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Dunstone Nick J NJ Hadley Centre, Met Office, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK - - 2014
Here, I examine some of the many varied ways in which sustained global ocean observations are used in numerical modelling activities. In particular, I focus on the use of ocean observations to initialize predictions in ocean and climate models. Examples are also shown of how models can be used to ...
Ma Jun - - 2014
Short-term synaptic facilitation occurs during high frequency stimulation, is known to be dependent on presynaptic calcium ions, and persists for tens of milliseconds after a presynaptic action potential. We have used the frog neuromuscular junction as a model synapse for both experimental and computer simulation studies aimed at testing various ...
De Luca Carlo J CJ Boston University - - 2014
Over the past four decades, various methods have been implemented to measure synchronization of motor unit firings. In this work we provide evidence that prior reports of the existence of universal common inputs to all motoneurons and the presence of long-term synchronization are misleading because they did not use sufficiently ...
Mou Weimin W University of Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
This project examined the roles of idiothetic cues due to individuals' movement and allothetic cues independent of individuals' movement in individuals' estimations of their position and heading during locomotion. In an immersive virtual environment, participants learned the locations of five objects and then moved along two legs of a path ...
Schwantes C R CR Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2014
Molecular dynamics simulations have the potential to provide atomic-level detail and insight to important questions in chemical physics that cannot be observed in typical experiments. However, simply generating a long trajectory is insufficient, as researchers must be able to transform the data in a simulation trajectory into specific scientific insights. ...
Fowler Sarah S Sarah Fowler, BSc, RN, Research Nurse, Bristol Urological Institute, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom. Helen Godfrey, PhD, RN, Principal Lecturer, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, University of West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom. Mandy Fader, PhD, RN, Professor of Continence Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom. Anthony Gerard Timoney, MCh, FRCSEd, FRCSI, Consultant Urological Surgeon, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom. Adele Long, MBA, MPhil, BSc, Director of BUI Biomed, Bristol Urological Institute, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of long-term catheter users within a heterogeneous population. The sample comprised 27 community-dwelling long-term catheter users. Participants included 14 female users (4 urethral, 10 suprapubic catheter) and 13 male users (6 urethral, 7 suprapubic) between 22 and 96 years of ...
- - 2014
Reports an error in "Investigating inter-individual differences in short-term intra-individual variability" by Lijuan (Peggy) Wang, Ellen Hamaker and C. S. Bergeman (Psychological Methods, 2012[Dec], Vol 17[4], 567-581). There was a mistake in the code of the appendix. The correct Appendix is provided in the erratum. Additionally, page 575 of the ...
Chatterjee Krishnendu K IST Austria, Klosterneuburg, - - 2014
A fundamental question in biology is the following: what is the time scale that is needed for evolutionary innovations? There are many results that characterize single steps in terms of the fixation time of new mutants arising in populations of certain size and structure. But here we ask a different ...
Sirkka Marianne M Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology , Luleå , - - 2014
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe how long-term improvement work based on the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) evolved in an occupational therapy unit. Method: Data included written documents related to the improvement work (435 pages in total) from 2001 to 2013 that ...
García-Algarra Javier J Complex System Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, - - 2014
Mutualistic communities have an internal structure that makes them resilient to external perturbations. Late research has focused on their stability and the topology of the relations between the different organisms to explain the reasons of the system robustness. Much less attention has been invested in analyzing the systems dynamics. The ...
Seidler Renee G RG Wildlife Conservation Society, North America Program, Teton Field Office, P.O. Box 936, Driggs, ID 83422, U.S.A.. - - 2014
In much of the world, the persistence of long-distance migrations by mammals is threatened by development. Even where human population density is relatively low, there are roads, fencing, and energy development that present barriers to animal movement. If we are to conserve species that rely on long-distance migration, then it ...
Gargallo Raimundo R Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
A mathematical procedure is proposed for the analysis of multivariate data recorded during spectroscopically-monitored melting experiments of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins. The method is based on the hard/soft hybrid modelling, in which part of the observed variance is explained in terms of a physicochemical model (hard modelling), ...
Petersen Brenden K - - 2014
BackgroundCurrently, most biomedical models exist in isolation. It is often difficult to reuse or integrate models or their components, in part because they are not modular. Modular components allow the modeler to think more deeply about the role of the model and to more completely address a modeling project¿s requirements. ...
Zhang X L XL Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR - - 2014
Atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in nuclear power plant accident management. A reliable estimation of radioactive material distribution in short range (about 50km) is in urgent need for population sheltering and evacuation planning. However, the meteorological data and the source term which greatly influence the accuracy of the ...
Cáceres Manuel O MO Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro and CONICET, 8400 Bariloche, - - 2014
This study proposes a delay-coupled system based on the logistic equation that models the interaction of a population with its varying environment. The integro-diferential equations of the model are presented in terms of a distributed time-delayed coupled logistic-capacity equation. The model eliminates the need for a prior knowledge of the ...
