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Shaw Allison K AK Division of Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, - - 2014
Although dispersal requires context-dependent decision-making in three distinct stages (emigration, transit, immigration), these decisions are commonly ignored in simple models of dispersal. For sexually reproducing organisms, mate availability is an important factor in dispersal decisions. Difficulty finding mates can lead to an Allee effect where population growth decreases at low ...
Saito Kazuo K JMA Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1, Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) convened a small technical task team of experts to produce a set of meteorological analyses to drive atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition models (ATDMs) for the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation's assessment of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (DNPP) ...
Zhang Junqi - - 2014
An update scheme of the state probability vector of actions is critical for learning automata (LA). The most popular is the pursuit scheme that pursues the estimated optimal action and penalizes others. This paper proposes a reverse philosophy that leads to last-position elimination-based learning automata (LELA). The action graded last ...
Lin Yen Ting YT Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1020, USA, - - 2014
The selection of dispersion is a classical problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Deterministic dynamical models of two competing species differing only in their passive dispersal rates suggest that the lower mobility species has a competitive advantage in inhomogeneous environments, and that dispersion is a neutral characteristic in homogeneous environments. ...
Bejarano Adriana C AC Research Planning, Inc., 1121 Park Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29201, United - - 2014
Assessing the acute toxicity of oil has generally relied on existing toxicological data for a relatively few standard test species, which has limited the ability to estimate the impacts of spilled oil on aquatic communities. Interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models were developed for petroleum and dispersant products to facilitate the ...
Paalasmaa Joonas - - 2014
We present a method for measuring beat-to-beat heart rate from ballistocardiograms acquired with force sensors. First, a model for the heartbeat shape is adaptively inferred from the signal using hierarchical clustering. Then, beat-to-beat intervals are detected by finding positions where the heartbeat shape best fits the signal. The method was ...
Chaptini Louis L Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, - - 2014
Accurate estimation of polyp size is important because it is used to determine the surveillance interval after polypectomy. To evaluate the variation and accuracy in polyp size estimation among endoscopists and the impact on surveillance intervals after polypectomy. Web-based survey. A total of 873 members of the American Society for ...
Hladik Milan - - 2014
We study possibilistic nonlinear regression models with crisp and/or interval data. Herein, the task is to compute tight interval regression parameters such that all observed output data (either crisp or interval) are covered by the range of the nonlinear interval regression function. We propose a method for determination of interval ...
Kershenbaum Arik A Community Ecology Lab, Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Ecology and the Institute of Evolution, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, 31905, Haifa, Israel, - - 2014
When populations reside within a heterogeneous landscape, isolation by distance may not be a good predictor of genetic divergence if dispersal behaviour and therefore gene flow depend on landscape features. Commonly used approaches linking landscape features to gene flow include the least cost path (LCP), random walk (RW), and isolation ...
Shen Tsung-Jen TJ Department of Applied Mathematics and Institute of Statistics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 402, - - 2014
Unambiguous classification is a prerequisite for the study of polymorphism, but accurate delimitation of continuous morphological characters can be challenging. Finite mixture modeling is a rigorous and flexible approach for delimiting continuous variables with unknown prior membership, but its application to morphological studies remains limited. In this study, the lengths ...
de Montgolfier Fabien F 1 Laboratoire d'Informatique Algorithmique: Fondements et Applications, Univ. Paris Diderot , Paris, France - - 2014
Abstract In this article we explain how to easily compute gene clusters, formalized by classical or generalized nested common or conserved intervals, between a set of K genomes represented as K permutations. A b-nested common (resp. conserved) interval I of size |I| is either an interval of size 1 or ...
Kelkar Aniruddha V - - 2014
Brownian aggregation in concentrated hard-sphere dispersions is studied using theoretical models and Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations. Two new theoretical models are presented and compared to several existing approaches and BD simulation results which serve as benchmarks. The first new model is an improvement over an existing local density approximation (LDA) ...
