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Wiesmann T - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Models for ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia (USGRA) are important for research and training. However, the limited data available show great differences in quality of needle and tissue visualisation with regard to the applied model. This study aims to compare common USGRA models and human tissue with regard to their influence ...
Carbone V - - 2012
Subject-specific musculo-skeletal models of the lower extremity are an important tool for investigating various biomechanical problems, for instance the results of surgery such as joint replacements and tendon transfers. The aim of this study was to assess the potential effects of errors in musculo-skeletal geometry on subject-specific model results. We ...
Liang Jen-I - - 2012
Video-based walking track systems have been developed for gait analysis in rat models. However, there is no previous study using video-based tracking systems to address the gait parameters to evaluate the recovery of Achilles tendon rupture models. This study conducted a comprehensive gait analysis using a video-based image processing system. ...
Warlow Oliver M E - - 2012
Biomechanical models of the fingers are used to gain a greater understanding of internal loading. This can help guide the treatment of injuries and pathologies. However, to be valid these models require accurate measurement of body kinematics, external reaction forces and soft tissue architecture. This study aimed to quantify the ...
Stegman Kelly J - - 2012
The motivation of this research is to non-invasively monitor the wrist tendon's displacement and velocity, for purposes of controlling a prosthetic device. This feasibility study aims to determine if the proposed technique using Doppler ultrasound is able to accurately estimate the tendon's instantaneous velocity and displacement. This study is conducted ...
Seidl H - - 2012
Background  Knowledge about human cyclic fasting motility (MMC) and the postprandial response is mostly based on manometric findings in the upper small intestine. Hardly any data exist on human ileal motility, as the acquisition of data has been limited by methodological concerns. The aim was to study human jejunal and ...
Tiwari Shipra - - 2012
Model fruit pulp-based gels were prepared by varying mango pulp (0% to 50%), sucrose (0% to 20%), and agar (1% to 3%) and according to a response surface experimental design followed by drying at a low temperature of 40 °C upto 15 h in a tray dryer assisted by a ...
Theobald Peter S - - 2012
Tendons transfer muscular forces efficiently and painlessly, facilitating joint motion. Whilst the tribology of articular cartilage is constantly explored, a poorer understanding remains of tendon lubrication and friction. This study reports experimental data describing the tribological characteristics of tendon and its surrounding tissue, before presenting an arithmetic solution to facilitate ...
Plank Michael J - - 2012
Individual-based models describing the migration and proliferation of a population of cells frequently restrict the cells to a predefined lattice. An implicit assumption of this type of lattice-based model is that a proliferative population will always eventually fill the lattice. Here, we develop a new lattice-free individual-based model that incorporates ...
Davis Frances M - - 2012
A novel constitutive model that describes stress relaxation in transversely isotropic soft collagenous tissues such as ligaments and tendons is presented. The model is formulated within the nonlinear integral representation framework proposed by Pipkin and Rogers (J. Mech. Phys. Solids. 16:59-72, 1968). It represents a departure from existing models in ...
Bayer J D JD Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. - - 2012
Electrical waves traveling throughout the myocardium elicit muscle contractions responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. The shape and direction of these waves depend on the spatial arrangement of ventricular myocytes, termed fiber orientation. In computational studies simulating electrical wave propagation or mechanical contraction in the heart, accurately representing fiber ...
Lemieux Pierre-Olivier - - 2012
BACKGROUND: This numerical study analysed the mechanics of cuff tear arthropathy with the AnyBody shoulder model. METHODS: The model simulated three frequent characteristics of cuff tear arthropathy: A supero-posterior massive rotator cuff tear, a proximal and static migration of the humeral head, and a contact between the humeral head and ...
Buonocore Samuel - - 2012
PURPOSE: Early motion protocols after flexor tendon repair often require hand therapy in edematous digits. Self-adherent wraps are used in the postoperative period to reduce edema. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of a self-adherent wrap affected the work of flexion during early motion protocols. ...