Negi Poonam P UGC Centre of Advanced Studies, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University , Chandigarh , India - - 2014
Abstract Topical delivery of local anesthetics has been an area of interest for researchers considering the barrier properties of skin and unfavorable physicochemical properties of drugs. In the present study, efforts have been made to modify the in vivo efficacy of eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine by exploiting the ...
Biswas Nikhil N Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, - - 2014
The purpose of the study was to develop and internally validate a non linear in vitro- in vivo correlation model for a chronotherapeutically programmed HPMC based propranolol HCl (PHCl) mini-tablet. A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the determination of PHCl content in rabbit plasma. The influence of ...
Gardner Benjamin B a Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health , University College London , Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT , - - 2014
The term 'habit' is widely used to predict and explain behaviour. This paper examines use of the term in the context of health-related behaviour, and explores how the concept might be made more useful. A narrative review is presented, drawing on a scoping review of 136 empirical studies and 8 ...
Alonso Diego D 0000-0002-4629-3975 División de Sistemas e Ingeniería Electrónica (DSIE), Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena, - - 2014
The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development ...
Bouzid Maha M Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. - - 2014
Dengue fever is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue transmission is critically dependent on climatic factors and there is much concern as to whether climate change would spread the disease to areas currently unaffected. The occurrence of autochthonous infections in Croatia and France in 2010 has raised concerns ...
Rachmawati Ramya R School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia ; Mathematics Department Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Bengkulu, Bengkulu, - - 2014
Developments in meteorology over the last couple of decades have enabled significant improvements to be made in the accuracy of seasonal forecasts. This paper focuses on developing a model for cash crop planning that utilises these forecasts. It does this by determining the rate of growth of each crop as ...
Fan Mengyuan M Department of Computer Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117417, NUS Graduate School of Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456, National Research Foundation, Singapore 138602, Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599 and Department of Pathology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119074 Department of Computer Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117417, NUS Graduate School of Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456, National Research Foundation, Singapore 138602, Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599 and Department of Pathology, National University of Singapore, Singapore - - 2014
Although semantic similarity in Gene Ontology (GO) and other approaches may be used to find similar GO terms, there is yet a method to systematically find a class of GO terms sharing a common property with high accuracy (e.g. involving human curation). We have developed a methodology to address this ...
Swingle Brian B Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, - - 2013
We compute the entanglement entropy of a wide class of models that may be characterized as describing matter coupled to gauge fields. Our principle result is an entanglement sum rule that states that the entropy of the full system is the sum of the entropies of the two components. In ...
Anemaet Evelyn R ER Five Rivers Services, Inc., 700 Cajundome Boulevard, Lafayette, Louisiana 70506 - - 2013
• Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how ...
Wang Yanfeng Y School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, New Territories, Hong Kong, - - 2013
Sublingual administration of certain buffered propranolol may improve the rate and extent of absorption compared to oral administration. The main objectives of this study were to (1) compare the plasma propranolol concentrations (Cp-prop) following sublingual administration of a specially buffered formulation (Promptol™) to that following oral administration of Inderal(®) and ...
Hamakawa Hiroshi - - 2013
Forced oscillation techniques (FOTs) using sine curved oscillatory waves are used for assessing the lung periphery, but measure only overall respiratory mechanics. Therefore, mathematical models of the respiratory system serve as vehicles to obtain detailed mechanics. Although the simplest model of respiratory mechanics is a simple 3-element series (RIC) model, ...
MacFadden Lisa N - - 2012
This article presents a model-based method for predicting primary blast injury. On the basis of the normalized work injury mechanism from previous work, this method presents a new model that accounts for the effects of blast orientation and species difference. The analysis used test data from a series of extensive ...
Ansari Nadeem A - - 2012
High throughput technologies enable researchers to measure expression levels on a genomic scale. However, the correct and efficient biological interpretation of such voluminous data remains a challenging problem. Many tools have been developed for the analysis of GO terms that are over- or under-represented in a list of differentially expressed ...
Claret L - - 2012
Simulations were performed for carboplatin/paclitaxel (C/P) plus motesanib or bevacizumab vs. C/P as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a published drug-disease model. With 700 patients in each arm, simulated hazard ratios for motesanib (0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.1) and bevacizumab (0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.1) agreed ...
Upton Richard N - - 2012
Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data were available from a study of a nasal delivery system for the opioid analgesic fentanyl, together with data on the kinetics of fentanyl in arterial blood in man, and in the lung and brain of sheep. Our aim was to reconcile these data using ...
Patel Brijeshkumar - - 2012
Development of lung models for testing a drug substance or delivery system has been an intensive area of research. While in vitro lung models, developed and fine-tuned over the past few decades, were instrumental for the development of many commercially available drugs, they are suboptimal in reproducing physiological microenvironment and ...
Aveling Emma-Louise - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Peer review offers a promising way of promoting improvement in health systems, but the optimal model is not yet clear. We aimed to describe a specific peer review model-reciprocal peer-to-peer review (RP2PR)-to identify the features that appeared to support optimal functioning. METHODS: We conducted an ethnographic study involving observations, ...
