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Gocht Tilman T Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Institute for Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tuebingen, - - 2014
SEURAT-1 is a European public-private research consortium that is working towards animal-free testing of chemical compounds and the highest level of consumer protection. A research strategy was formulated based on the guiding principle to adopt a toxicological mode-of-action framework to describe how any substance may adversely affect human health.The proof ...
Senn Stephen S Competence Center for Methodology and Statistics, CRP-Santé, Strassen, - - 2014
It is shown that fixed-effect meta-analyses of naïve treatment estimates from sequentially run trials with the possibility of stopping for efficacy based on a single interim look are unbiassed (or at the very least consistent, depending on the point of view) provided that the trials are weighted by information provided. ...
Protonotarios Emmanouil D ED http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0386-160X CoMPLEX, University College London, London, UK Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, UK - - 2014
Human observers readily make judgements about the degree of order in planar arrangements of points (point patterns). Here, based on pairwise ranking of 20 point patterns by degree of order, we have been able to show that judgements of order are highly consistent across individuals and the dimension of order ...
Northrup Thomas F TF Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin Street, JJL 324, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: - - 2015
Most patients relapse to opioids within one month of opioid agonist detoxification, making the antecedents and parallel processes of first use critical for investigation. Craving and withdrawal are often studied in relationship to opioid outcomes, and a novel analytic strategy applied to these two phenomena may indicate targeted intervention strategies. ...
Andreu Franc F 1Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2 Nephrology Service and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, - - 2014
Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics presents a high variability which hampers its therapeutic use. The aims of this study are to: 1) develop a population pharmacokinetic model for tacrolimus and to identify the factors that contribute to the variability of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in renal transplant patients; and 2) to establish a new Bayesian ...
Weeks Brian C BC Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, 1200 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024, USA - - 2014
Different models of speciation predict contrasting patterns in the relationship between the dispersal ability of lineages and their diversification rates. This relationship is expected to be negative in isolation-limited models and positive in founder-event models. In addition, the combination of negative and positive effects of dispersal on speciation can result ...
Powers Simon T ST Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland - - 2014
The Neolithic was marked by a transition from small and relatively egalitarian groups to much larger groups with increased stratification. But, the dynamics of this remain poorly understood. It is hard to see how despotism can arise without coercion, yet coercion could not easily have occurred in an egalitarian setting. ...
Desmet L L Institut de Statistique, Biostatistique et Sciences Actuarielles (ISBA), Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, - - 2014
Multicenter studies are widely used to meet accrual targets in clinical trials. Clinical data monitoring is required to ensure the quality and validity of the data gathered across centers. One approach to this end is central statistical monitoring, which aims at detecting atypical patterns in the data by means of ...
Breeze Penny P School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2014
Our aim was to adapt the traditional framework for expected net benefit of sampling (ENBS) to be more compatible with drug development trials from the pharmaceutical perspective. We modify the traditional framework for conducting ENBS and assume that the price of the drug is conditional on the trial outcomes. We ...
Batterman Stuart S Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Room 6075 SPH2, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 USA, tel: 734 763 2417 fax: 734 - - 2014
Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. ...
Yang Yingjie - - 2014
In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, ...
Størset Elisabet - - 2014
The aim was to develop a theory-based population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in adult kidney transplant recipients and to externally evaluate this model and two previous empirical models. Data were obtained from 242 patients with 3100 tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. External evaluation was performed by examining model predictive performance using ...
Knebel William W Metrum Research Group, LLC, 2 Tunxis Road, Suite 112, Tarifville, Connecticut, 06081, USA, - - 2014
Using a previously developed population pharmacokinetic model, an exposure-response (ER) model was successfully developed to describe guanfacine plasma concentrations and changes in heart rate (HR) and the QT interval. Guanfacine exposure was associated with small decreases in HR and a small prolongation of the population-corrected QT (QTcP) interval. Based on ...