Renda F - - 2012
Control and modelling of continuum robots are challenging tasks for robotic researchers. Most works on modelling are limited to piecewise constant curvature. In many cases they neglect to model the actuators or avoid a continuum approach. In particular, in the latter case this leads to a complex model hardly implemented. ...
Díaz-Rodríguez P - - 2012
This study presents Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as a tool for designing injectable intratumoral formulations of the anticancer drug β-lapachone. This methodology permits insight into the interactions between variables and determines the design space of the formulation without the restrictions of an experimental design. An ANN model for two critical ...
Yan Huixian - - 2012
Amphoteric hydrogels contain both ionizable acidic and basic groups attached on the polymer chains, which can change their volume in response to the slight alteration of the surrounding environmental p H. In this paper, a theory of equilibrium swelling of amphoteric p H-sensitive hydrogels which is an extension of the ...
Moreno-Hernández Sergio S Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2012
Lattice models of proteins have been extensively used to study protein thermodynamics, folding dynamics, and evolution. Our study considers two different hydrophobic-polar (HP) models on the 2D square lattice: the purely HP model and a model where a compactness-favoring term is added. We exhaustively enumerate all the possible structures in ...
Maquer Ghislain - - 2012
Every year, 500,000 osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures occur in Europe. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element (FE) voxel models predict ultimate force whether they simulate vertebral bodies embedded in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or vertebral sections with both endplates removed. To assess the effect of endplate removal in those predictions, non-linear FE ...
Akbar Mohammad - - 2012
A detailed 3D anatomical model of the patellofemoral joint was developed to study the tracking, force, contact and stability characteristics of the joint. The quadriceps was considered to include six components represented by 15 force vectors. The patellar tendon was modeled using four bundles of viscoelastic tensile elements. Each of ...
Wang Qihua - - 2012
Hazard function estimation is an important part of survival analysis. Interest often centers on estimating the hazard function associated with a particular cause of death. We propose three nonparametric kernel estimators for the hazard function, all of which are appropriate when death times are subject to random censorship and censoring ...
de Soto Feliciano - - 2012
The Yukawa model in the quenched approximation is expressed as a disordered statistical mechanics model on a four-dimensional Euclidean lattice. We study this model, giving particular attention to the singularities of the Dirac operator in the phase diagram. A careful analysis of a particular limiting case shows that finite volume ...
Lansky David - - 2012
A variety of reforms to traditional approaches to provider payment and benefit design are being implemented in the United States. There is increasing interest in applying these financial incentives to orthopaedics, although it is unclear whether and to what extent they have been implemented and whether they increase quality or ...
Bartlett Rebecca S - - 2012
Vocal folds are anatomically and biomechanically unique, thus complicating the design and implementation of tissue engineering strategies for repair and regeneration. Integration of an enhanced understanding of tissue biomechanics, wound healing dynamics and innovative gel-based therapeutics has generated enthusiasm for the notion that an efficacious treatment for vocal fold scarring ...
Beason David P - - 2012
The mouse has proven to be an advantageous animal model system in basic science research focused on aiding in development and evaluation of potential treatments; however, the small size of mouse tendons makes consistent and reproducible injury models and subsequent biomechanical evaluation challenging for studying tendon healing. In this study, ...
Korstanje Jan-Wiebe H - - 2012
Different mobilization protocols have been proposed for rehabilitation after hand flexor tendon repair to provide tendon excursion sufficient to prevent adhesions. Several cadaver studies have shown that the position of the neighboring fingers influences tendon excursions of the injured finger. We hypothesized that the positions of adjacent fingers influence the ...
Kurse Manish U MU Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. - - 2012
Computationally efficient modeling of complex neuromuscular systems for dynamics and control simulations often requires accurate analytical expressions for moment arms over the entire range of motion. Conventionally, polynomial expressions are regressed from experimental data. But these polynomial regressions can fail to extrapolate, may require large datasets to train, are not ...
