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Lian Peng P State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, - - 2015
The multiscale model strategy, hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM), has become more and more prevalent in the theoretical study of enzymatic reactions. It combines both the efficiency of the Newtonian molecular calculations and the accuracy of the quantum mechanical methods. Simulation using QM/MM multiscale model may be one ...
Gold Matthew M The Biomedical Research Centre, Department of Experimental Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2015
In the last 20 years, the development of murine models of allergic asthma has provided researchers with a means to explore the mechanisms of this T-helper type 2 (Th2)-driven inflammatory disease. While systemic sensitization and airway challenge with ovalbumin has been the most widely used model, recent emphasis has been ...
Huang Gao - - 2014
Extreme learning machines (ELMs) have proven to be efficient and effective learning mechanisms for pattern classification and regression. However, ELMs are primarily applied to supervised learning problems. Only a few existing research papers have used ELMs to explore unlabeled data. In this paper, we extend ELMs for both semi-supervised and ...
Szomolay Barbara B Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry, United - - 2014
Bacterial biofilms are notoriously difficult to eradicate owing to a number of tolerance mechanisms including physiological, physical, genotypic and phenotypic variations. Recent focus has shifted to phenotypic tolerance which is apparently the main defense mechanism that protects biofilms against long-term disinfection. Previous mathematical models have addressed phenotypic dynamics by considering ...
Chen Shun - - 2014
In this paper, fault-tolerant consensus in multi-agent system using distributed adaptive protocol is investigated. Firstly, distributed adaptive online updating strategies for some parameters are proposed based on local information of the network structure. Then, under the online updating parameters, a distributed adaptive protocol is developed to compensate the fault effects ...
Moore Jason H JH Department of Genetics, Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Sciences, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States of - - 2014
Simulation plays an essential role in the development of new computational and statistical methods for the genetic analysis of complex traits. Most simulations start with a statistical model using methods such as linear or logistic regression that specify the relationship between genotype and phenotype. This is appealing due to its ...
Gennemark Peter P CVMD iMed DMPK AstraZeneca R&D, 431 83, Mölndal, Sweden, - - 2014
Energy intake (EI) is a pivotal biomarker used in quantification approaches to metabolic disease processes such as obesity, diabetes, and growth disorders. Eating behavior is however under both short-term and long-term control. This control system manifests itself as tolerance and rebound phenomena in EI, when challenged by drug treatment or ...
Quiroz Jorge J AbbVie, Data and Statistical Sciences , Worcester , MA, USA - - 2014
Abstract A risk- and science-based approach to control the quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing includes a full understanding of how product attributes and process parameters relate to product performance through a proactive approach in formulation and process development. For dry manufacturing, where moisture content is not directly manipulated within the process, ...
Ranger Jochen J Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany, - - 2014
Latent trait models for responses and response times in tests are often pure statistical models without a close connection to features of the assumed response process. In the present paper, a new model is presented that is more closely related to assumptions about the response process. The model is based ...
Dos Santos Rafael Guimarães RG a Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Neuroscience and Behavior , Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil; Advisory Board, International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research & Service, ICEERS , Halsteren , The - - 2014
Abstract Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogen traditionally used by indigenous groups of the northwest Amazon. In the last decade, the use of ayahuasca has spread from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite acute and long-term evidence of good tolerability and safety for ayahuasca ...
Bai Mingsian R MR Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, - - 2014
This paper presents a new design and implementation of a balanced armature speaker (BAS), which is composed of permanent magnetic circuits, a moving armature, and a coil. The armature rocks about a pivot with the coil at one end and the permanent magnet on another. A magnetic circuit analysis is ...
Overholser Rosanna R Department of Mathematics University of California, San - - 2014
The effective degrees of freedom is a useful concept for describing model complexity. Recently the number of effective degrees of freedom has been shown to relate to the concept of conditional Akaike information (cAI) in the mixed effects models. This relationship was made explicit under linear mixed-effects models with i.i.d. ...
Dong Xiaoyu X a Division of Biometrics VI, Office of Biostatistics , Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug - - 2014
ABSTRACT According to ICH Q6A (1999), a specification is defined as a list of tests, references to analytical procedures, and appropriate acceptance criteria, which are numerical limits, ranges, or other criteria for the tests described. For drug products, specifications usually consist of test methods and acceptance criteria for Assay, Impurities, ...
Chen Kun K Center of Micro and Nanochemistry and Engineering, Organische Chemie I, Universität Siegen, Adolf-Reichwein-Str. 2, D-57068 Siegen, Germany. - - 2014
This review highlights the currently exploited working concepts of lab-on-a-molecule probes, with a particular focus on what is required for multianalyte detection and quantification in competitive assays. Both, chemosensor and chemodosimeter approaches are considered. The multifaceted design strategies and the orthogonal protocols are evaluated in order to identify and categorise ...
Porcar Manuel M Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Fundació General, University of Valencia, Valencia, - - 2014
The emphasis of systems and synthetic biology on quantitative understanding of biological objects and their eventual re-design has raised the question of whether description and construction standards that are commonplace in electric and mechanical engineering are applicable to live systems. The tuning of genetic devices to deliver a given activity ...
