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Young Walter F - - 2010
BACKGROUND: On July 1, 2003, the city of Pueblo CO enacted a smokefree ordinance (Pueblo Smoke-Free Air Act [PSFAA]) that prohibited smoking in public places and workplaces, including taverns and restaurants. Opponents to this ordinance argued that it would have a negative impact on tavern and restaurant sales. PURPOSE: The ...
Szatkowski Antoni - - 2010
Air induction sound level and quality is a key contributor to in-vehicle powertrain NVH performance. This paper describes the process of tuning the air induction systems (AISs) at Chrysler LLC. Simple sound quality metrics are developed to quantify the AIS sound quality. Data acquisition and processing is standardized. A new ...
Kimizuka Ikuo - - 2010
ISO 7779 is a noise test code for airborne noise emission of information technology and telecommunications equipment (so called, ITTE). Since its 1st edition of 1988, ISO 7779 has stated, in detail, the installation and operating conditions for specific equipment categories. In nature of ITTE, however, changing of the product ...
Krecl Patricia - - 2010
Residential wood combustion (RWC) is responsible for 33% of the total carbon mass emitted in Europe. With the new European targets to increase the use of renewable energy, there is a growing concern that the population exposure to woodsmoke will also increase. This study investigates observed and simulated light-absorbing carbon ...
Chang Wayne L - - 2010
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) comprises a significant portion of atmospheric particular matter. The impact of particular matter on both human health and global climate has long been recognized. Despite its importance, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the formation and evolution of SOA in the atmosphere. This study uses ...
Kamarianakis Yiannis - - 2010
Collecting and analyzing high frequency emission measurements has become very usual during the past decade as significantly more information with respect to formation conditions can be collected than from regulated bag measurements. A challenging issue for researchers is the accurate time-alignment between tailpipe measurements and engine operating variables. An alignment ...
Paxian Andreas - - 2010
We present a global bottom-up ship emission algorithm that calculates fuel consumption, emissions, and vessel traffic densities for present-day (2006) and two future scenarios (2050) considering the opening of Arctic polar routes due to projected sea ice decline. Ship movements and actual ship engine power per individual ship from Lloyd's ...
Hannula Ilkka - - 2010
A process model for pressurised fluidized-bed gasification of biomass was developed using Aspen Plus simulation software. Eight main blocks were used to model the fluidized-bed gasifier, complemented with FORTRAN subroutines nested in the programme to simulate hydrocarbon and NH(3) formation as well as carbon conversion. The model was validated with ...
Nesamani K S - - 2010
Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution ...
Wang Peng - - 2011
In this study, the land-sea breeze circulation model coupled with a random-walk model is developed by the analysis of the formation and the mechanism of the land-sea breeze. Based on the data of the land-sea circulation in Dalian, China, the model simulated the diurnal variation of pressure, flow, temperature, and ...
Cheng Kai-Chung - - 2010
Electrochemical sensors are commonly used to measure concentrations of gaseous air pollutants in real time, especially for personal exposure investigations. The monitors are small, portable, and have suitable response times for estimating time-averaged concentrations. However, for transient exposures to air pollutants lasting only seconds to minutes, a non-instantaneous time response ...
Tal Alon - - 2010
Most environmental enforcement programs have separate criminal and administrative procedures for addressing violations. Pitting "criminal"versus"administrative" enforcement as mutually exclusive alternatives constitutes a "false dilemma". Clearly, the government response should be influenced by the severity of pollution and the specific circumstances of the polluter. Yet, policy makers seeking to improve environmental ...
Tiewtrakul T - - 2010
Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional ...
Mostrag Aleksandra - - 2010
BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: Experimental data on partition coefficients and environmental half-lives of sulfur analogs of polychlorinated organic compounds are scarce. Consequently, little is known about their overall persistence and long-range transport potential, which are the most vital measures in the environmental exposure assessment. We performed Multimedia Modeling of environmental ...
Liao Kuo-Jen - - 2010
Climate change has been predicted to adversely impact regional air quality with resulting health effects. Here a regional air quality model and a technology analysis tool are used to assess the additional emission reductions required and associated costs to offset impacts of climate change on air quality. Analysis is done ...
Perrier Fr?d?ric - - 2010
Radon-222 and carbon dioxide concentrations have been measured during several years at several points in the atmosphere of an underground limestone quarry located at a depth of 18 m in Vincennes, near Paris, France. Both concentrations showed a seasonal cycle. Radon concentration varied from 1200 to 2000 Bq m(-3) in ...
