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Results 551 - 600 of 2216
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Blanchard Ian - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the availability of emergency medical services (EMS) system energy consumption data required to calculate a carbon footprint. METHODS: Two diverse North American EMS systems with more than 125,000 combined annual unit responses agreed to report their energy consumption for the last fiscal or ...
Atari Dominic Odwa - - 2009
This study aimed at establishing the relationship between annoyance scores and modelled air pollution in "Chemical Valley", Sarnia, Ontario (Canada). Annoyance scores were taken from a community health survey (N = 774); and respondents' exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) were estimated using land use regression (LUR) ...
Katsouyanni Klea K Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, - - 2009
This report provides the methodology and findings from the project: Air Pollution and Health: a European and North American Approach (APHENA). The principal purpose of the project was to provide an understanding of the degree of consistency among findings of multicity time-series studies on the effects of air pollution on ...
Kim Seung Gyu - - 2010
This study applies a hedonic model to assess the economic benefits of air quality improvement following the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment at the county level in the lower 48 United States. An instrumental variable approach that combines geographically weighted regression and spatial autoregression methods (GWR-SEM) is adopted to simultaneously ...
Trevisani Sebastiano - - 2010
Geostatistical methods are well suited for analyzing the local and spatial uncertainties that accompany the modeling of highly heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) geological architectures. The spatial modeling of 3D hydrogeological architectures is crucial for polluted site characterization, in regards to both groundwater modeling and planning remediation procedures. From this perspective, the ...
Cabal Gonzalo - - 2010
Bayesian inference is used to determine the Air Kerma Rate based on in-situ gamma spectrum measurement performed with an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The procedure accounts for uncertainties in the measurement and in the mass energy transfer coefficients needed for the calculation. The WinBUGS program (Spiegelhalter et al., 1999) was used. ...
Gray Simone C - - 2010
The link between air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes is of public health concern due to the relationship between poor pregnancy outcomes and the onset of childhood and adult diseases. As personal exposure measurements are difficult and expensive to obtain, proximate measures of air pollution exposure are traditionally used. ...
Zemankova Katerina - - 2010
This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by Guenther et al. (1995) and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1x1km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a ...
Theobald M R - - 2009
The dry deposition of ammonia from the atmosphere to the surface can lead to eutrophication of sensitive ecosystems and acidification of the soil. A large proportion of the ammonia emitted from agricultural sources can be deposited within a few kilometres and, therefore, impacts of ammonia dry deposition often occur near ...
Jacquemin Bénédicte - - 2009
Introduction: We have previously reported that outdoor levels of fine particles (PM(2.5), diameter <2.5 mum) are associated with urinary CC16, a marker for lung damage, in Helsinki, Finland, but not in the other two ULTRA cities (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Erfurt, Germany). We here evaluated whether PM(2.5) from specific source ...
Zhao Bingtao - - 2010
Mercury emission from coal combustion has become a global environmental problem. In order to accurately reveal the complexly nonlinear relationships between mercury emissions characteristics in flue gas and coal properties as well as operating conditions, an alternative model using support vector machine (SVM) based on dynamically optimized search technique with ...
Lee Dongho - - 2009
An ensemble-trained chemical mass balance (CMB) approach is developed for particulate matter (PM) source apportionment (SA), particularly for use in health studies. The approach uses results from a short-term emission-based chemical transport model (CTM) and multiple receptor-based approaches. Ensemble results have less day-to-day variation in source impacts and fewer biases ...
Yeh Sonia - - 2009
California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) was designed to incentivize a diverse array of available strategies for reducing transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It provides strong incentives for fuels with lower GHG emissions, while explicitly requiring a 10% reduction in California's transportation fuel GHG intensity by 2020. This paper investigates ...
LaBone Elizabeth D - - 2009
In this study the radionuclide databases for two versions of the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88) computer model were assessed in detail. CAP88 estimates radiation dose and the risk of health effects to human populations from radionuclide emissions to air. This program is used by several U.S. Department of ...
Fann Neal - - 2009
The benefit per ton ($/ton) of reducing PM(2.5) varies by the location of the emission reduction, the type of source emitting the precursor, and the specific precursor controlled. This paper examines how each of these factors influences the magnitude of the $/ton estimate. We employ a reduced-form air quality model ...