Rai Tage S TS Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Los - - 2014
Moral hypocrisy is typically viewed as an ethical accusation: Someone is applying different moral standards to essentially identical cases, dishonestly claiming that one action is acceptable while otherwise equivalent actions are not. We suggest that in some instances the apparent logical inconsistency stems from different evaluations of a weak argument, ...
Sapp Stephanie - - 2014
Abstract In most experimental and observational studies, participants are not followed in continuous time. Instead, data is collected about participants only at certain monitoring times. These monitoring times are random and often participant specific. As a result, outcomes are only known up to random time intervals, resulting in interval-censored data. ...
Maulvi Furqan A - - 2014
In this study we investigated the combined influence of three independent variables in preparation of aceclofenac ternary solid dispersion (SD) by kneading method. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used. Independent variables selected were Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel 200=X1), Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-5 cps (HPMC E-5=X2), and ratio of drug to polymer mixture ...
Wren Colin D CD Department of Anthropology, McGill University, 855 Sherbrooke St. West., Montreal, QC H3A 2T7, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Increasingly sophisticated hominin cognition is assumed to play an important role in major dispersal events but it is unclear what that role is. We present an agent-based model showing that there is a close relationship between level of foresight, environmental heterogeneity, and population dispersibility. We explore the dynamics between these ...
Turpin Chantal C School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, - - 2014
Postfeeding dispersal involves migration of larvae away from their food source in order to pupate. Puparia are difficult to find, yet are important for estimating PMI, and missing puparia during collection can result in inaccurate estimations. This study investigates the late season maggot dispersal patterns for blow flies at coyote ...
Schultheiß Roland - - 2014
The formation of the East African Rift System has decisively influenced the distribution and evolution of tropical Africa's biota by altering climate conditions, by creating basins for large long-lived lakes, and by affecting the catchment and drainage directions of river systems. However, it remains unclear how rifting affected the biogeographical ...
Burgess Scott C - - 2014
Demographic connectivity is a fundamental process influencing the dynamics and persistence of spatially structured populations. Consequently, quantifying connectivity is essential for properly designing networks of protected areas so that they achieve their core ecological objective of maintaining population persistence. Recently, many empirical studies in marine systems have provided essential, and ...
Hanna Steven R - - 2014
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) short-distance dispersion model, AERMOD, has been shown to overpredict by a factor of as much as 10 when compared with observed concentrations from continuous releases at the Oak Ridge, TN (OR), and Idaho Falls, ID (IF), field experiments during stable periods when wind speeds ...
Irwin John S - - 2014
Too often operational atmospheric dispersion models are evaluated in their ability to replicate short-term concentration maxima, when in fact a valid model evaluation procedure would evaluate a model's ability to replicate ensemble-average patterns in hourly concentration values. A valid model evaluation includes two basic tasks: In Step 1 we should ...
Catizone Pietro A - - 2014
Detailed hourly precipitation data are required for long-range modeling of dispersion and wet deposition of particulate matter and water-soluble pollutants using the CALPUFF model. In sparsely populated areas such as the north central United States, ground-based precipitation measurement stations may be too widely spaced to offer a complete and accurate ...
Bejarano Adriana C AC Research Planning, Columbia, South Carolina, - - 2014
Aquatic toxicity considerations are part of the net environmental benefit analysis and approval decision process on the use of dispersants in the event of an offshore oil spill. Substantial information is available on the acute toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed oil to a diverse subset of aquatic species generated ...
Adam S P SP Computational Intelligence Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, University of Patras, GR-26110 Patras, Greece; Department of Computer Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Epirus, 47100 Arta, Greece. Electronic address: - - 2014
Determining good initial conditions for an algorithm used to train a neural network is considered a parameter estimation problem dealing with uncertainty about the initial weights. Interval analysis approaches model uncertainty in parameter estimation problems using intervals and formulating tolerance problems. Solving a tolerance problem is defining lower and upper ...
