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Papasavva Stella - - 2009
In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf, also known as HFO-1234yf). We have developed a spatially and temporally resolved inventory of likely ...
Armitage James M - - 2009
A global-scale fate and transport model was applied to investigate the historic and future trends in ambient concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and volatile perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF)-based precursor compounds in the environment. First, a global emission inventory for PFOS and its precursor compounds was estimated for the period 1957-2010. ...
Wilton Darren - - 2010
Predictions from a simple line source dispersion model, Caline3, were included as a covariate in a land use regression (LUR) model for NO(X)/NO(2) in Los Angeles, CA and Seattle, WA. The Caline3 model prediction assumed a unit emission factor for all roadway segments (1.0g/vehicle-mile). The NO(X) and/or NO(2) measurements for ...
Zhu Dongzi - - 2009
Although emissions of air pollutants from some military tactical equipment are not subject to the emissions standards, local communities near military bases must conform to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Military diesel generators are widely used in training. A portable in-plume system was used to measure fuel-based emission factors ...
Tsiros Ioannis X - - 2009
The present study demonstrates the efficiency of applying statistical models to estimate airborne pollutant concentrations in urban vegetation by using as predictor variables readily available or easily accessible data. Results revealed that airborne cadmium concentrations in vegetation showed a predictable response to wind conditions and to various urban landscape features ...
Boies Adam - - 2009
Approaches for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from motor vehicles include more-efficient vehicles, lower-carbon fuels, and reducing vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT). Many U.S. states are considering steps to reduce emissions through actions in one or more of these areas. We model several technology and policy options for reducing GHGs from motor ...
Engardt Magnuz - - 2009
We used an off-line, regional, model of atmospheric transport and chemistry to investigate current and future levels of near-surface ozone and accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb(v) (AOT40) in Europe. To describe the current situation and enable an evaluation of the model's performance we simulated a number ...
Zheng Junyu - - 2009
Gridded air pollutant emission inventories are prerequisites for using air quality models to assess air pollution control strategies and predict air quality. A precise gridded emission inventory will help improve the accuracy of air quality simulation. Mobile source emissions are one of the major contributors to volatile organic compound (VOC) ...
Yee Eugene - - 2010
The determination of atmospheric emission rates from multiple sources using inversion (regularized least-squares or best-fit technique) is known to be very susceptible to measurement and model errors in the problem, rendering the solution unusable. In this paper, a new perspective is offered for this problem: namely, it is argued that ...
Vega Elizabeth - - 2009
Source apportionment analyses were carried out by means of receptor modeling techniques to determine the contribution of major fine particulate matter (PM2.5) sources found at six sites in Mexico City. Thirty-six source profiles were determined within Mexico City to establish the fingerprints of particulate matter sources. Additionally, the profiles under ...
Chalvatzaki E - - 2010
Air pollutants emitted from landfills affect air quality, contribute to the greenhouse effect and may cause serious problems to human health under certain circumstances. The current study was focused on the determination of air emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site which is located in the Akrotiri area (Chania, Greece). The ...
Ballhorn Uwe - - 2009
During the 1997/98 El Niño-induced drought peatland fires in Indonesia may have released 13-40% of the mean annual global carbon emissions from fossil fuels. One major unknown in current peatland emission estimations is how much peat is combusted by fire. Using a light detection and ranging data set acquired in ...
Pontiggia M - - 2010
Release of hazardous materials in urban areas is a major concern in industrial risk assessment. The presence of high population density in such areas multiplies the magnitude of the consequences. In urban areas, many buildings with complex geometries are involved leading to 3D flow fields that strongly influence gas dispersion. ...
Huang Y Anny - - 2009
Many organizations look to carbon footprint protocols for guidance on measuring their greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon footprint. Existing protocols generally require estimation of direct emissions (Scope 1) and emissions from direct purchases of energy (Scope 2), but focus less on indirect emissions upstream and downstream of the supply chain ...
Preisler Haiganoush K - - 2010
Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport ...
Breivik Knut - - 2010
Different factors affect how organic contaminants released into the environment over time distribute and accumulate, enter various food-chains, and potentially cause toxic effects in wildlife and humans. A sound chemical risk assessment thus requires the determination of the quantitative relationship between emissions and human exposure. This study aimed to assess ...
Tonne Cathryn C London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. - - 2010
First, we present a general analytical approach to estimating the association between medium-term changes in air pollution and health across small areas. As a specific illustration, we then applied the approach to data on London residents from a 4-year period to test whether reductions in traffic-related air pollution were associated ...