Smith Richard L - - 2009
Time-series studies that use daily mortality and ambient ozone concentrations exhibit estimates of ozone effects that are variable across cities. We investigate this intercity variability, as well as the sensitivity of the ozone- mortality associations to modeling assumptions and choice of daily ozone metric, based on reanalysis of data from ...
van Beers Cees - - 2009
We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology ...
Abdollahi H - - 2009
A two-way soft resolution method will fail when applied to a simultaneous equilibria system due to rank deficiency in its concentration profiles. Increasing the dimensionality of measurements from two-way to three-way data can be used to overcome this problem. Simultaneous dissociation of two weak acids is considered as a model ...
Rodriguez Marco A - - 2009
The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). ...
Pertile Paolo - - 2009
This paper presents the economic evaluation from a hospital's perspective of the investment in positron emission tomography, adopting a real options approach. The installation of this equipment requires a major capital outlay, while uncertainty on several key variables is substantial. The value of several timing strategies, including sequential investment, is ...
Koo Bonyoung - - 2009
Two efficient methods to study relationships between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and emission sources are compared in the three-dimensional comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Particulate source apportionment technology (PSAT) is a tagged species method that apportions concentrations of PM components to their respective primary precursors, e.g., sulfate is ...
Moreno Natalia - - 2009
Remodelling works are frequent in harbour areas, given that they must adapt to rapidly changing market requirements. Depending on their nature (construction, demolition, etc.), these works may be carried out during long periods of time and thus exert a significant impact on the air quality at the harbours and their ...
Teye Frederick Kwame - - 2010
Ammonia emissions were estimated at five microclimatic locations in a free stall dairy building using four different methods. Measurements were performed simultaneously with the different methods to enable comparison. In the first method, the rate of ammonia emission from manure was theoretically modeled utilizing Fick's law and boundary layer theory. ...
Chen Ho-Wen - - 2009
One of the costs of Taiwan's massive economic development has been severe air pollution problems in many parts of the island. Since vehicle emissions are the major source of air pollution in most of Taiwan's urban areas, Taiwan's government has implemented policies to rectify the degrading air quality, especially in ...
Allen Joseph G - - 2010
Radon gas ((222)Rn) is a natural constituent of the environment and a risk factor for lung cancer that we are exposed to as a result of radioactive decay of radium ((226)Ra) in stone and soil. Granite countertops, in particular, have received recent media attention regarding their potential to emit radon. ...
Ueno Yuichiro - - 2009
Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological record. The calculated isotopic fractionation factors for ...
Rigét Frank - - 2010
A statistically robust method was applied to 316 time-series of 'legacy' persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic biota from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems with the purpose of generating a 'meta-analysis' of temporal trend data collected over the past two to three decades for locations from Alaska in the west ...
Canova C - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to test the effects of exposure to air pollutants on lung function. A panel of 19 adult asthmatics living in Padua (Italy) was followed for five 30-day periods during 2 yrs consecutively (1,492 morning and 1,434 evening measures analysed). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) ...
Roa J E - - 2009
An atmospheric neutrino oscillation tool that uses full three-neutrino oscillation probabilities and a full three-neutrino treatment of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, together with an analysis of the K2K, MINOS, and CHOOZ data, is used to examine the bounds on theta_{13}. The recent, more finely binned, Super-K atmospheric data are employed. For ...
Tong Daniel Q - - 2009
Human exposure to ambient ozone (O(3)) has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. The ozone level at a location is contributed by local production, regional transport, and background ozone. This study combines detailed emission inventory, air quality modeling, and census data to investigate the source-receptor relationships between ...
Hunter Nezahat - - 2009
Data collected as a part of a survey on radon concentrations from about 40 000 dwellings in England for six contrasting geological units were analysed to evaluate the impact of house-specific factors (building characteristics and construction dates) and of proximity to geological boundaries. After adjusting for temperature and outdoor radon, ...
Figueroa Veronica K - - 2009
Because municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills emit significant amounts of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, there is considerable interest in quantifying surficial methane emissions from landfills. The authors present a method to estimate methane emissions, using ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements taken above the surface of the landfill. ...
Zhai Haibo - - 2009
The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. ...
