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Dunstone Nick J NJ Hadley Centre, Met Office, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK - - 2014
Here, I examine some of the many varied ways in which sustained global ocean observations are used in numerical modelling activities. In particular, I focus on the use of ocean observations to initialize predictions in ocean and climate models. Examples are also shown of how models can be used to ...
Sirkka Marianne M Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology , Luleå , - - 2014
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe how long-term improvement work based on the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) evolved in an occupational therapy unit. Method: Data included written documents related to the improvement work (435 pages in total) from 2001 to 2013 that ...
Seidler Renee G RG Wildlife Conservation Society, North America Program, Teton Field Office, P.O. Box 936, Driggs, ID 83422, U.S.A.. - - 2014
In much of the world, the persistence of long-distance migrations by mammals is threatened by development. Even where human population density is relatively low, there are roads, fencing, and energy development that present barriers to animal movement. If we are to conserve species that rely on long-distance migration, then it ...
Gargallo Raimundo R Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
A mathematical procedure is proposed for the analysis of multivariate data recorded during spectroscopically-monitored melting experiments of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins. The method is based on the hard/soft hybrid modelling, in which part of the observed variance is explained in terms of a physicochemical model (hard modelling), ...
Petersen Brenden K - - 2014
BackgroundCurrently, most biomedical models exist in isolation. It is often difficult to reuse or integrate models or their components, in part because they are not modular. Modular components allow the modeler to think more deeply about the role of the model and to more completely address a modeling project¿s requirements. ...
Zhang X L XL Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR - - 2014
Atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in nuclear power plant accident management. A reliable estimation of radioactive material distribution in short range (about 50km) is in urgent need for population sheltering and evacuation planning. However, the meteorological data and the source term which greatly influence the accuracy of the ...
Negi Poonam P UGC Centre of Advanced Studies, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University , Chandigarh , India - - 2014
Abstract Topical delivery of local anesthetics has been an area of interest for researchers considering the barrier properties of skin and unfavorable physicochemical properties of drugs. In the present study, efforts have been made to modify the in vivo efficacy of eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine by exploiting the ...
Biswas Nikhil N Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, - - 2014
The purpose of the study was to develop and internally validate a non linear in vitro- in vivo correlation model for a chronotherapeutically programmed HPMC based propranolol HCl (PHCl) mini-tablet. A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the determination of PHCl content in rabbit plasma. The influence of ...
Alonso Diego D 0000-0002-4629-3975 División de Sistemas e Ingeniería Electrónica (DSIE), Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena, - - 2014
The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development ...
Bouzid Maha M Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. - - 2014
Dengue fever is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue transmission is critically dependent on climatic factors and there is much concern as to whether climate change would spread the disease to areas currently unaffected. The occurrence of autochthonous infections in Croatia and France in 2010 has raised concerns ...
Swingle Brian B Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, - - 2013
We compute the entanglement entropy of a wide class of models that may be characterized as describing matter coupled to gauge fields. Our principle result is an entanglement sum rule that states that the entropy of the full system is the sum of the entropies of the two components. In ...
Wang Yanfeng Y School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, New Territories, Hong Kong, - - 2013
Sublingual administration of certain buffered propranolol may improve the rate and extent of absorption compared to oral administration. The main objectives of this study were to (1) compare the plasma propranolol concentrations (Cp-prop) following sublingual administration of a specially buffered formulation (Promptol™) to that following oral administration of Inderal(®) and ...
Hamakawa Hiroshi - - 2013
Forced oscillation techniques (FOTs) using sine curved oscillatory waves are used for assessing the lung periphery, but measure only overall respiratory mechanics. Therefore, mathematical models of the respiratory system serve as vehicles to obtain detailed mechanics. Although the simplest model of respiratory mechanics is a simple 3-element series (RIC) model, ...
MacFadden Lisa N - - 2012
This article presents a model-based method for predicting primary blast injury. On the basis of the normalized work injury mechanism from previous work, this method presents a new model that accounts for the effects of blast orientation and species difference. The analysis used test data from a series of extensive ...
Ansari Nadeem A - - 2012
High throughput technologies enable researchers to measure expression levels on a genomic scale. However, the correct and efficient biological interpretation of such voluminous data remains a challenging problem. Many tools have been developed for the analysis of GO terms that are over- or under-represented in a list of differentially expressed ...
Claret L - - 2012
Simulations were performed for carboplatin/paclitaxel (C/P) plus motesanib or bevacizumab vs. C/P as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a published drug-disease model. With 700 patients in each arm, simulated hazard ratios for motesanib (0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.1) and bevacizumab (0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.1) agreed ...