Kassomenos P - - 2010
The exposure of citizens to elevated air pollution concentrations is one of the major factors leading to the deterioration of the quality of life and possibly to health problems in urban areas. The concentration of air pollutants depends largely on pollutant emission levels. If the statistical probability distribution function of ...
Pistocchi A - - 2010
A review by Hollander et al. (in preparation), discusses the relative potentials, advantages and shortcomings of spatial and non spatial models of chemical fate, highlighting that spatially explicit models may be needed for specific purposes. The present paper reviews the state of the art in spatially explicit chemical fate and ...
Li Hongqiang - - 2010
Assessment of the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks ...
Orlando Jo?o Paulo - - 2010
Ozone represents the main atmospheric pollutant in the S?o Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). In this region, its concentration exceeds the national air quality standards for several days out of the year. Ozone is a secondary pollutant and is a product of VOCs, NO(x), and sunlight. Thus, it is very difficult ...
Holford Theodore R TR Division of Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. - - 2010
Traffic exhaust is a source of air contaminants that have adverse health effects. Quantification of traffic as an exposure variable is complicated by aerosol dispersion related to variation in layout of roads, traffic density, meteorology, and topography. A statistical model is presented that uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to ...
Fitzgerald R - - 2010
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has certified a high-purity (229)Th Standard Reference Material as SRM 4328C, based on live-timed 4pialphabeta-gamma anticoincidence counting (LTAC) of the equilibrium solution. The LTAC system was optimized to minimize the uncertainty in the result due to the two short-lived ground-states present in ...
Brown Richard J C - - 2010
Working Group 25 of the European Committee for Standardisation's (CEN) Technical Committee 264 'Air Quality' is currently finalising a standard method for the measurement of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in ambient air, in response to the requirements of the European Union's Fourth Air Quality Daughter Directive (4(th) DD). We report ...
Davis Mary E ME Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 , - - 2010
One challenge in assessing the health effects of human exposure to air pollution in epidemiologic studies is the lack of widespread historical air pollutant monitoring data with which to characterize past exposure levels. Given the availability of long-term economic data, we relate economic activity levels to patterns in vehicle-related particulate ...
Clark Maggie L - - 2010
Elevated indoor air pollution exposures associated with the burning of biomass fuels in developing countries are well established. Improved cookstoves have the potential to substantially reduce these exposures. However, few studies have quantitatively evaluated exposure reductions associated with the introduction of improved stoves, likely due to the cost and time-intensive ...
Ilić Ivana Z - - 2010
This paper presents the investigation of the air-pollution management possibility in Bor (Serbia) using statistical analyses of the correlation dependence of SO(2) pollution concentration and meteorological parameters. This kind of approach allows data to determine the shape of time trends; models serial correlation and dependence on covariance; and provides statistical ...
Park Inhyeok - - 2010
The Korea government has put in a lot of effort to construct sanitation facilities for controlling non-point source pollution. The first flush phenomenon is a prime example of such pollution. However, to date, several serious problems have arisen in the operation and treatment effectiveness of these facilities due to unsuitable ...
Suzuki Gen - - 2010
In two previous nation-wide surveys in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Japanese indoor radon concentrations increased in homes built after the mid 1970s. In order to ascertain whether this trend continued, a nation-wide survey was conducted from 2007 to 2010. In total 3,900 houses were allocated to 47 prefectures ...
Kojima Keisuke - - 2010
The wet deposition for particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was modelled from the consecutive measurements of atmospheric concentration and wet deposition for particulate matter and PAHs in Higashi-Hiroshima city, Japan. In order to estimate the model in detail, the wet deposition was classified with that from gaseous ...
Maniquiz Marla C - - 2010
Rainfall is an important factor in estimating the event mean concentration (EMC) which is used to quantify the washed-off pollutant concentrations from non-point sources (NPSs). Pollutant loads could also be calculated using rainfall, catchment area and runoff coefficient. In this study, runoff quantity and quality data gathered from a 28-month ...
Jim?nez-Hornero F J - - 2010
Ozone is a secondary pollutant that, at high concentrations in urban environment, affects human health. Thus, suitable knowledge of ozone dynamics is essential for avoiding undesirable effects on the population. Ten-minute ozone concentration time series recorded at C?rdoba (southern Spain) in 2007, for January, April, July and October, have been ...
Luecken Deborah J - - 2010
We use a regional-scale, three-dimensional atmospheric model to evaluate U.S. air quality effects that would result from replacing HFC-134a in automobile air conditioners in the U.S. with HFO-1234yf. Although HFO-1234yf produces tropospheric ozone, the incremental amount is small, averaging less than 0.01% of total ozone formed during the simulation. We ...
