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Carlton Annmarie G - - 2010
The implicit assumption that biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is natural and can not be controlled hinders effective air quality management. Anthropogenic pollution facilitates transformation of naturally emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the particle phase, enhancing the ambient concentrations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). It is therefore conceivable ...
Garcia Valerie C - - 2010
Air quality surfaces representing pollutant concentrations across space and time are needed for many applications, including tracking trends and relating air quality to human and ecosystem health. The spatial and temporal characteristics of these surfaces may reveal new information about the associations between emissions, pollution levels, and human exposure and ...
Christopher Sundar A - - 2010
Satellite assessments of particulate matter (PM) air quality that use solar reflectance methods are dependent on availability of clear sky; in other words, mass concentrations of PM less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) cannot be estimated from satellite observations under cloudy conditions or bright surfaces such as snow/ice. ...
Ginsbach Jake W - - 2010
The resuspension of large volumes of sediments that are contaminated with chlorinated pollutants continues to threaten environmental quality and human health. Whereas kinetic models are more accurate for estimating the environmental impact of these events, their widespread use is substantially hampered by the need for costly, time-consuming, site-specific kinetics experiments. ...
Weber Stephanie A - - 2010
Using satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) to estimate surface concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a well-established technique in the air quality community. In this study, the relationships between PM2.5 concentrations measured at five monitor locations in the Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC region and AOD from Moderate Resolution ...
Brauer Michael - - 2010
Epidemiology has played an important role in the understanding of air pollution as a risk factor for respiratory disease and in the evidence base for air quality standards. With the widespread availability of genetic information and increasingly sophisticated measurements of molecular markers of adverse effects, there is a need for ...
Frey H Christopher - - 2010
Vehicle-specific microscale fuel use and emissions rate models are developed based upon real-world hot-stabilized tailpipe measurements made using a portable emissions measurement system. Consecutive averaging periods of one to three multiples of the response time are used to compare two semiempirical physically based modeling schemes. One scheme is based on ...
Murray Christian J - - 2010
Epidemiological studies find that elderly, susceptible, and previously impaired individuals are more sensitive to transient air pollution exposures than healthy persons. However, any associated changes in life expectancy remain largely unresolved. Murray and Nelson published a model of daily mortality and air pollution that addresses mortality displacement or harvesting by ...
Cummings David R - - 2010
The environmental light intensity/photoperiod (ELI/PP) hypothesis proposes that the seasonality of human births is primarily associated with seasonal changes in ambient atmospheric luminosity or ELI. This study tests for the presence of increased ELI during the 1 or 2-month period preceding the conceptual month. Monthly birth data for Helsinki, Finland; ...
Choi Hyung-Wook - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard ...
Sidora-Arcoleo Kimberly Joan KJ College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona 85004, USA. - - 2010
To expand knowledge surrounding parental illness representations (IRs) of their children's asthma, it is imperative that culturally appropriate survey instruments are developed and validated for use in clinical and research settings. The Asthma Illness Representation Scale (AIRS) provides a structured assessment of the key components of asthma IRs, allowing the ...
Callén M S - - 2010
The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out ...
Lin Chun - - 2010
This paper reports the first field deployment and testing of a directional passive air sampler (DPAS) which can be used to cost-effectively identify and quantify air pollutants and their sources. The sampler was used for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) over ten weeks from twelve directional sectors in an urban setting, ...
Gavelli Filippo - - 2010
A new method for the analysis of LNG spills into trenches has been developed to quantify vapor dispersion hazard distances. The model uses three steps to capture the behavior of an LNG spill into a trench. The first is to analytically calculate the evolving LNG flow, the second to calculate ...
Watts Winthrop F - - 2010
A low cost, battery-operated, portable, real-time aerosol analyzer is not available for monitoring diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations in underground mines. This study summarizes a field evaluation conducted at an underground limestone mine to evaluate the potential of the TSI AM 510 portable photometer (equipped with a Dorr-Oliver cyclone and ...
Lory John A - - 2010
On 10 Apr. 2009, USEPA proposed and on 30 Oct. 2009 USEPA finalized reporting thresholds for a wide range of human-derived sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) as a first step in establishing emission limits in the United States. The only on-farm source category that required monitoring under the proposed and ...
McGinn S M - - 2010
Open cattle feedlots are a source of air pollutants that include particular matter (PM). Over 24 h, exposure to ambient concentrations of 50 microg m(-3) of the coarse-sized fraction PM (aerodynamic diameter <10 microm [PM(10)]) is recognized as a health concern for humans. The objective of our study was to ...