Duarte Iris I iMed - Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Lisbon, Faculty of Pharmacy, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003, Lisboa, - - 2014
To present a new screening methodology intended to be used in the early development of spray-dried amorphous solid dispersions. A model that combines thermodynamic, kinetic and manufacturing considerations was implemented to obtain estimates of the miscibility and phase behavior of different itraconazole-based solid dispersions. Additionally, a small-scale solvent casting protocol ...
Banguera-Hinestroza Eulalia E Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Durham, South Road DH1 3LE, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The six species currently classified within the genus Lagenorhynchus exhibit a pattern of antitropical distribution common among marine taxa. In spite of their morphological similarities they are now considered an artificial grouping, and include both recent and the oldest representatives of the Delphinidae radiation. They are, therefore, a good model ...
Diamond George A GA Division of Cardiology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California; David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Regulatory agencies, professional societies, and clinical trialists commonly base judgments of treatment benefit on separate assessments of efficacy and safety. When separate assessments were compared with an integrated assessment using a kinetic model of a hypothetical randomized trial of antiplatelet agents in patients with acute coronary syndrome, the former showed ...
Langohr Klaus K Departament d'Estadística i Investigació Operativa, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya/BARCELONATECH, C/Jordi Girona, 1-3, 08034, Barcelona, - - 2014
Interval-censored covariates are sometimes encountered in longitudinal studies and considered as possible predictors in a regression model. This paper, motivated by an AIDS study, proposes an implementation in R for the estimation of parameters and the assessment of the assumptions of a linear regression model with an interval-censored covariate. The ...
Alves Tiago M TM 3D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building-Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study combines bathymetric, geomorphological, geological data and oil spill predictions to model the impact of oil spills in two accident scenarios from offshore Crete, Eastern Mediterranean. The aim is to present a new three-step method of use by emergency teams and local authorities in the assessment of shoreline and ...
Dubois Vfs V Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Division of Pharmacology, Leiden University, Leiden, The - - 2014
Significant differences between dogs and humans have been observed in the concentration-QTc effect relationship of compounds with known pro-arrhythmic properties. These findings suggest that interspecies differences must be considered when evaluating drug effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of model-based approach to assess the risk ...
Hoyer Andrea B AB Instituto del Agua, Universidad de Granada, C/ Ramón y Cajal 4, Granada 18071, Spain; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de Granada, Avda. de Hospicio s/n, Granada 18071, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
The unwanted impacts of non-indigenous species have become one of the major ecological and economic threats to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Assessing the potential dispersal and colonization of non-indigenous species is necessary to prevent or reduce deleterious effects that may lead to ecosystem degradation and a range of economic impacts. A ...
Wang Ping P Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
To quantify the characteristics of proton chemical exchange in knee cartilage in vivo by R1ρ dispersion analysis. Six healthy subjects (one female and five males, age range 24 to 71 y) underwent T1ρ imaging of knee cartilage on a 3T MRI scanner. Quantitative estimates of R1ρ (=1/T1ρ) were made using ...
Zeković Ivana I Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, - - 2014
Novel optical spectroscopy and imaging methods may be valuable in the early detection of cancer. This paper reports differences in the luminescence responses of pigmented skin lesions (melanomas and nevi) and apparently normal non-pigmented human skin, based on analyses of synchronous luminescence spectroscopy measurements. Measurements were performed in the excitation ...
Benguigui Macarena M Centre for Molecular Biology "Severo Ochoa", Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, - - 2014
Analyses of human evolution are fundamental to understand the current gradients of human diversity. In this concern, genetic samples collected from current populations together with archaeological data are the most important resources to study human evolution. However, they are often insufficient to properly evaluate a variety of evolutionary scenarios, leading ...
Strasser Kristen M KM University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO. - - 2014
Until about 4 years ago, warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant approved in the United States, and switching between oral anticoagulants has become an option since the emergence of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. What are the reasons one may switch between the agents and how is ...
Minchole A A Ana Minchole, Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QD, United Kingdom, E-mail: - - 2014
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". Objectives: This work aims at providing an efficient method to estimate the parameters of a non linear model including memory, previously proposed to characterize ...