Ilić Ivana - - 2010
A geographic information system (GIS)--based on spatial analysis--was developed for optimizing the SO(2) total emission cut scheme on air pollution in Bor (Serbia), combined with Models-3 modeling system and linear programming model. GIS is mainly used for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide environmental functional zone and also ...
Ward Tony - - 2010
During the winters of 2006/2007 and 2007/2008, PM2.5 source apportionment programs were carried out within five western Montana valley communities. Filter samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition. Information was utilized in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) computer model to apportion the sources of PM2.5. Results showed that wood ...
Rodes Charles E - - 2009
Understanding infiltration of outdoor pollutants was an integral part of the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study. For this reason, the structural and air exchange properties of the three-story row house in Brooklyn, NY, USA, that was used in the B-TRAPPED experiments were fully characterized. ...
Richmond-Bryant Jennifer - - 2009
This paper presents data analysis from the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study to assess the transport of ultrafine particulate matter (PM) across urban intersections. Experiments were performed in a street canyon perpendicular to a highway in Brooklyn, NY, USA. Real-time ultrafine PM samplers were ...
Sofowote Uwayemi M - - 2010
Two factor analysis (FA)-based receptor modeling methods were applied to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dataset from extracts of 75 PM(10) air particulate samples collected concurrently at 4 sampling sites proximate to the urban-industrial area in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The total PAH concentrations of 48 target compounds ranged from 0.23 ...
Frey H Christopher - - 2009
This study presents a methodology for estimating high-resolution, regional on-road vehicle emissions and the associated reductions in air pollutant emissions from vehicles that utilize alternative fuels or propulsion technologies. The fuels considered are gasoline, diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. The technologies considered are internal combustion or ...
Dickenson Joshua A - - 2009
Modeling the separation of dilute particulate matter (PM) has been a topic of interest since the introduction of unit operations for clarification of rainfall-runoff. One consistent yet controversial issue is the representation of PM and PM separation mechanisms for treatment. While Newton's Law and surface overflow rate were utilized, many ...
Olaguer Eduardo P - - 2009
The Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) funded significant components of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II), including the TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP) and instrumented flights by a Piper Aztec aircraft. These experiments called attention to the role of short-lived radical sources such as formaldehyde ...
Lupo Philip J - - 2009
Often, in studies evaluating the health effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), researchers rely on ambient air levels to estimate exposure. Two potential data sources are modeled estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN) and ambient air pollutant measurements from monitoring networks. ...
Kumar Naresh - - 2009
A novel sampling design is proposed that optimizes the spatial configuration of sampling sites and captures maximum intraurban variability in ambient air pollution with a minimum sample size. Unlike the classical sampling design, a deterministic approach is adopted and the redundancy in the site selection is minimized by controlling for ...
Lerner Brian M - - 2009
Exhaust emission factors were calculated for a number (n = 116) of small marine craft encountered during the 2004 New England Air Quality Study-International Transport and Chemical Transformation and 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II field campaigns. Emission factors are reported for NO(x), SO(2), and CO in units of grams ...
Jacquemin Bénédicte - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: We have previously reported that outdoor levels of fine particles (PM(2.5), diameter <2.5 microm) are associated with urinary CC16, a marker for lung damage, in Helsinki, Finland, but not in the other two ULTRA cities (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Erfurt, Germany). We here evaluated whether PM(2.5) from specific source ...
Hahn Intaek - - 2009
As part of the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study, a field investigation was conducted of the mechanisms involved in infiltration of outdoor particles (0.02 microm to 1 microm) into a near-highway urban residential building. Using continuous real-time total number concentration time-series data measured simultaneously ...
Sepulcri D - - 2009
With regard to differential noise measurements in residential environment, as regulated by Italian law 'DM 16 marzo '98', various factors influencing the dispersion of results and measurement uncertainty are taken into account, and some aspects that can weigh on the usefulness of these measurements for compliance assessment are put in ...
Haynes Erin N EN University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, USA. - - 2010
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, yet is neurotoxic in excess. The majority of Mn research has been conducted on occupationally exposed adults with few studies focused on an environmentally exposed population. Marietta, OH is home to one of the largest airborne Mn emission sources in the United States, a ...
Vienneau D - - 2009
A GIS-based moving window approach was developed as a means for generating high resolution air pollution maps over large geographic areas. The approach is demonstrated by modelling annual mean NO(2) pollution for the EU-15 (excluding Sweden) at the 1 km level on the basis of emissions and meteorological data. Models ...