Jeong Sanghyup - - 2009
A traditional thermal inactivation kinetic model (D- and z-value) was modified to account for the effect of process humidity on thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 on the surface of almonds subjected to moist-air heating. Raw almonds were surface inoculated to approximately 10(8) CFU/g and subjected to moist-air heating in ...
Bishop Gary A - - 2009
As part of the National Park Service's Temporary Winter Use Plans Environmental Assessment, the University of Denver has been collecting in-use tailpipe emissions data from snowcoaches and snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park. During the winter of 2006, using a portable emissions monitoring system, tailpipe data were collected from 10 snowcoaches ...
Armitage James M - - 2009
A global-scale multispecies mass balance model was used to simulate the long-term fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight to thirteen carbons (C8-C13) and their conjugate bases, the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCs). The main purpose of this study was to assess the relative long-range transport (LRT) potential of each conjugate ...
Faulkner William B - - 2009
Almond harvest accounts for substantial particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) emissions in California each harvest season. This paper addresses the reduction of harvester ground speed from a standard 8 km/hr (5 mph) to 4 km/hr (2.5 mph) as a possible mitigation measure for reducing PM10 ...
St-Amand Annick D - - 2009
A simple modeling concept was previously applied to study air-foliage exchange of both polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using field measurements. In this paper, the predictive capabilities of this framework were tested using an independent set of data collected at the same sampling location for a ...
Kostrzewa Aude - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Fine particles (PM(2.5)) are an important component of air pollution. Epidemiological studies have shown health effects due to ambient air particles, particularly allergies in children. Since the main difficulty is to determine exposure to such pollution, traffic air pollutant (TAP) dispersions models have been developed to improve the estimation ...
Hoff Raymond - - 2009
A system has been developed to combine remote sensing and ground-based measurements of aerosol concentration and aerosol light scattering parameters into a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere over the United States. Utilizing passive and active remote sensors from space and the ground, the system provides tools to visualize particulate air ...
Yamamoto N - - 2010
We report approximately 500 indoor-outdoor air exchange rate (AER) calculations based on measurements conducted in residences in three US metropolitan areas in 1999-2001: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Overall, a median AER across these urban areas and seasons was 0.71 air changes per hour (ACH, ...
Silva Humberto R - - 2010
A zero-dimensional energy balance model was previously developed to serve as a user-friendly mitigation tool for practitioners seeking to study the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Accordingly, this established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage ...
Denier van der Gon Hugo - - 2009
Large-scale use of leaded gasoline was an important source of the neurotoxin lead in the European environment. After a sequence of regulations on the allowed gasoline lead content and, eventually, a ban on the use of lead additives in gasoline, road transport was no longer considered a source of atmospheric ...
Fent Kenneth W - - 2009
We conducted a repeated exposure-assessment survey for task-based breathing-zone concentrations (BZCs) of monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) during spray painting on 47 automotive spray painters from North Carolina and Washington State. We report here the use of linear mixed modeling to identify the primary determinants of the measured BZCs. ...
Bortoli Daniele - - 2009
The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 - 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of ...
Jiménez-Hornero Francisco J - - 2010
High concentrations of ground-level ozone have a negative impact on human health and the environment, especially in urban places. Detailed knowledge on the effects of nitrogen dioxide on the ozone seasonal pattern is convenient to prevent these undesirable effects. Thus, the joint multifractal approach has been used to complete the ...
Agrawal Harshit - - 2009
The impact of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from ship emissions within the Southern California Air Basin is quantified by comparing in-stack vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni) measurements from in-use ocean-going vessels (OGVs) with ambient measurements made at 10 monitoring stations throughout Southern California. V and Ni are demonstrated as ...
Jain Suresh - - 2010
This paper presents a method for constructing a membership function (MF) for the fuzzy sets that expert systems deal with. This paper introduces a Bezier curve-based mechanism for constructing MFs of convex normal fuzzy sets. The mechanism can fit any given data set with a minimum level of discrepancy. In ...
Gurney Kevin R - - 2009
Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon ...
Matassoni Luca - - 2009
The relevance of dust outbreaks from the Sahara into Italy was evaluated for the period from 2001 to 2007. To this end, days affected by Saharan dust were recognized at four PM(10) background stations belonging to the Regional Agencies for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring networks (one working in the 2005-2007 ...
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