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Treinys, Rimgaudas
In the mid-20 century, Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) was considered to be one of the most abundant species among the birds of prey in the forests of Lithuania. The estimates of the national population changed from 300.500 to 1,500.1,800 pairs in 1994 and 2005, respectively. Changes in the population ...
Pornprasertmanit Sunthud - - 2014
When planning to conduct a study, not only is it important to select a sample size that will ensure adequate statistical power, often it is important to select a sample size that results in accurate effect size estimates. In cluster-randomized designs (CRD), such planning presents special challenges. In CRD studies, ...
Kang Seung-Ho SH a Department of Applied Statistics , Yonsei University , - - 2014
SUMMARY The most widely used design for a phase III comparative study for demonstrating the biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and a renovator biological product is the equivalence trial whose aim is to show that the difference between two population means of a primary endpoint is less than a pre-specified ...
Heatherly Raymond R Department of Biomedical Informatics, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University,2525 West End Avenue, Suite 1030, Nashville, Tennessee, USA 37203. Electronic address: - - 2014
Electronic medical records (EMRs) data is increasingly incorporated into genome-phenome association studies. Investigators hope to share data, but there are concerns it may be "re-identified" through the exploitation of various features, such as combinations of standardized clinical codes. Formal anonymization algorithms (e.g., k-anonymization) can prevent such violations, but prior studies ...
Hays Graeme C GC Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Vic., 3280, Australia; Department of Biosciences, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2, 8PP, United - - 2014
Large marine protected areas (MPAs), each hundreds of thousands of square kilometers, have been set up by governments around the world over the last decade as part of efforts to reduce ocean biodiversity declines, yet their efficacy is hotly debated. The Chagos Archipelago MPA (640,000 km(2) ) (Indian Ocean) lies ...
DeLong John P JP School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA - - 2014
The parameters that drive population dynamics typically show a relationship with body size. By contrast, there is no theoretical or empirical support for a body-size dependence of mutual interference, which links foraging rates to consumer density. Here, I develop a model to predict that interference may be positively or negatively ...
Venter Oscar O Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science and the School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Cairns, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, - - 2014
Governments have agreed to expand the global protected area network from 13% to 17% of the world's land surface by 2020 (Aichi target 11) and to prevent the further loss of known threatened species (Aichi target 12). These targets are interdependent, as protected areas can stem biodiversity loss when strategically ...
Castanedo-Cázares Juan Pablo - - 2014
In Latin America, people have largely abandoned the practice of wearing hats and traditional clothing that provided skin protection. Sunscreen application has therefore become essential to protect against the increased sun exposure. The physician-prescribed medical-grade sunscreens provide sufficient sun protection but the requirement for regular use puts a financial burden ...
Herveg Jean - - 2014
The article investigates the issue of knowing whether or not the proposal for a general data protection regulation could improve the patient's safety. This has been analyzed through the four main contributions that should be expected at least from data protection to the patient's safety. In our view, data protection ...
Hansen M M Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. - - 2014
Tropek et al. critique the Hansen et al. global forest loss paper in terms of its utility and accuracy. Both criticisms suffer from a miscomprehension of the definition of forest employed as well as the requirements of product validation. Utility of the product is enhanced through its integration with forest ...
Pimm S L SL Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, USA. - - 2014
Recent studies clarify where the most vulnerable species live, where and how humanity changes the planet, and how this drives extinctions. We assess key statistics about species, their distribution, and their status. Most are undescribed. Those we know best have large geographical ranges and are often common within them. Most ...
Aguilera José J Photobiological Dermatology Laboratory, Medical Research Centre, Department of Dermatology and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaga, Boulevard Louis Pasteur s/n, E-29010, Malaga, - - 2014
Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for photoprotection against harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The standard for sun-protective clothing is based on erythema despite other biological effects of UVR on the skin. We analyzed the potential protection against UVR in fabrics destined for summer clothing based on ...
Tempkin Jeremy O B JO Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2014
Iterative procedures for optimizing properties of molecular models often converge slowly owing to the computational cost of accurately representing features of interest. Here, we introduce a preconditioning scheme that allows one to use a less expensive model to guide exploration of the energy landscape of a more expensive model and ...
Lim Jiahui N JN Department of Zoology, University of Otago, 340 Great King Street, Dunedin, 9054, New - - 2014
Interspecifically, a reasonable body of evidence supports a trade-off between offspring size and number. However, at the intra-specific level, a whole manner of phenotypic correlations between offspring size and number are observed. These correlations may be predicted when heterogeneity in resource availability, or quality, is considered. Making the assumption that ...
Thomas Anja - - 2014
Polyglycerols (sometimes also called "polyglycidols") represent a class of highly biocompatible and multihydroxy-functional polymers that may be considered as a multifunctional analogue of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Various architectures based on a polyglycerol scaffold are feasible depending on the monomer employed. While polymerization of glycidol leads to hyperbranched polyglycerols, the precisely ...
