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Rodríguez Abel A Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, - - 2015
We discuss fully Bayesian inference in a class of species sampling models that are induced by residual allocation (sometimes called stick-breaking) priors on almost surely discrete random measures. This class provides a generalization of the well-known Ewens sampling formula that allows for additional flexibility while retaining computational tractability. In particular, ...
Lian Peng P State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, - - 2015
The multiscale model strategy, hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM), has become more and more prevalent in the theoretical study of enzymatic reactions. It combines both the efficiency of the Newtonian molecular calculations and the accuracy of the quantum mechanical methods. Simulation using QM/MM multiscale model may be one ...
Gold Matthew M The Biomedical Research Centre, Department of Experimental Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2015
In the last 20 years, the development of murine models of allergic asthma has provided researchers with a means to explore the mechanisms of this T-helper type 2 (Th2)-driven inflammatory disease. While systemic sensitization and airway challenge with ovalbumin has been the most widely used model, recent emphasis has been ...
Hernán Miguel A - - 2014
The relative weights of empirical facts (data) and assumptions (theory) in causal inference vary across disciplines. Typically, disciplines that ask more complex questions tend to better tolerate a greater role of theory and modeling in causal inference. As epidemiologists move toward increasingly complex questions, Marshall and Galea (Am J Epidemiol. ...
Scheider I I Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics/ACE-Centre, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, - - 2014
Dental enamel is a highly anisotropic and heterogeneous material, which exhibits an optimal reliability with respect to the various loads occurring over years. In this work, enamel's microstructure of parallel aligned rods of mineral fibers is modeled and mechanical properties are evaluated in terms of strength and toughness with the ...
Huang Gao - - 2014
Extreme learning machines (ELMs) have proven to be efficient and effective learning mechanisms for pattern classification and regression. However, ELMs are primarily applied to supervised learning problems. Only a few existing research papers have used ELMs to explore unlabeled data. In this paper, we extend ELMs for both semi-supervised and ...
Servedio Maria R MR Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of - - 2014
Models have made numerous contributions to evolutionary biology, but misunderstandings persist regarding their purpose. By formally testing the logic of verbal hypotheses, proof-of-concept models clarify thinking, uncover hidden assumptions, and spur new directions of study. thumbnail image credit: modified from the Biodiversity Heritage Library.
Gabrielsson Johan J Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7028, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
Given the complexity of pharmacological challenge experiments, it is perhaps not surprising that design and analysis, and in turn interpretation and communication of results from a quantitative point of view, is often suboptimal. Here we report an inventory of common designs sampled from anti-inflammatory, respiratory and metabolic disease drug discovery ...
Cooper Jonathan J Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QD, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Experimentation is fundamental to the scientific method, whether for exploration, description or explanation. We argue that promoting the reuse of virtual experiments (the in silico analogues of wet-lab or field experiments) would vastly improve the usefulness and relevance of computational models, encouraging critical scrutiny of models and serving as a ...
Knott Simon R V SR Watson School of Biological Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, - - 2014
The strength of conclusions drawn from RNAi-based studies is heavily influenced by the quality of tools used to elicit knockdown. Prior studies have developed algorithms to design siRNAs. However, to date, no established method has emerged to identify effective shRNAs, which have lower intracellular abundance than transfected siRNAs and undergo additional ...
Fan Xuhui - - 2014
Directional and pairwise measurements are often used to model interactions in a social network setting. The mixed-membership stochastic blockmodel (MMSB) was a seminal work in this area, and its ability has been extended. However, models such as MMSB face particular challenges in modeling dynamic networks, for example, with the unknown ...
Adriaan Bouwknecht J J Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340 Beerse, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
The review describes a personal journey through 25 years of animal research with a focus on the contribution of rodent models for anxiety and depression to the development of new medicines in a drug discovery environment. Several classic acute models for mood disorders are briefly described as well as chronic ...