Chen Xiaohan - - 2010
Models of diesel engine emissions such as oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) are valuable when they can predict instantaneous values because they can be incorporated into whole vehicle models, support inventory predictions, and assist in developing superior engine and aftertreatment control strategies. Recent model-year diesel engines using multiple injection strategies, exhaust ...
Dotto C B S - - 2010
The complex nature of pollutant accumulation and washoff, along with high temporal and spatial variations, pose challenges for the development and establishment of accurate and reliable models of the pollution generation process in urban environments. Therefore, the search for reliable stormwater quality models remains an important area of research. Model ...
Lowenthal Douglas H - - 2010
The ability of receptor models to estimate regional contributions to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was assessed with synthetic, speciated datasets at Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge (BRIG) in New Jersey and Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) in Tennessee. Synthetic PM2.5 chemical concentrations were generated for the summer of 2002 using ...
Pizzol Massimo - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb) emissions are assessed using the IPA. Exposure to ...
Zegels Geert - - 2010
Cervicovaginal fluid has an important function in the homeostasis and immunity of the lower female genital tract. Analysis of the cervicovaginal fluid proteome may therefore yield important information about the pathogenesis of numerous gynecological pathologies. Additionally, cervicovaginal fluid has great potential as a source of biomarkers for these conditions.This review ...
Miyake Yuichi - - 2010
The concentrations of toluene and dichloromethane in the vicinity of factories that emitted a large amount of toluene or dichloromethane into the atmosphere were determined for the comparison of observed and estimated concentrations using a Gaussian dispersion model (METI-LIS model). Greater concentrations of toluene and dichloromethane than the guideline value ...
Rodr?guez J P - - 2010
Numerical and computational modelling of flow and pollutant dynamics in urban drainage systems is becoming more and more integral to planning and design. The main aim of integrated flow and pollutant models is to quantify the efficiency of different measures at reducing the amount of pollutants discharged into receiving water ...
Batterman Stuart A - - 2010
Near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants have been receiving increased attention due to evidence linking emissions from high-traffic roadways to adverse health outcomes. To date, most epidemiological and risk analyses have utilized simple but crude exposure indicators, most typically proximity measures, such as the distance between freeways and residences, to ...
Tseng Ting Ke - - 2010
The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition), which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, ...
Byass Peter - - 2010
It is widely accepted that assessing the impact of heat on populations is an important aspect of climate change research. However, this raises questions about how best to measure people's exposure to heat under everyday living conditions in more detail than is possible by relying on nearby sources of meteorological ...
Roberts Steven - - 2010
Concerns have been raised about findings of associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and mortality that have been based on a single "best" model arising from a model selection procedure, because such a strategy may ignore model uncertainty inherently involved in searching through a set of candidate models to ...
Künzli Nino - - 2010
Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between exposure to ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis. We investigated the association between outdoor air quality and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis (common carotid artery intima-media thickness, CIMT). We examined data from five double-blind randomized trials that assessed effects of various treatments on the change in ...
May Gregory C - - 2010
The sporting domain has traditionally been used as a testing ground for new technologies which subsequently make their way into the public domain. This includes sensors. In this article a range of physical and biological sensors deployed in a 64 hour ultra-endurance non-stop cycling race are described. A novel algorithm ...
Szyszkowicz Mieczysław M Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, - - 2010
Comorbidity of depression, heart disease, and migraine has been observed in clinical practice, while ambient air pollution has been identified among different risk factors for these health conditions. Suicide attempts and ideations as the result of depression may be linked to air pollution exposure. Therefore the effects of ambient air ...
Kauffer Edmond - - 2010
Several samplers (IOM, CIP 10-I v1, ACCU-CAP, and Button) were evaluated at various wood industry companies using the CALTOOL system. The results obtained show that compared to the CALTOOL mouth, which can be considered to be representative of the exposure of a person placed at the same location under the ...
Le Hoang Anh - - 2010
This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg ...
McFarland Michael J - - 2010
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established EPA Reference Method 9 (Method 9) as the preferred enforcement approach for verifying compliance with federal visible opacity standards. While Method 9 has an extensive history of successful employment, reliance on human observers to quantify visible emissions is inherently subjective, a characteristic ...
Pistocchi Alberto - - 2009
A spatially distributed data set of measured concentrations of perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was used, together with climatological averages of river flow, to estimate their overall aqueous emissions from the European Continent. This estimate relies on the assumption that PFOA/S are conservative chemicals. PFOS correlates rather well with river ...
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