Ong Hui Xin - - 2012
PURPOSE: Liposomal ciprofloxacin nanoparticles were developed to overcome the rapid clearance of antibiotics from the lungs. The formulation was evaluated for its release profile using an air interface Calu-3 cell model and further characterised for aerosol performance and antimicrobial activity. METHODS: Liposomal and free ciprofloxacin formulations were nebulised directly onto ...
Zhang Yang - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Controversy remains over the routine use of mediastinoscopy or positron emission tomography in T1 non-small cell lung cancer without lymph node enlargement on computed tomography because the risk of N2 involvement is comparatively low. We aimed to develop a prediction model for N2 disease in cT1N0 non-small cell lung ...
Menn Petra - - 2012
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. It has serious health effects and causes substantial costs for society. Objectives: The aim of the present paper was to develop a state-of-the-art decision-analytic model of COPD whereby the cost effectiveness of interventions in Germany ...
Armero C - - 2012
Bayesian reasoning, survival analysis and multi-state models are used to assess survival times for Stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer patients and the evolution of the disease over time. Bayesian estimation is done using minimum informative priors for the Weibull regression survival model, leading to an automatic inferential procedure. Markov chain ...
Mitchell Jennine H - - 2012
Asthma is typically characterised by increased ventilation heterogeneity. This can be directly inferred from the visualisation of ventilation defects in imaging studies, or indirectly inferred from indices derived from the multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW). The basis for the understanding of the MBNW indices and their implication for changes in structure ...
Avtandilashvili Maia - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries' tissue donors 0202 and 0407 are the two most highly exposed of the 18 registrants who were involved in the 1965 plutonium fire accident at a defense nuclear facility. Material released during the fire was well characterized as "high fired" refractory plutonium dioxide ...
Mahdi Rami - - 2012
Computational inference methods that make use of graphical models to extract regulatory networks from gene expression data can have difficulty reconstructing dense regions of a network, a consequence of both computational complexity and unreliable parameter estimation when sample size is small. As a result, identification of hub genes is of ...
Ma Baoshun - - 2012
The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of ...
Zhao T - - 2012
Purpose: to develop a non-invasive method to track lung motion in free-breathing patients. Methods: A free-breathing breathing model has been developed to use tidal volume and air flow rate as surrogates for lung trajectories. In this study, 4D CT data sets were acquired during simulation and were reconstructed into 10 ...
Oh J - - 2012
Purpose: Early prediction of radiation pneumonitis (RP) could help physicians provide locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at high risk of RP with targeted radiotherapy. To date, several RP predictive models have been developed using statistical methods and machine learning techniques. We designed an improved risk model for ...
Vinogradskiy Y - - 2012
Purpose: An exciting form of ventilation imaging is being developed based on 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) data. Because 4DCTs are routine for thoracic radiation therapy, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCT data does not add extra dosimetric or monetary cost. Studies have discussed designing treatment plans to avoid highly-ventilated areas of ...
Serratore D - - 2012
Purpose: To quantify the movements of non-small cell lung nodules using 4D cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) that is automatically registered with planning CT, and to develop a mathematical model to predict the motion trajectory. Modeling the tumor motion may reduce the PTV and ultimately increase the therapeutic ratio. Methods: Absolute ...
Li Z - - 2012
Purpose: To develop patient-specific lung biomechanical models for simulating lung deformation and predicting the tumor motion position during radiation therapy. Methods: A FEA/CFD (Finite Element Analysis/Computational Fluid Dynamic) model is built to simulate the deformation of the lung. The lung is assumed to behave as a poro-elastic medium with uniform ...
Wala J - - 2012
Purpose: To describe a method for producing minimal delivery time partial arc VMAT plans. Methods: We begin with the assumption that dose quality is the primary treatment planning goal. Therefore the first step in the partial arc computation is a 180 beam equi-spaced IMRT multi-criteria optimized treatment plan, which serves ...
Cui Y - - 2012
Purpose: To quantify variations in target and normal structure contouring and evaluate dosimetric impact of these variations on conformal radiotherapy plans in non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) cases.Methods: Two NSCLC cases were distributed and highly conformal radiotherapy plans generated by multiple institutions as a pre-clinical trial planning study for RTOG protocol 1106 ...
Henry F S - - 2012
We present a new one-dimensional model of gas transport in the human adult lung. The model comprises asymmetrically branching airways, and heterogeneous interregional ventilation. Our model differs from previous models in that we consider the asymmetry in both the conducting and the acinar airways in detail. Another novelty of our ...
Li Jianyi - - 2012
Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical ...
Heidenreich W F - - 2012
The biologically based two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model is used to analyze lung cancer mortality of European miners from the Czech Republic, France, and Germany. All three cohorts indicate a highly significant action of exposure to radon and its progeny on promotion. The action on initiation is not significant in ...
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