Szomolay Barbara B Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry, United - - 2014
Bacterial biofilms are notoriously difficult to eradicate owing to a number of tolerance mechanisms including physiological, physical, genotypic and phenotypic variations. Recent focus has shifted to phenotypic tolerance which is apparently the main defense mechanism that protects biofilms against long-term disinfection. Previous mathematical models have addressed phenotypic dynamics by considering ...
Chen Shun - - 2014
In this paper, fault-tolerant consensus in multi-agent system using distributed adaptive protocol is investigated. Firstly, distributed adaptive online updating strategies for some parameters are proposed based on local information of the network structure. Then, under the online updating parameters, a distributed adaptive protocol is developed to compensate the fault effects ...
Moore Jason H JH Department of Genetics, Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Sciences, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States of - - 2014
Simulation plays an essential role in the development of new computational and statistical methods for the genetic analysis of complex traits. Most simulations start with a statistical model using methods such as linear or logistic regression that specify the relationship between genotype and phenotype. This is appealing due to its ...
Dupont Hans B HB Addiction Prevention Department Mondriaan, Sittard, The Netherlands; Maastricht University/CAPHRI, The Netherlands; CAPHRI, School for Public Health, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Drug prevention methods tailored to specific target groups have become increasingly important. There is a growing need to find ways to rapidly assess and situate target groups in their particular contexts. This need is associated with the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for these specific target groups. This article describes ...
Gennemark Peter P CVMD iMed DMPK AstraZeneca R&D, 431 83, Mölndal, Sweden, - - 2014
Energy intake (EI) is a pivotal biomarker used in quantification approaches to metabolic disease processes such as obesity, diabetes, and growth disorders. Eating behavior is however under both short-term and long-term control. This control system manifests itself as tolerance and rebound phenomena in EI, when challenged by drug treatment or ...
Quiroz Jorge J AbbVie, Data and Statistical Sciences , Worcester , MA, USA - - 2014
Abstract A risk- and science-based approach to control the quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing includes a full understanding of how product attributes and process parameters relate to product performance through a proactive approach in formulation and process development. For dry manufacturing, where moisture content is not directly manipulated within the process, ...
Heinonen Tuula T School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Medisiinarin katu 3, FIN-33014 University of Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in Europe and the US. It may be purchased in different types of formulations, but most of the clinical studies have been performed with the controlled Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(®). Indications include Alzheimers disease, cardiovascular disease, dementia, memory ...
Ranger Jochen J Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany, - - 2014
Latent trait models for responses and response times in tests are often pure statistical models without a close connection to features of the assumed response process. In the present paper, a new model is presented that is more closely related to assumptions about the response process. The model is based ...
Dos Santos Rafael Guimarães RG a Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Neuroscience and Behavior , Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil; Advisory Board, International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research & Service, ICEERS , Halsteren , The - - 2014
Abstract Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogen traditionally used by indigenous groups of the northwest Amazon. In the last decade, the use of ayahuasca has spread from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite acute and long-term evidence of good tolerability and safety for ayahuasca ...
Bai Mingsian R MR Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, - - 2014
This paper presents a new design and implementation of a balanced armature speaker (BAS), which is composed of permanent magnetic circuits, a moving armature, and a coil. The armature rocks about a pivot with the coil at one end and the permanent magnet on another. A magnetic circuit analysis is ...
Overholser Rosanna R Department of Mathematics University of California, San - - 2014
The effective degrees of freedom is a useful concept for describing model complexity. Recently the number of effective degrees of freedom has been shown to relate to the concept of conditional Akaike information (cAI) in the mixed effects models. This relationship was made explicit under linear mixed-effects models with i.i.d. ...
Choudhari Nikhil S - - 2014
Purpose: Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) is the current Gold standard tonometer. However, its calibration error is common and can go unnoticed in clinics. Its company repair has limitations. The purpose of this report is to describe a self-taught technique of rectifying calibration error of GAT. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine slit-lamp-mounted ...
Dong Xiaoyu X a Division of Biometrics VI, Office of Biostatistics , Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug - - 2014
ABSTRACT According to ICH Q6A (1999), a specification is defined as a list of tests, references to analytical procedures, and appropriate acceptance criteria, which are numerical limits, ranges, or other criteria for the tests described. For drug products, specifications usually consist of test methods and acceptance criteria for Assay, Impurities, ...
