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Treinys, Rimgaudas
In the mid-20 century, Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) was considered to be one of the most abundant species among the birds of prey in the forests of Lithuania. The estimates of the national population changed from 300.500 to 1,500.1,800 pairs in 1994 and 2005, respectively. Changes in the population ...
Huang Xiao-Lei XL Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2014
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are a group of phloem-feeding insects numbering more than 5 000 extant species (Favret, 2014a). Most species have complex life cycles that include both asexual (viviparous parthenogenesis) and sexual reproduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Osterwalder Uli - - 2014
The use of sunscreen is embedded in a hierarchy of sun protection strategies consisting primarily of sun avoidance by seeking shade and covering up with clothing. Sunscreens are, however, important means of protection; thus, understanding how they work and knowing their limitations are crucial. This review explains the role of ...
Igamberdiev Abir U AU Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Biological evolution is analyzed as a process of continuous measurement in which biosystems interpret themselves in the environment resulting in changes of both. This leads to rescaling of internal time (heterochrony) followed by spatial reconstructions of morphology (heterotopy). The logical precondition of evolution is the incompleteness of biosystem's internal description, ...
Menard Prudy P Geriatric Medicine Department, The Ottawa Hospital , Ottawa , Canada - - 2014
Abstract The World Health Organization describes interprofessional education (IPE) and collaboration as necessary components of all health professionals' education - in curriculum and in practice. However, no standard framework exists to guide healthcare settings in developing or selecting an IPE model that meets the learning needs of licensed practitioners in ...
Wallace Susan E SE Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, - - 2014
Background: Data from individual collections, such as biobanks and cohort studies, are now being shared in order to create combined datasets which can be queried to ask complex scientific questions. But this sharing must be done with due regard for data protection principles. DataSHIELD is a new technology that queries ...
Asakura Koko K Department of Biomedical Statistics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; Office of Biostatistics and Data Management, Research and Development Initiative Center, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, - - 2014
We discuss sample size determination in group-sequential designs with two endpoints as co-primary. We derive the power and sample size within two decision-making frameworks. One is to claim the test intervention's benefit relative to control when superiority is achieved for the two endpoints at the same interim timepoint of the ...
McCafferty Kieran K Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University London, London, - - 2014
Over the last quarter of a century, a huge effort has been made to develop interventions that can minimise ischaemia reperfusion injury. The most potent of these are the ischaemic conditioning strategies, which comprise ischaemic preconditioning, remote ischaemic preconditioning and ischaemic postconditioning. While much of the focus for these interventions ...
Waples Robin S RS Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA, 98112, USA. - - 2014
In iteroparous species, it is easier to estimate Nb = effective number of breeders in one reproductive cycle than Ne = effective population size per generation. Nb can be used as a proxy for Ne and also can provide crucial insights into eco-evolutionary processes that occur during reproduction. We used ...
Collins Karl D KD Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Organisch-Chemisches Institut Corrensstrasse 40, 48149 Münster (Germany). - - 2014
An experimentally simple method has been developed to rapidly establish the stability of widely utilized silyl, acetal, and carbamate protecting groups to a given set of reaction conditions. Assessment of up to twelve protecting groups in a single experiment has been demonstrated. Evaluation of this protocol in two unrelated synthetic ...
Edgar Graham J GJ Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-49, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, - - 2014
In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as ...
Hinkel Jochen J Global Climate Forum, 10829 Berlin, - - 2014
Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four ...
Landsittel D D a Center for Research on Health Care Data Center, Division of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine , University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh , - - 2014
Few studies have proposed methods for sample size determination and specification of passing criterion (e.g., number needed to pass from a given size panel) for respirator fit-tests. One approach is to account for between- and within- subject variability, and thus take full advantage of the multiple donning measurements within subject, ...
Falk Magnus M Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Primary Care, Linköping University, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden. - - 2014
Fitzpatrick's classification is the most common way of assessing skin UV sensitivity. The study aim was to investigate how self-estimated and actual UV sensitivity, as measured by phototest, are associated with attitudes towards sunbathing and the propensity to increase sun protection, as well as the correlation between self-estimated and actual ...
Puttick Mark N MN School of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Road, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RJ, UK. - - 2014
The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative ...
Rasmussen Nick L NL Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX, - - 2014
1.Inter-annual variation in seasonal weather patterns causes shifts in the relative timing of phenological events of species within communities, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how these phenological shifts affect species interactions. Identifying these mechanisms is critical to predicting how inter-annual variation affects populations and communities. 2.Species' phenologies, ...