Anenberg Susan C SC University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2010
Ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter [< or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] have increased since preindustrial times in urban and rural regions and are associated with cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. We estimated the global burden of mortality due to O3 and PM2.5 from anthropogenic ...
Wilder-Smith A - - 2010
Dengue activity depends on fluctuations in Aedes populations which in turn are known to be influenced by climate factors including temperature, humidity and rainfall. It has been hypothesized that haze may reduce dengue transmission. Due to its geographical location Singapore suffers almost every year from hazes caused by wildfires from ...
Ritzkowski M - - 2010
Landfills are some of the major anthropogenic sources of methane emissions worldwide. The installation and operation of gas extraction systems for many landfills in Europe and the US, often including technical installations for energy recovery, significantly reduced these emissions during the last decades. Residual landfill gas, however, is still continuously ...
Bedos Carole - - 2010
Few data sets of pesticide volatilization from plants at the field scale are available. In this work, we report measurements of fenpropidin and chlorothalonil volatilization on a wheat field using the aerodynamic gradient (AG) method and an inverse dispersion modeling approach (using the FIDES model). Other data necessary to run ...
Chow Judith C - - 2010
Particulate black or elemental carbon (EC) (black carbon [BC]) and organic carbon (OC) affect climate, visibility, and human health. Several "top-down" and "bottom-up" global emission inventories for these components have compiled country-wide emission factors, source profiles, and activity levels that do not necessarily reflect local conditions. Recent estimates of global ...
Sun Gang - - 2010
Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and ...
Katulski Ryszard J - - 2010
The paper presents a prototype of a mobile monitoring system for measuring the levels of the main traffic air pollutants (C(6)H(6), NO(2), NO(x), CO, and CO(2),) in cities. The novelty of the proposed system lies in the fact that it can be utilized to monitor emissions from urban traffic along ...
Henry Ronald C - - 2010
Two easily available multivariate source apportionment models, Unmix and positive matrix factorization (PMF), often produce nearly the same source apportionment. However, this paper gives two examples in which this is not the case: a simulated air pollution data set of 8 species and 200 samples and a water quality data ...
Barton Catherine A - - 2010
This work assessed the usefulness of a current air quality model (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model [AERMOD]) for predicting air concentrations and deposition of perfluorooctanoate (PFO) near a manufacturing facility. Air quality models play an important role in providing information for verifying permitting conditions and for exposure assessment ...
Abichou Tarek - - 2010
Landfills represent a source of distributed emissions source over an irregular and heterogeneous surface. In the method termed "Other Test Method-10" (OTM-10), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a method to quantify emissions from such sources by the use of vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) techniques combined with ...
Owen Bethan - - 2010
This study describes the methodology and results for calculating future global aviation emissions of carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen from air traffic under four of the IPCC/SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) marker scenarios: A1B, A2, B1, and B2. In addition, a mitigation scenario has ...
Qian Zhengmin - - 2010
Evidence of seasonal variation of acute mortality effects of air pollution is inconsistent. The seasonal patterns of associations between daily mortality and daily mean concentrations of particulate matter 10 microm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were examined using 4 yr of data ...
Tormo Rafael - - 2011
Phenological studies in combination with aerobiological studies enable one to observe the relationship between the release of pollen and its presence in the atmosphere. To obtain a suitable comparison between the daily variation of airborne pollen concentrations and flowering, it is necessary for the level of accuracy of both sets ...
Dueri Sibylle - - 2010
A 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant fate model was implemented for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Thau lagoon. The hydrodynamic model was tested against temperature and salinity measurements, while the contaminant fate model was assessed against available data collected at different stations inside the lagoon. The model results allow an ...
Qian Hua - - 2010
Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on ...
Tinker Rick - - 2010
The origin of a series of atmospheric radioxenon events detected at the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System site in Melbourne, Australia, between November 2008 and February 2009 was investigated. Backward tracking analyses indicated that the events were consistent with releases associated with hot commission testing of ...
Hogan E J - - 2010
*Relationships between nitrogen deposition in the UK and phosphomonoesterase (PME) activity and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in Cladonia portentosa were quantified to understand factors limiting lichen growth and to further develop biomarkers for N pollution. *Lichen was collected from sites differing either in rates of wet N (NH(4)(+) ...
Weber Christopher L - - 2010
The generation and distribution of electricity comprises nearly 40% of U.S. CO(2), emissions, as well as large shares of SO(2), NO(x), small particulates, and other toxins. Thus, correctly accounting for these electricity-related environmental releases is of great importance in life cycle assessment of products and processes. Unfortunately, there is no ...