Chen Kun K Center of Micro and Nanochemistry and Engineering, Organische Chemie I, Universität Siegen, Adolf-Reichwein-Str. 2, D-57068 Siegen, Germany. - - 2014
This review highlights the currently exploited working concepts of lab-on-a-molecule probes, with a particular focus on what is required for multianalyte detection and quantification in competitive assays. Both, chemosensor and chemodosimeter approaches are considered. The multifaceted design strategies and the orthogonal protocols are evaluated in order to identify and categorise ...
Xingling Shao S Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Research Institute, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China; Science and Technology on Aircraft Control Laboratory, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper proposes a novel hybrid control framework by combing observer-based sliding mode control (SMC) with trajectory linearization control (TLC) for hypersonic reentry vehicle (HRV) attitude tracking problem. First, fewer control consumption is achieved using nonlinear tracking differentiator (TD) in the attitude loop. Second, a novel SMC that employs extended ...
Porcar Manuel M Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Fundació General, University of Valencia, Valencia, - - 2014
The emphasis of systems and synthetic biology on quantitative understanding of biological objects and their eventual re-design has raised the question of whether description and construction standards that are commonplace in electric and mechanical engineering are applicable to live systems. The tuning of genetic devices to deliver a given activity ...
Haase A M AM Neurogastroenterology Unit, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, - - 2014
Gastrointestinal (GI) motor disorders often involve several regions of the GI tract. Therefore, easy and safe assessment of whole gut and regional motility is valuable for more precise diagnosis. 3D-Transit is a novel method for ambulatory evaluation of total and regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) based on the anatomical localization ...
Ihekwaba Adaoha - - 2014
BackgroundBacterial spores are important contaminants in food, and the spore forming bacteria are often implicated in food safety and food quality considerations. Spore formation is a complex developmental process involving the expression of more than 500 genes over the course of 6 to 8 hrs. The process culminates in the formation ...
Zhao Jian - - 2014
Offset quadrature amplitude modulation (offset-QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) exhibits enhanced net data rates compared to conventional OFDM, and reduced complexity compared to Nyquist FDM (N-FDM). However, channel estimation in discrete-Fourier-transform (DFT) based offset-QAM OFDM is different from that in conventional OFDM and requires particular study. In this paper, ...
Russell David J DJ Ophthalmology, Navy Medical Center San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Dr., San Diego, CA, 92134, United States - - 2014
Purpose. Develop a model for the CIRRUSTM HD-OCT that allows for the comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements with dissimilar signal strengths (SS) and accounts for test-re-test variability. Methods. RNFLs were obtained in normals using the CIRRUSTM optic disc cube 200x200 protocol during a single encounter. Five ...
Lei Fumin F Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, - - 2014
Little has been published to describe or interpret Asian biodiversity hotspots, especially the East Himalaya - Mountains of Southwest China (H-MSC) range, thus making necessary a review based on the current knowledge. The Pliocene and Pleistocene geological and glacial histories of the Asian continent is different from those of Europe ...
Siegal-Gaskins Jennifer M JM Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 - - 2014
Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution ...
Warszawski Shira S Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, - - 2014
To carry out their activities biological macromolecules balance different physical traits, such as stability, interaction affinity, and selectivity. How such often-opposing traits are encoded in a macromolecular system is critical to our understanding of evolutionary processes and ability to design new molecules with desired functions. We present a framework for ...
Leung Nelson L C NL Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Study, Institute of Molecular Functional Materials, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Life Science and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong - - 2014
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been harnessed in many systems through the principle of restriction of intramolecular rotations (RIR) based on mechanistic understanding from archetypal AIE molecules such as tetraphenylethene (TPE). However, as the family of AIE-active molecules grows, the RIR model cannot fully explain some AIE phenomena. Here, we report ...
