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Lee David C DC School of Applied Sciences, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom; RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, United - - 2014
All gibbon species are globally threatened with extinction yet conservation efforts are undermined by a lack of population and ecological data. Agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis) occur in Sumatra, Indonesia and adjacent mainland Southeast Asia. Population densities are known from four sites (three in Sumatra) while little is known about their ...
Alicea Bradly B Orthogonal Research, Champaign, IL 61821, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Many models have been used to simplify and operationalize the subtle but complex mechanisms of biological evolution. Toy models are gross simplifications that nevertheless attempt to retain major essential features of evolution, bridging the gap between empirical reality and formal theoretical understanding. In this paper, we examine thirteen models which ...
Hong Bonnie - - 2014
Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient ...
Bright Aimée K - - 2014
Across a range of domains in psychology different theories assume different mental representations of knowledge. For example, in the literature on category-based inductive reasoning, certain theories (e.g., Rogers & McClelland, 2004; Sloutsky & Fisher, 2008) assume that the knowledge upon which inductive inferences are based is associative, whereas others (e.g., ...
Hidalgo-Galiana Amparo - - 2014
BackgroundSpecies thermal requirements are one of the principal determinants of their ecology and biogeography, although our understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited by the paucity of integrative empirical studies. Here we use empirically collected thermal tolerance data in combination with molecular phylogenetics/phylogeography and ecological niche modelling to ...
Zheng Minghao M Research Center for Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 East Circle at University City, Guangzhou, 510006, - - 2014
Abundant data on compound bioactivity and publicly accessible chemical databases increase opportunities for ligand-based drug discovery. In order to make full use of the data, an online platform for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) using publicly accessible databases has been developed. LBVS adopts Bayesian learning approach to create virtual screening models ...
Atias Nir N Blavatnik School of Computer Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, - - 2014
A holy grail of biological research is a working model of the cell. Current modeling frameworks, especially in the protein-protein interaction domain, are mostly topological in nature, calling for stronger and more expressive network models. One promising alternative is logic-based or Boolean network modeling, which was successfully applied to model ...
Sébillot Anthony A WatchFrog S.A., 1 rue Pierre Fontaine, 91000 Evry, - - 2014
Widespread environmental antiandrogen contamination has been associated with negative impacts on biodiversity and human health. In particular, many pesticides are antiandrogenic, creating a need for robust and sensitive environmental monitoring. Our aim was to develop a sensitive and specific transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes) model bearing an androgen responsive fluorescent reporter ...
Hino Yasumichi Y Construction Safety Research Group, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, - - 2014
Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt(1)), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the ...
Lever Melissa M Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3RE, - - 2014
T cell activation is a crucial checkpoint in adaptive immunity, and this activation depends on the binding parameters that govern the interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC complexes). Despite extensive experimental studies, the relationship between the TCR-pMHC binding parameters and T cell activation remains controversial. To ...
Beauchamp Guy G Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, PO Box 5000, St Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada J2S 7C6 - - 2014
In many ecological situations, resources are difficult to find but become more apparent to nearby searchers after one of their numbers discovers and begins to exploit them. If the discoverer cannot monopolize the resources, then others may benefit from joining the discoverer and sharing their discovery. Existing theories for this ...
García-Pérez Guillermo G Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, - - 2014
Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers ...
Martinez-Vaquero Luis A LA Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid, - - 2014
When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of ...
Arbiser Samuel S Luis Agote 2437, 2°, C.A.B.A., Argentina. - - 2014
This article presents, in the author's own vision, his attempt to consider (and update) the work of an original thinker of contemporary psychoanalysis (in the present). Following a short overview of his biographical data and distinctive traits as maestro and man, it then tries to capture the implications and panoramic ...
Ríos-Touma Blanca - - 2014
Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are ...
Cont Arshia A STMS 9912-CNRS, UPMC, Inria MuTant Team-Project, IRCAM, 1 Pl. Igor Stravinsky, Paris 75004, France, - - 2014
A system capable of undertaking automatic musical accompaniment with human musicians should be minimally able to undertake real-time listening of incoming music signals from human musicians, and synchronize its own actions in real-time with that of musicians according to a music score. To this, one must also add the following ...
Cosentino Stefano S Ear Institute, University College London, London, United - - 2014
A model is presented that predicts the binaural advantage to speech intelligibility by analyzing the right and left recordings at the two ears containing mixed target and interferer signals. This auditory-inspired model implements an equalization-cancellation stage to predict the binaural unmasking (BU) component, in conjunction with a modulation-frequency estimation block ...
Li Hui H Laboratory of Granular Computing, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000, - - 2014
Rough set theory provides an effective tool to deal with uncertain, granular, and incomplete knowledge in information systems. Matroid theory generalizes the linear independence in vector spaces and has many applications in diverse fields, such as combinatorial optimization and rough sets. In this paper, we construct a matroidal structure of ...