Ioannidis John P A JP Departments of Medicine, and of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine; the Department of Statistics, Stanford University School of Humanities and Sciences; and the Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS), Stanford University, Stanford, CA, - - 2014
I am greatly honored to give the commencement speech for the Department of Statistics at Berkeley. The history of statistical science is impossible to imagine without the very unique, landmark contributions of UC Berkeley scholars. In trying to decide what to talk about, I have struggled to understand why I ...
Lu Yehu Y National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China; Laboratory for Clothing Physiology and Ergonomics, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, - - 2014
The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the ...
Price Paul C - - 2014
Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the ...
Huang Xiao-Lei XL Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2014
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are a group of phloem-feeding insects numbering more than 5 000 extant species (Favret, 2014a). Most species have complex life cycles that include both asexual (viviparous parthenogenesis) and sexual reproduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Osterwalder Uli - - 2014
The use of sunscreen is embedded in a hierarchy of sun protection strategies consisting primarily of sun avoidance by seeking shade and covering up with clothing. Sunscreens are, however, important means of protection; thus, understanding how they work and knowing their limitations are crucial. This review explains the role of ...
Igamberdiev Abir U AU Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Biological evolution is analyzed as a process of continuous measurement in which biosystems interpret themselves in the environment resulting in changes of both. This leads to rescaling of internal time (heterochrony) followed by spatial reconstructions of morphology (heterotopy). The logical precondition of evolution is the incompleteness of biosystem's internal description, ...
Menard Prudy P Geriatric Medicine Department, The Ottawa Hospital , Ottawa , Canada - - 2014
Abstract The World Health Organization describes interprofessional education (IPE) and collaboration as necessary components of all health professionals' education - in curriculum and in practice. However, no standard framework exists to guide healthcare settings in developing or selecting an IPE model that meets the learning needs of licensed practitioners in ...
Wallace Susan E SE Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, - - 2014
Background: Data from individual collections, such as biobanks and cohort studies, are now being shared in order to create combined datasets which can be queried to ask complex scientific questions. But this sharing must be done with due regard for data protection principles. DataSHIELD is a new technology that queries ...
Asakura Koko K Department of Biomedical Statistics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; Office of Biostatistics and Data Management, Research and Development Initiative Center, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, - - 2014
We discuss sample size determination in group-sequential designs with two endpoints as co-primary. We derive the power and sample size within two decision-making frameworks. One is to claim the test intervention's benefit relative to control when superiority is achieved for the two endpoints at the same interim timepoint of the ...
McCafferty Kieran K Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University London, London, - - 2014
Over the last quarter of a century, a huge effort has been made to develop interventions that can minimise ischaemia reperfusion injury. The most potent of these are the ischaemic conditioning strategies, which comprise ischaemic preconditioning, remote ischaemic preconditioning and ischaemic postconditioning. While much of the focus for these interventions ...
Waples Robin S RS Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA, 98112, USA. - - 2014
In iteroparous species, it is easier to estimate Nb = effective number of breeders in one reproductive cycle than Ne = effective population size per generation. Nb can be used as a proxy for Ne and also can provide crucial insights into eco-evolutionary processes that occur during reproduction. We used ...
Collins Karl D KD Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Organisch-Chemisches Institut Corrensstrasse 40, 48149 Münster (Germany). - - 2014
An experimentally simple method has been developed to rapidly establish the stability of widely utilized silyl, acetal, and carbamate protecting groups to a given set of reaction conditions. Assessment of up to twelve protecting groups in a single experiment has been demonstrated. Evaluation of this protocol in two unrelated synthetic ...
Edgar Graham J GJ Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-49, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, - - 2014
In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as ...
Hinkel Jochen J Global Climate Forum, 10829 Berlin, - - 2014
Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four ...
Landsittel D D a Center for Research on Health Care Data Center, Division of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine , University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh , - - 2014
Few studies have proposed methods for sample size determination and specification of passing criterion (e.g., number needed to pass from a given size panel) for respirator fit-tests. One approach is to account for between- and within- subject variability, and thus take full advantage of the multiple donning measurements within subject, ...
Falk Magnus M Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Primary Care, Linköping University, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden. - - 2014
Fitzpatrick's classification is the most common way of assessing skin UV sensitivity. The study aim was to investigate how self-estimated and actual UV sensitivity, as measured by phototest, are associated with attitudes towards sunbathing and the propensity to increase sun protection, as well as the correlation between self-estimated and actual ...
Puttick Mark N MN School of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Road, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RJ, UK. - - 2014
The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative ...
Rasmussen Nick L NL Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX, - - 2014
1.Inter-annual variation in seasonal weather patterns causes shifts in the relative timing of phenological events of species within communities, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how these phenological shifts affect species interactions. Identifying these mechanisms is critical to predicting how inter-annual variation affects populations and communities. 2.Species' phenologies, ...