Upton Richard N - - 2012
Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data were available from a study of a nasal delivery system for the opioid analgesic fentanyl, together with data on the kinetics of fentanyl in arterial blood in man, and in the lung and brain of sheep. Our aim was to reconcile these data using ...
Patel Brijeshkumar - - 2012
Development of lung models for testing a drug substance or delivery system has been an intensive area of research. While in vitro lung models, developed and fine-tuned over the past few decades, were instrumental for the development of many commercially available drugs, they are suboptimal in reproducing physiological microenvironment and ...
Aveling Emma-Louise - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Peer review offers a promising way of promoting improvement in health systems, but the optimal model is not yet clear. We aimed to describe a specific peer review model-reciprocal peer-to-peer review (RP2PR)-to identify the features that appeared to support optimal functioning. METHODS: We conducted an ethnographic study involving observations, ...
Ong Hui Xin - - 2012
PURPOSE: Liposomal ciprofloxacin nanoparticles were developed to overcome the rapid clearance of antibiotics from the lungs. The formulation was evaluated for its release profile using an air interface Calu-3 cell model and further characterised for aerosol performance and antimicrobial activity. METHODS: Liposomal and free ciprofloxacin formulations were nebulised directly onto ...
Zhang Yang - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Controversy remains over the routine use of mediastinoscopy or positron emission tomography in T1 non-small cell lung cancer without lymph node enlargement on computed tomography because the risk of N2 involvement is comparatively low. We aimed to develop a prediction model for N2 disease in cT1N0 non-small cell lung ...
Menn Petra - - 2012
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. It has serious health effects and causes substantial costs for society. Objectives: The aim of the present paper was to develop a state-of-the-art decision-analytic model of COPD whereby the cost effectiveness of interventions in Germany ...
Armero C - - 2012
Bayesian reasoning, survival analysis and multi-state models are used to assess survival times for Stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer patients and the evolution of the disease over time. Bayesian estimation is done using minimum informative priors for the Weibull regression survival model, leading to an automatic inferential procedure. Markov chain ...
Mitchell Jennine H - - 2012
Asthma is typically characterised by increased ventilation heterogeneity. This can be directly inferred from the visualisation of ventilation defects in imaging studies, or indirectly inferred from indices derived from the multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW). The basis for the understanding of the MBNW indices and their implication for changes in structure ...
Avtandilashvili Maia - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries' tissue donors 0202 and 0407 are the two most highly exposed of the 18 registrants who were involved in the 1965 plutonium fire accident at a defense nuclear facility. Material released during the fire was well characterized as "high fired" refractory plutonium dioxide ...
Mahdi Rami - - 2012
Computational inference methods that make use of graphical models to extract regulatory networks from gene expression data can have difficulty reconstructing dense regions of a network, a consequence of both computational complexity and unreliable parameter estimation when sample size is small. As a result, identification of hub genes is of ...
Ma Baoshun - - 2012
The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of ...
Zhao T - - 2012
Purpose: to develop a non-invasive method to track lung motion in free-breathing patients. Methods: A free-breathing breathing model has been developed to use tidal volume and air flow rate as surrogates for lung trajectories. In this study, 4D CT data sets were acquired during simulation and were reconstructed into 10 ...
Oh J - - 2012
Purpose: Early prediction of radiation pneumonitis (RP) could help physicians provide locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at high risk of RP with targeted radiotherapy. To date, several RP predictive models have been developed using statistical methods and machine learning techniques. We designed an improved risk model for ...
Vinogradskiy Y - - 2012
Purpose: An exciting form of ventilation imaging is being developed based on 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) data. Because 4DCTs are routine for thoracic radiation therapy, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCT data does not add extra dosimetric or monetary cost. Studies have discussed designing treatment plans to avoid highly-ventilated areas of ...
Serratore D - - 2012
Purpose: To quantify the movements of non-small cell lung nodules using 4D cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) that is automatically registered with planning CT, and to develop a mathematical model to predict the motion trajectory. Modeling the tumor motion may reduce the PTV and ultimately increase the therapeutic ratio. Methods: Absolute ...
Li Z - - 2012
Purpose: To develop patient-specific lung biomechanical models for simulating lung deformation and predicting the tumor motion position during radiation therapy. Methods: A FEA/CFD (Finite Element Analysis/Computational Fluid Dynamic) model is built to simulate the deformation of the lung. The lung is assumed to behave as a poro-elastic medium with uniform ...
Wala J - - 2012
Purpose: To describe a method for producing minimal delivery time partial arc VMAT plans. Methods: We begin with the assumption that dose quality is the primary treatment planning goal. Therefore the first step in the partial arc computation is a 180 beam equi-spaced IMRT multi-criteria optimized treatment plan, which serves ...