Liang Cheng-Yen CY Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, - - 2014
Micromagnetic simulations of magnetoelastic nanostructures traditionally rely on either the Stoner-Wohlfarth model or the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) model, assuming uniform strain (and/or assuming uniform magnetization). While the uniform strain assumption is reasonable when modeling magnetoelastic thin films, this constant strain approach becomes increasingly inaccurate for smaller in-plane nanoscale structures. This paper ...
Floridi Luciano L Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, 1 St Giles, Oxford, OX1 3JS, UK, - - 2014
One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that ...
Wodarz Dominik D Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Mathematics, University of California, 321 Steinhaus Hall, Irvine, CA, 92617, USA, - - 2014
T cell responses are a crucial part of the adaptive immune system in the fight against infections. This article discusses the use of mathematical models for understanding the dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against viral infections. Complementing experimental research, mathematical models have been very useful for exploring new ...
Barlas Stephen - - 2014
The FDA has accepted its first biosimilar application.
Wang Ran - - 2014
A key issue in decision tree (DT) induction with continuous valued attributes is to design an effective strategy for splitting nodes. The traditional approach to solving this problem is adopting the candidate cut point (CCP) with the highest discriminative ability, which is evaluated by some frequency based heuristic measures. However, ...
van Heerwaarden B B School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Vic., - - 2014
Phenotypic plasticity may be an important initial mechanism to counter environmental change, yet we know relatively little about the evolution of plasticity in nature. Species with widespread distributions are expected to have evolved higher levels of plasticity compared with those with more restricted, tropical distributions. At the intraspecific level, temperate ...
Chakraborty Saikat S Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
This multiscale three-zone reactive mixing model provides a theoretical framework for engineering a scale separation in batch enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to strategize significant leaps in glucose yields. Formulated using the Liapunov-Schmidt method of the classical bifurcation theory, our model explores the multiscale spatiotemporal dynamics between the fundamental processes of ...
Deift Percy A PA Courant Institute, New York University, New York, NY 10012; - - 2014
The authors present evidence for universality in numerical computations with random data. Given a (possibly stochastic) numerical algorithm with random input data, the time (or number of iterations) to convergence (within a given tolerance) is a random variable, called the halting time. Two-component universality is observed for the fluctuations of ...
Kamiya T T Laboratoire MIVEGEC (UMR CNRS 5290, UR IRD 224, UM1, UM2), 911 avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394, Montpellier Cedex 5, - - 2014
Sexual selection hypotheses stipulate that the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes (MHC) constitute a key molecular underpinning for mate choice in vertebrates. The last four decades saw growing empirical literature on the role of MHC diversity and dissimilarity in mate choice for a wide range of vertebrate animals, but with mixed ...
Dorsch Glauber C GC Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, BN1 9QH Brighton, United - - 2014
Quantum scale invariance in the UV has been recently advocated as an attractive way of solving the gauge hierarchy problem arising in the standard model. We explore the cosmological signatures at the electroweak scale when the breaking of scale invariance originates from a hidden sector and is mediated to the ...
Lee David C DC School of Applied Sciences, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom; RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, United - - 2014
All gibbon species are globally threatened with extinction yet conservation efforts are undermined by a lack of population and ecological data. Agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis) occur in Sumatra, Indonesia and adjacent mainland Southeast Asia. Population densities are known from four sites (three in Sumatra) while little is known about their ...
Oliveri Paolo P Department of Pharmacy, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno, 13, I-16147 Genoa, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
A new class-modeling method, referred to as partial least squares density modeling (PLS-DM), is presented. The method is based on partial least squares (PLS), using a distance-based sample density measurement as the response variable. Potential function probability density is subsequently calculated on PLS scores and used, jointly with residual Q ...
Alicea Bradly B Orthogonal Research, Champaign, IL 61821, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Many models have been used to simplify and operationalize the subtle but complex mechanisms of biological evolution. Toy models are gross simplifications that nevertheless attempt to retain major essential features of evolution, bridging the gap between empirical reality and formal theoretical understanding. In this paper, we examine thirteen models which ...
Hong Bonnie - - 2014
Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient ...
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