Haase A M AM Neurogastroenterology Unit, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, - - 2014
Gastrointestinal (GI) motor disorders often involve several regions of the GI tract. Therefore, easy and safe assessment of whole gut and regional motility is valuable for more precise diagnosis. 3D-Transit is a novel method for ambulatory evaluation of total and regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) based on the anatomical localization ...
Ihekwaba Adaoha - - 2014
BackgroundBacterial spores are important contaminants in food, and the spore forming bacteria are often implicated in food safety and food quality considerations. Spore formation is a complex developmental process involving the expression of more than 500 genes over the course of 6 to 8 hrs. The process culminates in the formation ...
Zhao Jian - - 2014
Offset quadrature amplitude modulation (offset-QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) exhibits enhanced net data rates compared to conventional OFDM, and reduced complexity compared to Nyquist FDM (N-FDM). However, channel estimation in discrete-Fourier-transform (DFT) based offset-QAM OFDM is different from that in conventional OFDM and requires particular study. In this paper, ...
Russell David J DJ Ophthalmology, Navy Medical Center San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Dr., San Diego, CA, 92134, United States - - 2014
Purpose. Develop a model for the CIRRUSTM HD-OCT that allows for the comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements with dissimilar signal strengths (SS) and accounts for test-re-test variability. Methods. RNFLs were obtained in normals using the CIRRUSTM optic disc cube 200x200 protocol during a single encounter. Five ...
Lei Fumin F Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, - - 2014
Little has been published to describe or interpret Asian biodiversity hotspots, especially the East Himalaya - Mountains of Southwest China (H-MSC) range, thus making necessary a review based on the current knowledge. The Pliocene and Pleistocene geological and glacial histories of the Asian continent is different from those of Europe ...
Siegal-Gaskins Jennifer M JM Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 - - 2014
Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution ...
Warszawski Shira S Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, - - 2014
To carry out their activities biological macromolecules balance different physical traits, such as stability, interaction affinity, and selectivity. How such often-opposing traits are encoded in a macromolecular system is critical to our understanding of evolutionary processes and ability to design new molecules with desired functions. We present a framework for ...
Leung Nelson L C NL Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Study, Institute of Molecular Functional Materials, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Life Science and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong - - 2014
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been harnessed in many systems through the principle of restriction of intramolecular rotations (RIR) based on mechanistic understanding from archetypal AIE molecules such as tetraphenylethene (TPE). However, as the family of AIE-active molecules grows, the RIR model cannot fully explain some AIE phenomena. Here, we report ...
Liang Cheng-Yen CY Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, - - 2014
Micromagnetic simulations of magnetoelastic nanostructures traditionally rely on either the Stoner-Wohlfarth model or the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) model, assuming uniform strain (and/or assuming uniform magnetization). While the uniform strain assumption is reasonable when modeling magnetoelastic thin films, this constant strain approach becomes increasingly inaccurate for smaller in-plane nanoscale structures. This paper ...
Floridi Luciano L Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, 1 St Giles, Oxford, OX1 3JS, UK, - - 2014
One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that ...
Wodarz Dominik D Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Mathematics, University of California, 321 Steinhaus Hall, Irvine, CA, 92617, USA, - - 2014
T cell responses are a crucial part of the adaptive immune system in the fight against infections. This article discusses the use of mathematical models for understanding the dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against viral infections. Complementing experimental research, mathematical models have been very useful for exploring new ...
Barlas Stephen - - 2014
The FDA has accepted its first biosimilar application.
Wang Ran - - 2014
A key issue in decision tree (DT) induction with continuous valued attributes is to design an effective strategy for splitting nodes. The traditional approach to solving this problem is adopting the candidate cut point (CCP) with the highest discriminative ability, which is evaluated by some frequency based heuristic measures. However, ...
van Heerwaarden B B School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Vic., - - 2014
Phenotypic plasticity may be an important initial mechanism to counter environmental change, yet we know relatively little about the evolution of plasticity in nature. Species with widespread distributions are expected to have evolved higher levels of plasticity compared with those with more restricted, tropical distributions. At the intraspecific level, temperate ...
Chakraborty Saikat S Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
This multiscale three-zone reactive mixing model provides a theoretical framework for engineering a scale separation in batch enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to strategize significant leaps in glucose yields. Formulated using the Liapunov-Schmidt method of the classical bifurcation theory, our model explores the multiscale spatiotemporal dynamics between the fundamental processes of ...
Deift Percy A PA Courant Institute, New York University, New York, NY 10012; - - 2014
The authors present evidence for universality in numerical computations with random data. Given a (possibly stochastic) numerical algorithm with random input data, the time (or number of iterations) to convergence (within a given tolerance) is a random variable, called the halting time. Two-component universality is observed for the fluctuations of ...
