This study describes and demonstrates different techniques for surface fitting daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pilot study of ...
Vongmahadlek Chatchawan - - 2009
Thailand, located in Southeast Asia, has both anthropogenic and natural emission sources. It is important to develop an emission information system to provide fundamental data to support emission control strategies and air quality studies. In this research, emissions were compiled for the year 2005. Emission sources cover key anthropogenic and ...
Quincey Paul - - 2009
The measure of airborne particulate matter PM10 is effectively defined for European regulatory purposes by the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) standard EN 12341:1998--a gravimetric filter-based method. However, compared with the reference methods written for other pollutants, specifically to address the needs of the Air Quality Directives, EN 12341 falls ...
Frey H Christopher - - 2009
Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and emissions using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine emission ...
Hart Jaime E - - 2009
Epidemiologic studies of air pollution have demonstrated a link between long-term air pollution exposures and mortality. However, many have been limited to city-specific average pollution measures or spatial or land-use regression exposure models in small geographic areas. Our objective was to develop nationwide models of annual exposure to particulate matter ...
Shi Chune - - 2009
The Process Analysis tools of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system together with back-trajectory analysis were used to assess potential contributors to ozone episodes that occurred during June 1-4, 2006, in three populated U.S.-Mexico border twin cities: San Diego/Tijuana, Imperial/Mexicali and El Paso/Ciudad Juárez. Validation of CMAQ output ...
Keogh Diane U - - 2010
BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Urban motor vehicle fleets are a major source of particulate matter pollution, especially of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 microm), and exposure to particulate matter has known serious health effects. A considerable body of literature is available on vehicle particle emission factors derived using a wide ...
Xu Meng-xia - - 2009
Gas/particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air was investigated in a satellite town in Eastern China from April 2007 to January 2008 comprehending large temperature variations (from 3 to 34 degrees C, daily average). Molecular weight, molecular structure and ambient temperatures are the three major factors ...
Odman M Talat - - 2009
A detailed sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the contributions of various emission sources to ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and regional haze in the Southeastern United States. O3 and particulate matter (PM) levels were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and light extinction values ...
Velders Guus J M - - 2009
The consumption and emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are projected to increase substantially in the coming decades in response to regulation of ozone depleting gases under the Montreal Protocol. The projected increases result primarily from sustained growth in demand for refrigeration, air-conditioning (AC) and insulating foam products in developing countries assuming ...
Pontiggia M - - 2009
Nowadays, thanks to the increasing CPU power the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is rapidly imposing also in the industrial risk assessment area, replacing integral models when particular situations, such as those involving complex terrains or large obstacles, are involved. Nevertheless, commercial CFD codes usually do not provide specific ...
Su Jason G - - 2009
Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective means of estimating exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies. We created the first LUR models of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the complex megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA), California. Two-hundred and one sampling sites ...
Choi Jungsoon - - 2009
Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is a mixture of pollutants that has been linked to serious health problems, including premature mortality. Since the chemical composition of PM(2.5) varies across space and time, the association between PM(2.5) and mortality could also change with space and season. In this work we develop and ...
Pratt Scott - - 2009
Two particle correlation data from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have provided detailed femtoscopic information describing pion emission. In contrast with the success of hydrodynamics in reproducing other classes of observables, these data had avoided description with hydrodynamic-based approaches. This failure has inspired the term "HBT puzzle," where HBT ...
Rodriguez Sébastien - - 2009
Clouds on Titan result from the condensation of methane and ethane and, as on other planets, are primarily structured by circulation of the atmosphere. At present, cloud activity mainly occurs in the southern (summer) hemisphere, arising near the pole and at mid-latitudes from cumulus updrafts triggered by surface heating and/or ...
Van de Vel Karen - - 2010
In this paper, we assess the status of the air quality in the Lake Baikal region which is strongly influenced by the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources. We combined the local data, with global databases, remote sensing imagery and modelling tools. This approach allows to inventorise the air-polluting sources and ...
Choi Jungsoon - - 2009
Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is an atmospheric pollutant that has been linked to serious health problems, including mortality. PM(2.5) is a mixture of pollutants, and it has five main components: sulfate, nitrate, total carbonaceous mass, ammonium, and crustal material. These components have complex spatial-temporal dependency and cross dependency structures. It ...
Hoff Steven J - - 2009
This paper describes techniques used to determine airflow rate in multiple emission point applications typical of animal housing. An accurate measurement of building airflow rate is critical to accurate emission rate estimates. Animal housing facilities rely almost exclusively on ventilation to control inside climate at desired conditions. This strategy results ...
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