Christianen Marjolijn J A MJ Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, , Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, , Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Spatial Ecology Department, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), , PO Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke, The Netherlands, Community and Conservation Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies (CEES), University of Groningen, , PO Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, The Netherlands, Marine Spatial Ecology Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, , St Lucia Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia, Division of Marine Sciences and Conservation, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, , 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516-9721, USA, Research Centre for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, , Jl. Pasir Putih No. 1, Ancol Timur Jakarta Utara, - - 2014
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are key tools for combatting the global overexploitation of endangered species. The prevailing paradigm is that MPAs are beneficial in helping to restore ecosystems to more 'natural' conditions. However, MPAs may have unintended negative effects when increasing densities of protected species exert destructive effects on their ...
Tautz Diethard D Diethard Tautz is an eLife reviewing editor, and is at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Plön, Germany - - 2014
Comparing the anatomies of more than 100 different species of ants reveals that worker ants have enlarged necks, not seen in queens, that allow them to lift and carry objects many times heavier than themselves.
de Pinho Joana Roque JR Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America ; Centro de Administração e Políticas Públicas, Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, - - 2014
The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation ...
Rudolf Volker H W VH Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University, , Houston, TX 77005, - - 2014
Efforts to characterize food webs have generated two influential approaches that reduce the complexity of natural communities. The traditional approach groups individuals based on their species identity, while recently developed approaches group individuals based on their body size. While each approach has provided important insights, they have largely been used ...
O'Dea Aaron A Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, , PO Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Republic of Panama, Cofrin Center for Biodiversity, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, , Green Bay, WI 54311, USA, Institute for Tropical Ecology and Conservation, , 2911 NW 40th Place, Gainesville, FL 32605, USA, Zooarchaeology Laboratory, The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA, , Los Angeles, CA 90095-1510, - - 2014
Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human ...
Avarguès-Weber Aurore A Biological and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University London London, - - 2014
The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size ...
Hu Rongdong R School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, - - 2014
Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application's actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on ...
Vedala Krishnatej K 0000-0002-0119-6063 Center for Advanced Technology and Education, FIU College of Engineering and Computing, Room Number EC2672, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174, - - 2014
We present a study and application of quasi-stationarity of electroencephalogram for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) and an application of Chebyshev time windowing for preconditioning SSEP trials to retain the morphological characteristics of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). This preconditioning was followed by the application of a principal component analysis (PCA)-based algorithm ...
Ryskin Rachel A RA Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, United States of - - 2014
Seven experiments use large sample sizes to robustly estimate the effect size of a previous finding that adults are more likely to commit egocentric errors in a false-belief task when the egocentric response is plausible in light of their prior knowledge. We estimate the true effect size to be less ...
Zhang Jianliang J College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, - - 2014
Anthropogenic landscape alteration is rather common in many protected areas (PAs), jeopardizing the efficacy of PAs conservation. However, the general consensus is that PAs still remain effective in habitat conservation. To assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation, we examined landscape alterations in the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR), which was ...
Crespin Silvio J SJ Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile, - - 2013
Nations with little remaining natural habitat and small extent are challenged when trying to achieve biodiversity targets. We show that the Central American nation of El Salvador cannot viably sustain populations of 87 % of its extant carnivores, especially in the case of large-bodied species with low population densities. Current land-sparing ...
Meyer Andreas L S AL Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; Laboratório de Dinâmica Evolutiva e Sistemas Complexos, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, - - 2013
Understanding how biodiversity will respond to climate change is a major challenge in conservation science. Climatic changes are likely to impose serious threats to many organisms, especially those with narrow distribution ranges, small populations and low dispersal capacity. Lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) are endangered primates endemic to Brazilian Atlantic Forest ...
Courtecuisse Hadrien H ICube / AVR, CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Institute of Mechanics and Advanced Materials, Cardiff University, UK; SHACRA Project, INRIA, France. Electronic address: - - 2013
This paper presents a numerical method for interactive (real-time) simulations, which considerably improves the accuracy of the response of heterogeneous soft-tissue models undergoing contact, cutting and other topological changes. We provide an integrated methodology able to deal both with the ill-conditioning issues associated with material heterogeneities, contact boundary conditions which ...
Opermanis Otars - - 2013
Protected areas are designated to protect species and other features known to be present at the time of designation, but over time the information about the presence of protected species may change and this should call for a continued review of conservation objectives. Published scientific literature is one of the ...
Shchekinova Elena Y - - 2013
Explaining the coexistence of multiple species in the competition and predation theatre has proven a great challenge. Traditional intraguild predation (IGP) models have only relatively small regions of stable coexistence of all species. Here, we investigated potential additional mechanisms that extend these regions of stable coexistence. We used a 3-species ...