Kamiya T T Laboratoire MIVEGEC (UMR CNRS 5290, UR IRD 224, UM1, UM2), 911 avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394, Montpellier Cedex 5, - - 2014
Sexual selection hypotheses stipulate that the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes (MHC) constitute a key molecular underpinning for mate choice in vertebrates. The last four decades saw growing empirical literature on the role of MHC diversity and dissimilarity in mate choice for a wide range of vertebrate animals, but with mixed ...
Dorsch Glauber C GC Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, BN1 9QH Brighton, United - - 2014
Quantum scale invariance in the UV has been recently advocated as an attractive way of solving the gauge hierarchy problem arising in the standard model. We explore the cosmological signatures at the electroweak scale when the breaking of scale invariance originates from a hidden sector and is mediated to the ...
Lee David C DC School of Applied Sciences, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom; RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, United - - 2014
All gibbon species are globally threatened with extinction yet conservation efforts are undermined by a lack of population and ecological data. Agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis) occur in Sumatra, Indonesia and adjacent mainland Southeast Asia. Population densities are known from four sites (three in Sumatra) while little is known about their ...
Alicea Bradly B Orthogonal Research, Champaign, IL 61821, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Many models have been used to simplify and operationalize the subtle but complex mechanisms of biological evolution. Toy models are gross simplifications that nevertheless attempt to retain major essential features of evolution, bridging the gap between empirical reality and formal theoretical understanding. In this paper, we examine thirteen models which ...
Hong Bonnie - - 2014
Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient ...
Fergus Thomas A TA Baylor University, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Difficulties tolerating uncertainty are considered central to scrupulosity, a moral/religious presentation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined whether uncertainty salience (i.e., exposure to a state of uncertainty) caused fears of sin and fears of God, as well as whether priming God concepts affected the impact of uncertainty salience on those ...
Bright Aimée K - - 2014
Across a range of domains in psychology different theories assume different mental representations of knowledge. For example, in the literature on category-based inductive reasoning, certain theories (e.g., Rogers & McClelland, 2004; Sloutsky & Fisher, 2008) assume that the knowledge upon which inductive inferences are based is associative, whereas others (e.g., ...
Hidalgo-Galiana Amparo - - 2014
BackgroundSpecies thermal requirements are one of the principal determinants of their ecology and biogeography, although our understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited by the paucity of integrative empirical studies. Here we use empirically collected thermal tolerance data in combination with molecular phylogenetics/phylogeography and ecological niche modelling to ...
Zheng Minghao M Research Center for Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 East Circle at University City, Guangzhou, 510006, - - 2014
Abundant data on compound bioactivity and publicly accessible chemical databases increase opportunities for ligand-based drug discovery. In order to make full use of the data, an online platform for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) using publicly accessible databases has been developed. LBVS adopts Bayesian learning approach to create virtual screening models ...
Atias Nir N Blavatnik School of Computer Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, - - 2014
A holy grail of biological research is a working model of the cell. Current modeling frameworks, especially in the protein-protein interaction domain, are mostly topological in nature, calling for stronger and more expressive network models. One promising alternative is logic-based or Boolean network modeling, which was successfully applied to model ...
Sébillot Anthony A WatchFrog S.A., 1 rue Pierre Fontaine, 91000 Evry, - - 2014
Widespread environmental antiandrogen contamination has been associated with negative impacts on biodiversity and human health. In particular, many pesticides are antiandrogenic, creating a need for robust and sensitive environmental monitoring. Our aim was to develop a sensitive and specific transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes) model bearing an androgen responsive fluorescent reporter ...
Hino Yasumichi Y Construction Safety Research Group, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, - - 2014
Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt(1)), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the ...
Hino Yasumichi Y Construction Safety Research Group, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, - - 2014
Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt(1)), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the ...
Lever Melissa M Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3RE, - - 2014
T cell activation is a crucial checkpoint in adaptive immunity, and this activation depends on the binding parameters that govern the interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC complexes). Despite extensive experimental studies, the relationship between the TCR-pMHC binding parameters and T cell activation remains controversial. To ...
Beauchamp Guy G Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, PO Box 5000, St Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada J2S 7C6 - - 2014
In many ecological situations, resources are difficult to find but become more apparent to nearby searchers after one of their numbers discovers and begins to exploit them. If the discoverer cannot monopolize the resources, then others may benefit from joining the discoverer and sharing their discovery. Existing theories for this ...
García-Pérez Guillermo G Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, - - 2014
Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers ...
Martinez-Vaquero Luis A LA Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid, - - 2014
When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of ...
Arbiser Samuel S Luis Agote 2437, 2°, C.A.B.A., Argentina. - - 2014
This article presents, in the author's own vision, his attempt to consider (and update) the work of an original thinker of contemporary psychoanalysis (in the present). Following a short overview of his biographical data and distinctive traits as maestro and man, it then tries to capture the implications and panoramic ...
Milligan Scott - - 2014
Scholars disagree over whether Islam hinders the development of liberal democracy in Muslim-majority countries. We contribute to this debate by assessing the influence of Islam at the individual and national levels on ethnic, racial, and religious tolerance in 23 countries. Our analyses are based on a set of multilevel models ...
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