Christianen Marjolijn J A MJ Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, , Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, , Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Spatial Ecology Department, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), , PO Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke, The Netherlands, Community and Conservation Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies (CEES), University of Groningen, , PO Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, The Netherlands, Marine Spatial Ecology Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, , St Lucia Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia, Division of Marine Sciences and Conservation, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, , 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516-9721, USA, Research Centre for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, , Jl. Pasir Putih No. 1, Ancol Timur Jakarta Utara, - - 2014
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are key tools for combatting the global overexploitation of endangered species. The prevailing paradigm is that MPAs are beneficial in helping to restore ecosystems to more 'natural' conditions. However, MPAs may have unintended negative effects when increasing densities of protected species exert destructive effects on their ...
de Pinho Joana Roque JR Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America ; Centro de Administração e Políticas Públicas, Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, - - 2014
The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation ...
Rudolf Volker H W VH Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University, , Houston, TX 77005, - - 2014
Efforts to characterize food webs have generated two influential approaches that reduce the complexity of natural communities. The traditional approach groups individuals based on their species identity, while recently developed approaches group individuals based on their body size. While each approach has provided important insights, they have largely been used ...
O'Dea Aaron A Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, , PO Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Republic of Panama, Cofrin Center for Biodiversity, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, , Green Bay, WI 54311, USA, Institute for Tropical Ecology and Conservation, , 2911 NW 40th Place, Gainesville, FL 32605, USA, Zooarchaeology Laboratory, The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA, , Los Angeles, CA 90095-1510, - - 2014
Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human ...
Avarguès-Weber Aurore A Biological and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University London London, - - 2014
The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size ...
Hu Rongdong R School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, - - 2014
Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application's actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on ...
Vedala Krishnatej K 0000-0002-0119-6063 Center for Advanced Technology and Education, FIU College of Engineering and Computing, Room Number EC2672, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174, - - 2014
We present a study and application of quasi-stationarity of electroencephalogram for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) and an application of Chebyshev time windowing for preconditioning SSEP trials to retain the morphological characteristics of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). This preconditioning was followed by the application of a principal component analysis (PCA)-based algorithm ...
Ryskin Rachel A RA Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, United States of - - 2014
Seven experiments use large sample sizes to robustly estimate the effect size of a previous finding that adults are more likely to commit egocentric errors in a false-belief task when the egocentric response is plausible in light of their prior knowledge. We estimate the true effect size to be less ...
Zhang Jianliang J College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, - - 2014
Anthropogenic landscape alteration is rather common in many protected areas (PAs), jeopardizing the efficacy of PAs conservation. However, the general consensus is that PAs still remain effective in habitat conservation. To assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation, we examined landscape alterations in the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR), which was ...
Pfeiffer Klaus K Section for Medical Information Management and Imaging, Center for Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Intelligent Systems, Medical University of - - 2014
The goal of this study was to examine whether Schematron schemas can be generated from archetypes. The openEHR Java reference API was used to transform an archetype into an object model, which was then extended with context elements. The model was processed and the constraints were transformed into corresponding Schematron ...
Liu Hailun H 0000-0003-0343-1749 School of Computer & Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China ; Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Information Science and Network Technology, Beijing 100044, - - 2014
Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection ...
Gottesman William L WL Computational Story Lab, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of - - 2014
Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, ...
Halasa Tariq T Section of Epidemiology, the National Veterinary Institutes, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, - - 2014
The objectives of this study were to assess whether current surveillance capacity is sufficient to fulfill EU and Danish regulations to control a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in Denmark, and whether enlarging the protection and/or surveillance zones could minimize economic losses. The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was further ...
Allen Richard M RM School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, - - 2014
The optimal balance of reproductive effort between offspring size and number depends on the fitness of offspring size in a particular environment. The variable environments offspring experience, both among and within life-history stages, are likely to alter the offspring size/fitness relationship and favor different offspring sizes. Hence, the many environments ...
Tautz Diethard D Diethard Tautz is an eLife reviewing editor, and is at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Plön, Germany - - 2014
Comparing the anatomies of more than 100 different species of ants reveals that worker ants have enlarged necks, not seen in queens, that allow them to lift and carry objects many times heavier than themselves.
Crespin Silvio J SJ Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile, - - 2013
Nations with little remaining natural habitat and small extent are challenged when trying to achieve biodiversity targets. We show that the Central American nation of El Salvador cannot viably sustain populations of 87 % of its extant carnivores, especially in the case of large-bodied species with low population densities. Current land-sparing ...
Meyer Andreas L S AL Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; Laboratório de Dinâmica Evolutiva e Sistemas Complexos, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, - - 2013
Understanding how biodiversity will respond to climate change is a major challenge in conservation science. Climatic changes are likely to impose serious threats to many organisms, especially those with narrow distribution ranges, small populations and low dispersal capacity. Lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) are endangered primates endemic to Brazilian Atlantic Forest ...
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