Mirams Gary R GR Computational Biology, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QD, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Detection of drug-induced pro-arrhythmic risk is a primary concern for pharmaceutical companies and regulators. Increased risk is linked to prolongation of the QT interval on the body surface ECG. Recent studies have shown that multiple ion channel interactions can be required to predict changes in ventricular repolarisation and therefore QT ...
Clifford Gari D GD Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK. Department of Biomedical Informatics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, - - 2014
Despite the important advances achieved in the field of adult electrocardiography signal processing, the analysis of the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) remains a challenge. Currently no gold standard database exists which provides labelled FECG QRS complexes (and other morphological parameters), and publications rely either on proprietary databases or a very ...
Graesbøll K K Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksberg C, - - 2014
In 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) was introduced to both Denmark (DK) and the United Kingdom (UK). For this reason, simulation models were built to predict scenarios for future incursions. The DK and UK models have a common description of within-herd dynamics, but differ greatly in their descriptions of between-herd spread, ...
Dahirel Maxime M CNRS - Université de Rennes 1, UMR 6553 Ecosystèmes, biodiversité, évolution (ECOBIO), 35042, Rennes, - - 2014
Intra- and inter-specific differences in movement behaviour play an important role in the ecology and evolution of animals, particularly in fragmented landscapes. As a consequence of rarer and generally more fragmented habitat, and because dispersal tends to disrupt benefits brought by local adaptation, theory predicts that mobility and dispersal should ...
Dong Yucheng - - 2014
The 2-tuple linguistic modeling is a popular tool for computing with words in decision making. In order to deal with the linguistic term sets that are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed, the numerical scale model has been developed to generalize the 2-tuple linguistic modeling. In the numerical scale model, the ...
Mayo Michael M Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, - - 2014
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an evaluation method used by decision-makers to help assess the relative environmental impacts of various industrial processes. Despite that many LCA methods remain sensitive to uncertain input data, which can reduce the utility of their results, uncertainty arising from constituent LCA models remains poorly understood. ...
Lin Ray F RF a Department of Industrial Engineering and Management , Yuan Ze University , Chung-li , - - 2014
The corrective reaction time (tcr) is an essential motor property when modelling hand control movements. Many studies designed experiments to estimate tcr, but reported only group means with inconsistent definitions. This study proposes an alternative methodology using Drury's (1994) intermittent illumination model. A total of 24 participants performed circular tracking ...
Lac Andrew A Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University , Claremont, California , - - 2014
The article provides an introduction to interpreting meta-analysis in the context of synthesizing results of studies that examine the role of culture on drug use behaviors. Topics reviewed include using effect size to indicate the strength of a relationship in a primary study, combining effects in weighted models to yield ...
Harsch Melanie A MA Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington - - 2014
Abstract Life cycles can limit the abilities of species to track changing climatic conditions. We combined age or stage structure and a moving-habitat model to explore the effects of life history on the persistence of populations in the presence of climate change. We studied four dissimilar plant species in moving ...
Carcreff Ewen - - 2014
Ultrasonic inverse problems such as spike train deconvolution, synthetic aperture focusing, or tomography attempt to reconstruct spatial properties of an object (discontinuities, delaminations, flaws, etc.) from noisy and incomplete measurements. They require an accurate description of the data acquisition process. Dealing with frequency-dependent attenuation and dispersion is therefore crucial because ...
Loffredo Nicolas N Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in ...
Gu Li L Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lake of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China E-mail: zulinhua@hhu.edu.cn; National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Engineering Safety, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, - - 2014
The dispersion characteristics of braided rivers are presently unclear. The comprehensive flow structure in a physical braided river model was measured and was used to estimate its dispersion coefficient tensor. The largest values of the longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients occurred in the separation zone in two anabranches. The separation ...
Fabre Pierre-Henri - - 2014
The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still debated as morphological and molecular data disagree. ...