Siswanto Waluyo Adi WA 0000-0002-2877-3916 Department of Engineering Mechanics, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, 86400 Johor, - - 2014
The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) ...
Hasegawa Takanori T Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, - - 2014
Comprehensive understanding of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is a major challenge in the field of systems biology. Currently, there are two main approaches in GRN analysis using time-course observation data, namely an ordinary differential equation (ODE)-based approach and a statistical model-based approach. The ODE-based approach can generate complex dynamics of ...
Kuepfer Lars L Applied Microbiology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringer Weg 1, Room 42A/114, Aachen, 52074, Germany, - - 2014
Stoichiometric models describe cellular biochemistry with systems of linear equations. The models which are fundamentally based on the steady-state assumption are comparatively easy to construct and can be applied to networks up to genome scale. Fluxes are inherent variables in stoichiometric models and linear optimization can be used to identify ...
Chen X X Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, and Metabolism, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2014
A mechanistic, multiscale mathematical model of immunogenicity for therapeutic proteins was built by recapitulating key underlying known biological processes for immunogenicity. The model is able to simulate immune responses based on protein-specific antigenic properties (e.g., number of T-epitopes and their major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II binding affinities) and host-specific immunological/physiological characteristics ...
Chen X X Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, and Metabolism, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2014
A mechanistic, multiscale mathematical model of immunogenicity for therapeutic proteins was formulated by recapitulating key biological mechanisms, including antigen presentation, activation, proliferation, and differentiation of immune cells, secretion of antidrug antibodies (ADA), as well as in vivo disposition of ADA and therapeutic proteins. This system-level model contains three scales: a ...
Selvarajoo Kumar K Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan ; Systems Biology Program, Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, - - 2014
Cellular response such as cell signaling is an integral part of information processing in biology. Upon receptor stimulation, numerous intracellular molecules are invoked to trigger the transcription of genes for specific biological purposes, such as growth, differentiation, apoptosis or immune response. How complex are such specialized and sophisticated machinery? Computational ...
Marrella Veronica V Milan Unit, Institute of Genetics and Biomedic Research, National Research Council , Milan , Italy ; Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico , Rozzano , - - 2014
[This corrects the article on p. 259 in vol. 5, PMID: 25076946.].
Leifer M S MS Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford, 10 Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JJ, United - - 2013
We examine the relationship between quantum contextuality (in both the standard Kochen-Specker sense and in the generalized sense proposed by Spekkens) and models of quantum theory in which the quantum state is maximally epistemic. We find that preparation noncontextual models must be maximally epistemic, and these in turn must be ...
Wiesmann T - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Models for ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia (USGRA) are important for research and training. However, the limited data available show great differences in quality of needle and tissue visualisation with regard to the applied model. This study aims to compare common USGRA models and human tissue with regard to their influence ...
Carbone V - - 2012
Subject-specific musculo-skeletal models of the lower extremity are an important tool for investigating various biomechanical problems, for instance the results of surgery such as joint replacements and tendon transfers. The aim of this study was to assess the potential effects of errors in musculo-skeletal geometry on subject-specific model results. We ...
Liang Jen-I - - 2012
Video-based walking track systems have been developed for gait analysis in rat models. However, there is no previous study using video-based tracking systems to address the gait parameters to evaluate the recovery of Achilles tendon rupture models. This study conducted a comprehensive gait analysis using a video-based image processing system. ...
Warlow Oliver M E - - 2012
Biomechanical models of the fingers are used to gain a greater understanding of internal loading. This can help guide the treatment of injuries and pathologies. However, to be valid these models require accurate measurement of body kinematics, external reaction forces and soft tissue architecture. This study aimed to quantify the ...
Stegman Kelly J - - 2012
The motivation of this research is to non-invasively monitor the wrist tendon's displacement and velocity, for purposes of controlling a prosthetic device. This feasibility study aims to determine if the proposed technique using Doppler ultrasound is able to accurately estimate the tendon's instantaneous velocity and displacement. This study is conducted ...
Seidl H - - 2012
Background  Knowledge about human cyclic fasting motility (MMC) and the postprandial response is mostly based on manometric findings in the upper small intestine. Hardly any data exist on human ileal motility, as the acquisition of data has been limited by methodological concerns. The aim was to study human jejunal and ...
Tiwari Shipra - - 2012
Model fruit pulp-based gels were prepared by varying mango pulp (0% to 50%), sucrose (0% to 20%), and agar (1% to 3%) and according to a response surface experimental design followed by drying at a low temperature of 40 °C upto 15 h in a tray dryer assisted by a ...
Theobald Peter S - - 2012
Tendons transfer muscular forces efficiently and painlessly, facilitating joint motion. Whilst the tribology of articular cartilage is constantly explored, a poorer understanding remains of tendon lubrication and friction. This study reports experimental data describing the tribological characteristics of tendon and its surrounding tissue, before presenting an arithmetic solution to facilitate ...