Rengasamy Samy - - 2013
ABSTRACT Respiratory protection provided by a particulate respirator is a function of particle penetration through filter media and through faceseal leakage. Faceseal leakage largely contributes to the penetration of particles through respirator and compromises protection. When faceseal leaks arise, filter penetration is assumed to be negligible. The contribution of filter ...
Macfarlane Ewan - - 2013
To investigate the relationships between occupational, workplace, and demographic factors and the provision of multilevel exposure protection systems. Respondents reporting dermal chemical exposure at work were asked about protective measures provided to them in the workplace, which we classified as personal protection or awareness measures. An ordered logistic model was ...
Garcia-Alonso Monica - - 2013
Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval ...
Dons Evi - - 2013
Because people tend to move from one place to another during the day, their exposure to air pollution will be determined by the concentration at each location combined with the exposure encountered in transport. In order to estimate the exposure of individuals in a population more accurately, the activity-based modeling ...
Gomes R S - - 2013
Radiation sources have being widely used in industrial applications, but their inappropriate use presents a large potential for hazards to human health and the environment. These hazards can be minimised by development of specific radiation protection rules and adequate procedures for the handling, use and storage of radiation sources, which ...
Grasset O - - 2013
Abstract In this paper, we provide a detailed review of Ganymede's characteristics that are germane to any consideration of its planetary protection requirements. Ganymede is the largest moon in our solar system and is the subject of one of the main science objectives of the JUICE mission to the jovian ...
Takashina Nao - - 2013
Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show ...
Chen Xiaoqiu - - 2013
This work was undertaken to examine the combined effect of air temperature and precipitation during late winter and early spring on modeling greenup date of grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. We used the traditional thermal time model and developed two revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and ...
Luiz Osmar J - - 2013
Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult ...
Berardozzi Roberto - - 2013
Pseudocontact shifts (PCS) contain a wealth of geometric information, which makes paramagnetic NMR one of the best methods for accurate geometric determinations in solution. It is well-known that PCS are intrinsically linked to Fermi contact (FC) shifts, and the separation of the two terms is achieved through linearization methods, which ...
Omonona O V - - 2013
Groundwater quality of Enugu metropolis comprising Achara Layout, Abakpa, and Emene settlement areas has been studied and characterized using multivariate statistical techniques. Three principal components (PCs) which explain 77.93 and 88.17 % were extracted at Achara Layout and Abakpa, respectively, while two PCs which explain 83.13 % were extracted at Emene. PC ...
Teichmann Jan - - 2013
An experience-based aversive learning model of foraging behaviour in uncertain environments is presented. We use Q-learning as a model-free implementation of Temporal Difference learning motivated by growing evidence for neural correlates in natural reinforcement settings. The predator has the choice of including an aposematic prey in its diet or to ...
Shim T N - - 2013
We welcome the paper by Al-Niaimi and Lyon(1) describing peri urostomal lichen sclerosus (LSc). Their findings further bolster the theory that has been promulgated by CBB for the last decade that genital LSc is due to occluded exposure of susceptible epithelium to urine. This article is protected by copyright. All ...
Reed Sarah E - - 2013
Effective conservation of biological diversity on private lands will require changes in land-use policy and development practice. Conservation development (CD) is an alternative form of residential development in which homes are built on smaller lots and clustered together and the remainder of the property is permanently protected for conservation purposes. ...
Carneiro Aristides P - - 2013
Biorefining processes using ionic liquids (ILs) require proper solubility data of biomass-based compounds in ILs, as well as an appropriate thermodynamic approach for the modeling of such data. Carbohydrates and their derivatives such as sugar alcohols represent a class of compounds that could play an important role in biorefining. Thus, ...
Guo Qing - - 2013
Anecdotal evidence suggests that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies rarely consider statistical power when setting a sample size. This raises concerns since undersized studies may fail to detect effects of interest and encourage data dredging. Although sample size methodology in this field exists, implementation requires specifications of estimated effect ...
Koch Felix Peter Vinzenz - - 2013
We describe a new synthetic approach to regioregular monodisperse oligo(3-alkylthiophene)s allowing for simple separation of regioregular material in gram quantities. The number of repeat units follows the Fibonacci numbers up to a length of 21. A small adaption of this approach, introduction of a protection group is used to synthesize ...
Martínez-Freiría Fernando - - 2013
The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected ...
Cerda Claudia - - 2013
We conduct a valuation of species protection in central Chile's Campana National Park (CNP) using the choice experiment (CE) method. The CNP has been recognized as having global relevance for the conservation of biological diversity. Specifically, the aim is to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of park visitors for ...
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