Carena Andrea - - 2014
The GN-model has been proposed as an approximate but sufficiently accurate tool for predicting uncompensated optical coherent transmission system performance, in realistic scenarios. For this specific use, the GN-model has enjoyed substantial validation, both simulative and experimental. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that its predictions, when used to ...
Nguyen Kiet A KA Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433, - - 2014
We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion ...
Salama Guy G University of - - 2014
Sexual dimorphism is a well-established phenomenon, but its degree varies tremendously among species. Since the early days of Einthoven's development of the three-lead galvanometer ECG, we have known there are marked differences in QT intervals of men and women. It required over a century to appreciate the profound implications of ...
Eagles Debbie - - 2014
Previous studies investigating long-distance, wind-borne dispersal of Culicoides have utilised outbreaks of clinical disease (passive surveillance) to assess the relationship between incursion and dispersal event. In this study, species of exotic Culicoides and isolates of novel bluetongue viruses, collected as part of an active arbovirus surveillance program, were used for ...
Ferber Georg G Statistik Georg Ferber GmbH, Cagliostrostrasse 14, 4125 Riehen, - - 2014
Since ICH E14 was adopted by the US FDA and the EU CPMC in 2005, thorough QT studies have routinely been analysed by looking at the time-matched difference between (baseline corrected) QTcF or QTcI under the supra-therapeutic dose and placebo. A study is considered negative, if the two-sided 90% confidence ...
Cipelletti Luca L Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C, UMR 5221 CNRS-Université Montpellier 2) , Place Eugène Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, - - 2014
Taylor dispersion analysis is an increasingly popular characterization method that measures the diffusion coefficient, and hence the hydrodynamic radius, of (bio)polymers, nanoparticles, or even small molecules. In this work, we describe an extension to current data analysis schemes that allows size polydispersity to be quantified for an arbitrary sample, thereby ...
Somerfield P J PJ Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sublittoral macrobenthic communities in the Skomer Marine Nature Reserve (SMNR), Pembrokeshire, Wales, were sampled at 10 stations in 1993, 1996, 1998, 2003, 2007 and 2009 using a Day grab and a 0.5 mm mesh. The time series is analysed using Similarities Profiles (SIMPROF) tests and associated methods. Q-mode analysis using clustering ...
Ranjard Louis L *Bioinformatics Institute, The University of Auckland, New - - 2014
Competition between organisms influences the processes governing the colonization of new habitats. As a consequence, species or populations arriving first at a suitable location may prevent secondary colonization. While adaptation to environmental variables (e.g., temperature, altitude, etc.) is essential, the presence or absence of certain species at a particular location ...
Rahman Ziyaur Z Division of Product Quality and Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, - - 2014
The objective of the present research was to study the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-based chemometric models in quantifying crystalline and amorphous tacrolimus from its sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). ASD contained ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and lactose monohydrate as carriers, and amorphous form ...
Sparve Erik E AstraZeneca R&D - - 2014
QTc interval prolongation in humans is usually predictable based on results from preclinical findings. This study confirms the signal from the preclinical cardiac repolarization models (hERG, Guinea pig MAP and dog telemetry) on the clinical effects on the QTc interval. A Thorough QT/QTc (TQT) study is generally required for bioavailable ...
Wardhana A H AH Parasitology Department, Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science (Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner), Bogor, Indonesia; Life Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, - - 2014
The Old World screwworm (OWS) fly, Chrysomya bezziana, is an obligate parasite of livestock, and the myiasis caused by its larval infestations is economically important in Indonesia. The current spatial distribution of such a pest depends on two main factors: the current environmental conditions in which it can survive; and, ...
Chao Yi-Shan YS The Experimental Forest, National Taiwan University, Nantou, Taiwan Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, - - 2014
Pteris (Pteridaceae), comprising over 250 species, had been thought to be a monophyletic genus until the three monotypic genera Neurocallis, Ochropteris and Platyzoma were included. However, the relationships between the type species of the genus Pteris, P. longifolia, and other species are still unknown. Furthermore, several infrageneric morphological classifications have ...
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