Plank Michael J - - 2012
Individual-based models describing the migration and proliferation of a population of cells frequently restrict the cells to a predefined lattice. An implicit assumption of this type of lattice-based model is that a proliferative population will always eventually fill the lattice. Here, we develop a new lattice-free individual-based model that incorporates ...
Davis Frances M - - 2012
A novel constitutive model that describes stress relaxation in transversely isotropic soft collagenous tissues such as ligaments and tendons is presented. The model is formulated within the nonlinear integral representation framework proposed by Pipkin and Rogers (J. Mech. Phys. Solids. 16:59-72, 1968). It represents a departure from existing models in ...
Bayer J D JD Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. - - 2012
Electrical waves traveling throughout the myocardium elicit muscle contractions responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. The shape and direction of these waves depend on the spatial arrangement of ventricular myocytes, termed fiber orientation. In computational studies simulating electrical wave propagation or mechanical contraction in the heart, accurately representing fiber ...
Lemieux Pierre-Olivier - - 2012
BACKGROUND: This numerical study analysed the mechanics of cuff tear arthropathy with the AnyBody shoulder model. METHODS: The model simulated three frequent characteristics of cuff tear arthropathy: A supero-posterior massive rotator cuff tear, a proximal and static migration of the humeral head, and a contact between the humeral head and ...
Buonocore Samuel - - 2012
PURPOSE: Early motion protocols after flexor tendon repair often require hand therapy in edematous digits. Self-adherent wraps are used in the postoperative period to reduce edema. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of a self-adherent wrap affected the work of flexion during early motion protocols. ...
Renda F - - 2012
Control and modelling of continuum robots are challenging tasks for robotic researchers. Most works on modelling are limited to piecewise constant curvature. In many cases they neglect to model the actuators or avoid a continuum approach. In particular, in the latter case this leads to a complex model hardly implemented. ...
Díaz-Rodríguez P - - 2012
This study presents Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as a tool for designing injectable intratumoral formulations of the anticancer drug β-lapachone. This methodology permits insight into the interactions between variables and determines the design space of the formulation without the restrictions of an experimental design. An ANN model for two critical ...
Yan Huixian - - 2012
Amphoteric hydrogels contain both ionizable acidic and basic groups attached on the polymer chains, which can change their volume in response to the slight alteration of the surrounding environmental p H. In this paper, a theory of equilibrium swelling of amphoteric p H-sensitive hydrogels which is an extension of the ...
Moreno-Hernández Sergio S Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2012
Lattice models of proteins have been extensively used to study protein thermodynamics, folding dynamics, and evolution. Our study considers two different hydrophobic-polar (HP) models on the 2D square lattice: the purely HP model and a model where a compactness-favoring term is added. We exhaustively enumerate all the possible structures in ...
Maquer Ghislain - - 2012
Every year, 500,000 osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures occur in Europe. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element (FE) voxel models predict ultimate force whether they simulate vertebral bodies embedded in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or vertebral sections with both endplates removed. To assess the effect of endplate removal in those predictions, non-linear FE ...
Akbar Mohammad - - 2012
A detailed 3D anatomical model of the patellofemoral joint was developed to study the tracking, force, contact and stability characteristics of the joint. The quadriceps was considered to include six components represented by 15 force vectors. The patellar tendon was modeled using four bundles of viscoelastic tensile elements. Each of ...
Wang Qihua - - 2012
Hazard function estimation is an important part of survival analysis. Interest often centers on estimating the hazard function associated with a particular cause of death. We propose three nonparametric kernel estimators for the hazard function, all of which are appropriate when death times are subject to random censorship and censoring ...
de Soto Feliciano - - 2012
The Yukawa model in the quenched approximation is expressed as a disordered statistical mechanics model on a four-dimensional Euclidean lattice. We study this model, giving particular attention to the singularities of the Dirac operator in the phase diagram. A careful analysis of a particular limiting case shows that finite volume ...
Lansky David - - 2012
A variety of reforms to traditional approaches to provider payment and benefit design are being implemented in the United States. There is increasing interest in applying these financial incentives to orthopaedics, although it is unclear whether and to what extent they have been implemented and whether they increase quality or ...
Bartlett Rebecca S - - 2012
Vocal folds are anatomically and biomechanically unique, thus complicating the design and implementation of tissue engineering strategies for repair and regeneration. Integration of an enhanced understanding of tissue biomechanics, wound healing dynamics and innovative gel-based therapeutics has generated enthusiasm for the notion that an efficacious treatment for vocal fold scarring ...
Ryan Gillian L GL Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, - - 2012
A characteristic feature of motile cells as they undergo a change in motile behavior is the development of fluctuating exploratory motions of the leading edge, driven by actin polymerization. We review quantitative models of these protrusion and retraction phenomena. Theoretical studies have been motivated by advances in experimental and computational ...
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