Cui Y - - 2012
Purpose: To quantify variations in target and normal structure contouring and evaluate dosimetric impact of these variations on conformal radiotherapy plans in non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) cases.Methods: Two NSCLC cases were distributed and highly conformal radiotherapy plans generated by multiple institutions as a pre-clinical trial planning study for RTOG protocol 1106 ...
Henry F S - - 2012
We present a new one-dimensional model of gas transport in the human adult lung. The model comprises asymmetrically branching airways, and heterogeneous interregional ventilation. Our model differs from previous models in that we consider the asymmetry in both the conducting and the acinar airways in detail. Another novelty of our ...
Li Jianyi - - 2012
Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical ...
Heidenreich W F - - 2012
The biologically based two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model is used to analyze lung cancer mortality of European miners from the Czech Republic, France, and Germany. All three cohorts indicate a highly significant action of exposure to radon and its progeny on promotion. The action on initiation is not significant in ...
Bayat Behnaz - - 2012
This paper will summarize the clinical features of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) before the experimental and clinical literature on the pathogenesis of TRALI is reviewed. Several mechanisms by which leukocyte antibodies induce TRALI have been unraveled. Significant advances have also been made in the field of recipient-related factors that ...
Singh Mallika - - 2012
The high failure rate of late-stage human clinical trials, particularly in oncology, predicates the need for improved translation of preclinical data from mouse tumor models into clinical predictions. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) may fulfill this need, because they mimic spontaneous and autochthonous disease progression. Using oncogenic Kras-driven GEMMs of ...
Chang Yulin V - - 2012
We present a model of gas exchange for hyperpolarized (129) Xe in the lung, which we refer to as the Model of Xenon Exchange. The model consists of two expressions and characterizes uptake of dissolved xenon in the lung at two different resonance frequencies. The two expressions are governed by ...
Taylor-Robinson David D Department of Public Health and Policy, Whelan Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB, UK. - - 2012
Forced expiratory volume in 1 s as a percentage of predicted (%FEV1) is a key outcome in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other lung diseases. As people with CF survive for longer periods, new methods are required to understand the way %FEV1 changes over time. An up to date approach for ...
Martinez Carlos H - - 2012
The value of quantitative CT (QCT) to identify chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes is increasingly appreciated. The authors hypothesised that QCT-defined emphysema and airway abnormalities relate to St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Body-Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise Capacity Index (BODE). 1200 COPDGene subjects meeting Global Initiative ...
Tucker Susan L SL Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77230-1402, USA. - - 2013
To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with DNA repair, cell cycle, transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor and receptor, folic acid metabolism, and angiogenesis can significantly improve the fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk among patients with non-small ...
Gnadt Mirjam - - 2012
The aim of the present investigation was to compare the onset of action and intrinsic activity of the long-acting β(2)-agonist GW597901 with the fast- and short-acting salbutamol as model compounds using an isolated human lung reperfusion model. Twelve resected human lung lobes were challenged with methacholine (MCh) and subsequently nebulised ...
Tehrani Fleur T - - 2012
A computerized system for critiquing mechanical ventilation treatments is presented that can be used as an aide to the intensivist. The presented system is based on the physiological model of the subject's respiratory system. It uses modified versions of previously developed models of adult and neonatal respiratory systems to simulate ...
Ma Baoshun - - 2012
The outward tethering forces exerted by the lung parenchyma on the airways embedded within it are potent modulators of the ability of the airway smooth muscle to shorten. Much of our understanding of these tethering forces is based on treating the parenchyma as an elastic continuum; yet, on a small ...
Nieman Gary - - 2012
To gain insights into individual variations in acute inflammation and physiology. Large-animal study combined with mathematical modeling. Academic large-animal and computational laboratories. Outbred juvenile swine. Four swine were instrumented and subjected to endotoxemia (100 µg/kg), followed by serial plasma sampling. Swine exhibited various degrees of inflammation and acute lung injury, ...
Oakes Jessica M - - 2012
Rodents have been widely used to study the environmental or therapeutic impact of inhaled particles. Knowledge of airway morphometry is essential in assessing geometric influence on aerosol deposition and in developing accurate lung models of aerosol transport. Previous morphometric studies of the rat lung performed ex situ provided high-resolution measurements ...
Keel Rebecca A - - 2012
In vivo pharmacokinetics are often evaluated in only one variation of an infection model, and the resulting exposures are assumed to be similar in each model. We evaluated and compared the effect of lung infection and immune status on the murine pharmacokinetics and pulmonary disposition of tedizolid and linezolid. Both ...
Meller Stephanie - - 2012
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) contribute significantly to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary function depends on the interaction between alveolar microvasculature and airspace development. While it has been shown in various animal models that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors increase in normal animal lung ...
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