Tinarelli G - - 2009
The presence of natural or artificial barriers placed near the air quality measuring stations located in an urban environment poses some problems in the assessment of their siting and significance. The atmospheric flow distortion induced by these structures can create situations that affect the concentration levels of measured pollutants. A ...
Majumdar Baijayanta Kumar - - 2010
CALINE 4 offers several advantages over other models and is chosen as the base model for the purpose of developing a modified line source model for the city of Kolkata. Carbon monoxide is chosen for the model because it is principally emitted from vehicular sources. Average date wise background concentration ...
Mahapatra Amita - - 2010
The pollution levels in New Delhi from industrial, residential, and transportation sources are continuously growing. As one of the major pollutants, ground-level ozone is responsible for various adverse effects on both humans and foliage. The present study aims to predict daily ground-level ozone concentration maxima over a site situated in ...
Melillo Jerry M - - 2009
A global biofuels program will lead to intense pressures on land supply and can increase greenhouse gas emissions from land-use changes. Using linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry models, we examined direct and indirect effects of possible land-use changes from an expanded global cellulosic bioenergy program on greenhouse gas emissions over ...
Di Nicolantonio W - - 2009
Within the framework of air quality monitoring, measurements by Earth-observing satellite sensors are combined here with regional meteorological and chemical transport models. Two satellite-derived products developed within the QUITSAT project, regarding significant pollutants including PM(2.5) and NO(2), are presented. Estimates of PM(2.5) concentrations at ground level were obtained using moderate ...
Hahn Intaek - - 2009
The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically ...
Schrooten Liesbeth - - 2009
Emissions from ships have recently received more attention since they have become a significant concern for air quality in harbours and port cities. This paper presents the methodology for a comprehensive maritime transport database of activity data, specific energy consumption, emission factors, and total emissions that have been developed within ...
Wang Y Jason - - 2009
It is well recognized that dilution is an important mechanism governing the near-road air pollutant concentrations. In this paper, we aim to advance our understanding of turbulent mixing mechanisms on and near roadways using computation fluid dynamics. Turbulent mixing mechanisms can be classified into three categories according to their origins: ...
Mays Kelly L - - 2009
The quantification of greenhouse gas emissions requires high precision measurements made with high spatial resolution. Here we describe measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) conducted using Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR), aimed at the quantification of the "footprints" for these greenhouse gases for Indianapolis, IN. ...
Real Carlos - - 2009
Compositional analysis consists of a group of techniques used to manipulate closed (=compositional) data, i.e. multivariate data summing to a fixed quantity (proportions, percentages). It is based on the analysis of the relations among variables and the use of logarithmic transformations. It has been claimed that this group of techniques ...
Neidell Matthew - - 2010
A study was undertaken to assess the impact of air quality warnings associated with ground-level ozone on outdoor activities in Southern California. Data on aggregate daily attendance at two major outdoor facilities were collected and merged with observed and forecasted air quality and meteorology at the daily level. A quasi-experimental ...
Menichini Edoardo - - 2009
On-filter loss of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) during air sampling due to reaction with ozone was observed in several experimental studies. It was also of concern in the recent CEN method for BaP measurement in ambient air: a denuder-based sampling system minimising this loss is described in the method but, due to ...
Hidy George M - - 2009
The Critical Review of Hoff and Christopher, along with the discussants, provides an important perspective on the interface between satellite measurement science and air quality observations. A top-down picture of the usefulness of satellite observations in terms of air quality regulatory and technical support requirements can be summarized. The air ...
Ueda Kayo - - 2009
Small particles can reach alveoli without being trapped in the upper respiratory tract and may have a greater impact on health than larger particles. Given the limited knowledge on health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Japan, the short-term effects of PM2.5 on daily mortality using the generalized additive ...
Blanchard Ian - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the availability of emergency medical services (EMS) system energy consumption data required to calculate a carbon footprint. METHODS: Two diverse North American EMS systems with more than 125,000 combined annual unit responses agreed to report their energy consumption for the last fiscal or ...
Atari Dominic Odwa - - 2009
This study aimed at establishing the relationship between annoyance scores and modelled air pollution in "Chemical Valley", Sarnia, Ontario (Canada). Annoyance scores were taken from a community health survey (N = 774); and respondents' exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) were estimated using land use regression (LUR) ...
Katsouyanni Klea K Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, - - 2009
This report provides the methodology and findings from the project: Air Pollution and Health: a European and North American Approach (APHENA). The principal purpose of the project was to provide an understanding of the degree of consistency among findings of multicity time-series studies on the effects of air pollution on ...
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