Li Bingtuan B Department of Mathematics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40059, USA, - - 2014
We study a model that describes the spatial spread of a species along a habitat gradient on which the species' growth increases. Mathematical analysis is provided to determine the spreading dynamics of the model. We demonstrate that the species may succeed or fail in local invasion depending on the species' ...
Johannesen Lars L Division of Pharmacometrics, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA, - - 2014
Thorough QT studies are typically conducted for drugs with systemic bioavailability and include a positive control, typically moxifloxacin, with a well-described QTc effect. This study tested two hypotheses: that (i) re-measuring the QT intervals based on electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern similarity improves the moxifloxacin time profile, and (ii) that study conduct ...
Alvarez-Presas M M Departament de Genètica and Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, - - 2014
The relative importance of the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity is a major and controversial topic in evolutionary biology with large implications for conservation management. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil, one of the world's richest biodiversity hot spots, is severely damaged by human activities. To formulate an efficient conservation ...
Kottas Martina - - 2014
The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, referred to as the AUC, is an appropriatemeasure for describing the overall accuracy of a diagnostic test or a biomarker in early phasetrials without having to choose a threshold. There are many approaches for estimating the confidenceinterval for the AUC. However, ...
Di Domenico M M Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør, Denmark; Laboratory of Benthic Ecology, Centre for Marine Studies, Federal University of Paraná, Brazil; University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Biological Institute, Zoological Museum "Prof. Dr. Adão José Cardoso", Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Saccocirrids are tiny, slender annelids inhabiting the interstices among coarse sand sediments in shallow waters. The 22 nominal species can be grouped into two morphological groups "papillocercus" and "krusadensis", based on the absence/presence of a pharyngeal bulbus muscle, absence/presence of ventral ciliary patterns, bilateral/unilateral gonad arrangement and chaetal differences. We ...
Torgerson Paul R PR Section of Veterinary Epidemiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The seemingly straightforward task of analysing faecal egg counts resulting from laboratory procedures such as the McMaster technique has, in reality, a number of complexities. These include Poisson errors in the counting technique which result from eggs being randomly distributed in well mixed faecal samples. In addition, counts between animals ...
Chio Chia-Pin CP Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, - - 2014
The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area ...
Castells Maria Pilar de Lara - - 2014
As a prototypical dispersion-dominated physisorption problem, we analyze here the performance of dispersionless and dispersion-accounting methodologies on the helium interaction with cluster models of the TiO<sub>2</sub>(110) surface. A special focus has been given to the dispersionless density functional dlDF and the dlDF+D<sub>as</sub> construction for the total interaction energy (K. Pernal, ...
Smith W E WE North Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Applied Ecology, Campus Box 7617, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, - - 2014
Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2·5 ...
Armani Fernando Augusto Silveira - - 2014
In this work, the authors present a statistical assessment of two atmospheric dispersion models. One of them, AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model), adopted by the US. Environmental Protection Agency, is widely used in many countries and here is taken as a baseline to assess the performance of ...
Schleuning Matthias M Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F) and Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt am Main, - - 2014
Modularity is a recurrent and important property of bipartite ecological networks. Although well-resolved ecological networks describe interaction frequencies between species pairs, modularity of bipartite networks has been analysed only on the basis of binary presence-absence data. We employ a new algorithm to detect modularity in weighted bipartite networks in a ...
Zisowsky Jochen J Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gewerbestrasse 16, 4123, Allschwil, Switzerland, - - 2014
This paper describes the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of clazosentan in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH), and the impact of collecting data in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Factors influencing data quality, analysis, and interpretation are provided with recommendations for future clinical studies in ICU settings. CONSCIOUS-2 was a phase ...
Scheiner Samuel M SM Division of Environmental Biology, National Science Foundation 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia, - - 2014
One potential evolutionary response to environmental heterogeneity is the production of randomly variable offspring through developmental instability, a type of bet-hedging. I used an individual-based, genetically explicit model to examine the evolution of developmental instability. The model considered both temporal and spatial heterogeneity alone and in combination, the effect of ...