Wiedinmyer Christine - - 2010
Carbon sequestration by forested ecosystems offers a potential climate change mitigation benefit. However, wildfire has the potential to reverse this benefit In the western United States, climate change and land management practices have led to increases in wildfire intensity and size. One potential means of reducing carbon emissions from wildfire ...
Yoon Ki Young - - 2010
We proposed a rapid method to estimate the efficacies of air controlling devices in situ using ATP bioluminescence in combination with an inertial impactor. The inertial impactor was designed to have 1 mum of cutoff diameter, and its performance was estimated analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The proposed method was characterized ...
Weinstein Jonathan - - 2010
Mine exhaust ventilation fans provide essential fresh air. The extracted air from the mine is often moist and laden with dust, so that conventional silencers would very quickly clog as the wet dust forms on silencer baffles and blocks the perforations in the baffle skins. This paper presents a case ...
Forsius Martin - - 2010
For more than a decade, anthropogenic sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition has been identified as a key pollutant in the Arctic. In this study new critical loads of acidity (S and N) were estimated for terrestrial ecosystems north of 60 degrees latitude by applying the Simple Mass Balance (SMB) ...
Bash Jesse O - - 2010
An analytical model was developed to describe in-canopy vertical distribution of ammonia (NH(3)) sources and sinks and vertical fluxes in a fertilized agricultural setting using measured in-canopy mean NH(3) concentration and wind speed profiles. This model was applied to quantify in-canopy air-surface exchange rates and above-canopy NH(3) fluxes in a ...
Young Walter F - - 2010
BACKGROUND: On July 1, 2003, the city of Pueblo CO enacted a smokefree ordinance (Pueblo Smoke-Free Air Act [PSFAA]) that prohibited smoking in public places and workplaces, including taverns and restaurants. Opponents to this ordinance argued that it would have a negative impact on tavern and restaurant sales. PURPOSE: The ...
Szatkowski Antoni - - 2010
Air induction sound level and quality is a key contributor to in-vehicle powertrain NVH performance. This paper describes the process of tuning the air induction systems (AISs) at Chrysler LLC. Simple sound quality metrics are developed to quantify the AIS sound quality. Data acquisition and processing is standardized. A new ...
Kimizuka Ikuo - - 2010
ISO 7779 is a noise test code for airborne noise emission of information technology and telecommunications equipment (so called, ITTE). Since its 1st edition of 1988, ISO 7779 has stated, in detail, the installation and operating conditions for specific equipment categories. In nature of ITTE, however, changing of the product ...
Krecl Patricia - - 2010
Residential wood combustion (RWC) is responsible for 33% of the total carbon mass emitted in Europe. With the new European targets to increase the use of renewable energy, there is a growing concern that the population exposure to woodsmoke will also increase. This study investigates observed and simulated light-absorbing carbon ...
Chang Wayne L - - 2010
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) comprises a significant portion of atmospheric particular matter. The impact of particular matter on both human health and global climate has long been recognized. Despite its importance, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the formation and evolution of SOA in the atmosphere. This study uses ...
Kamarianakis Yiannis - - 2010
Collecting and analyzing high frequency emission measurements has become very usual during the past decade as significantly more information with respect to formation conditions can be collected than from regulated bag measurements. A challenging issue for researchers is the accurate time-alignment between tailpipe measurements and engine operating variables. An alignment ...
Paxian Andreas - - 2010
We present a global bottom-up ship emission algorithm that calculates fuel consumption, emissions, and vessel traffic densities for present-day (2006) and two future scenarios (2050) considering the opening of Arctic polar routes due to projected sea ice decline. Ship movements and actual ship engine power per individual ship from Lloyd's ...
Hannula Ilkka - - 2010
A process model for pressurised fluidized-bed gasification of biomass was developed using Aspen Plus simulation software. Eight main blocks were used to model the fluidized-bed gasifier, complemented with FORTRAN subroutines nested in the programme to simulate hydrocarbon and NH(3) formation as well as carbon conversion. The model was validated with ...
Nesamani K S - - 2010
Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution ...
Wang Peng - - 2011
In this study, the land-sea breeze circulation model coupled with a random-walk model is developed by the analysis of the formation and the mechanism of the land-sea breeze. Based on the data of the land-sea circulation in Dalian, China, the model simulated the diurnal variation of pressure, flow, temperature, and ...
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