Mehndiratta Amit A Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United - - 2014
Bolus dispersion in DSC-MRI can lead to errors in cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimation by up to 70% when using singular value decomposition analysis. However, it might be possible to correct for dispersion using two alternative methods: the vascular model (VM) and control point interpolation (CPI). Additionally, these approaches potentially ...
Schroeder Natalia M NM CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA), Mendoza, Argentina ; CONICET, GIEFAS-INIBIOMA-AUSMA-UNCo, San Martín de los Andes, Neuquén, - - 2014
Monitoring species abundance and distribution is a prerequisite when assessing species status and population viability, a difficult task to achieve for large herbivores at ecologically meaningful scales. Co-occurrence patterns can be used to infer mechanisms of community organization (such as biotic interactions), although it has been traditionally applied to binary ...
Pérez Isidro A IA Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 7, 47011 Valladolid, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper provides evidence that symmetry of CO2 concentration distribution may indicate sources or dispersive processes. Skewness was calculated by different procedures with CO2 measured at a rural site using a Picarro G1301 analyser over a two-year period. The usual skewness coefficient was considered together with fourteen robust estimators. A ...
Orenti Annalisa A Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan - - - 2014
<sec id="st1"><title>ABSTRACT</title><p><bold>The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is routinely used to estimate the unknown concentration of nucleic acids in a given solution by means of calibration. However, when outliers are present it could appear sensible to resort to robust regression methods.</bold></p><p><bold>We analyzed data from an External Quality Control program concerning ...
Agnarsson Ingi I Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America ; Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., United States of - - 2014
Biogeography models typically focus on explaining patterns through island properties, such as size, complexity, age, and isolation. Such models explain variation in the richness of island biotas. Properties of the organisms themselves, such as their size, age, and dispersal abilities, in turn may explain which organisms come to occupy, and ...
van Welzen Peter C PC Naturalis Biodiversity Center, sector Herbarium, Leiden, The Netherlands ; Institute Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, The - - 2014
Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The ...
Lam King-Yeung KY Mathematical Biosciences Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA, - - 2014
We consider a mathematical model of two competing species for the evolution of conditional dispersal in a spatially varying, but temporally constant environment. Two species are different only in their dispersal strategies, which are a combination of random dispersal and biased movement upward along the resource gradient. In the absence ...
Moshitch Dina D Dept. of Neurobiology, Silberman Institute of Life Sciences. Electronic address: - - 2014
The nature of spike count distributions is of great practical concern for the analysis of neural data. These distributions often have a tendency for 'failures' and a long tail of large counts, and may show a strong dependence of variance on the mean. Furthermore, spike count distributions often show multiplicative ...
Castro Mariela C MC División Paleontología de Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,, Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900WFA, La Plata, Argentina, - - 2014
We describe Pliodasypus vergelianus gen. et sp. nov., a Dasypodini armadillo from the middle Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation). Although scarce, the remains are remarkable because of their geochronologic proximity to the main phase of Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The cladistic analysis conducted reveals that Pliodasypus ...
Luximon Natacha N Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne, - - 2014
Models of isolation-by-distance formalize the effects of genetic drift and gene flow in a spatial context where gene dispersal is spatially limited. These models have been used to show that, at an appropriate spatial scale, dispersal parameters can be inferred from the regression of genetic differentiation against geographic distance between ...
Marzban Caren - - 2014
A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) ...
Stankowski Sean - - 2014
In island archipelagos, where islands have experienced repeated periods of fragmentation and connection through cyclic changes in sea level, complex among-island distributions might reflect historical distributional changes or local evolution. We test the relative importance of these mechanisms in an endemic radiation of Rhagada land snails in the Dampier Archipelago, ...
Castillo Jessica A JA Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, 104 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, - - 2014
Climate change is arguably the greatest challenge to conservation of our time. Most vulnerability assessments rely on past and current species distributions to predict future persistence but ignore species' abilities to disperse through landscapes, which may be particularly important in fragmented habitats and crucial for long-term persistence in changing environments. ...
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