Iannazzo Sergio - - 2012
A probabilistic patient-level Markov model was previously developed to simulate lifetime clinical and economic outcomes of cinacalcet treatment in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) patients using local data from Italy. The present study extends the application of the model to four other European countries - Spain, Portugal, Switzerland and the Czech Republic ...
Ansorge Heather L - - 2012
During neonatal development, tendons undergo a well orchestrated process whereby extensive structural and compositional changes occur in synchrony to produce a normal tissue. Conversely, during the repair response to injury, structural and compositional changes occur, but a mechanically inferior tendon is produced. As a result, developmental processes have been postulated ...
Kiser Patrick F - - 2012
Tenofovir (TFV) is a proven microbicide when administered topically as a vaginal gel. To improve its efficacy, TFV was combined with the nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor UC781 in a vaginal gel. Mixture design of experiments theory was used to define a range of gel compositions with varying rheological properties and to ...
Mathews G - - 2012
Engineered heart tissue (EHT) is a potential thera-py for heart failure and the basis of functional in vitro assays of novel cardiovascular treatments. Self-organizing EHT can be generated in fiber form, which makes the assessment of contrac-tile function convenient with a force transducer. Contractile func-tion is a key parameter of ...
Ryan Gillian L - - 2012
A characteristic feature of motile cells as they undergo a change in motile behavior is the development of fluctuating exploratory motions of the leading-edge, driven by actin polymerization. We review quantitative models of these protrusion and retraction phenomena. Theoretical studies have been motivated by advances in experimental and computational methods ...
Paclet Florent - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical models are a useful tool to estimate tendon tensions. Unfortunately, in previous fingers' models, each finger acts independently from the others. This is contradictory with hand motor control theories which show that fingers are functionally linked in order to balance the wrist/forearm joint with minimal tendon tensions. (i.e. ...
Dumas Raphaël - - 2012
Several three-dimensional (3D) lower-limb musculo-skeletal models have been developed for gait analysis and different hip, knee and ankle joint models have been considered in the literature. Conversely to the influence of the musculo-tendon geometry, the influence of the joint models--i.e. number of degrees of freedom and passive joint moments--on the ...
Szczesny Spencer E - - 2012
The heterogeneous composition and mechanical properties of the supraspinatus tendon offer an opportunity for studying the structure-function relationships of fibrous musculoskeletal connective tissues. Previous uniaxial testing has demonstrated a correlation between the collagen fiber angle distribution and tendon mechanics in response to tensile loading both parallel and transverse to the ...
Timpson Nicholas J NJ MRC CAiTE Centre, School of Social and Community Medicine, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. - - 2012
In the absence of an ethical, practical, and economical randomized trial, the epidemiologist is left to explore other methods in efforts to assert causality. An approach based on genotypic variation has the potential to mitigate against some of the problems found within conventional observational studies. Genetic variations associated with risk ...
Brereton N - - 2012
Abstract: Objectives: The NICE health economic model for assessing the cost-effectiveness of celecoxib plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to diclofenac plus PPI in the treatment of osteoarthritis has been updated using new adverse event (AE) risks from the CONDOR trial. In light of this new information, this study ...
Graham Petra L - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Results of meta-analyses typically conclude that future large studies may be mandated. However, the predictive ability of these estimates is deficient. We explored meta-analytic prediction intervals as means for providing a clear and appropriate future treatment summary reflecting current estimates. STUDY DESIGN: A meta-epidemiological study of binary outcome critical ...
Ransom Evan R - - 2012
Objective. (1) To develop a method for quantification of osteotome sharpness in a rhinoplasty model, using artificial bone; (2) to demonstrate changes in osteotome sharpness over multiple uses; and (3) to compare osteotomes from different manufacturers in terms of sharpness and cost.Study Design. Prospective surgical model.Setting. Academic hospital and engineering ...
Abimbola Taiwo O - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, patients with advanced HIV experience high mortality during the first few months of antiretroviral therapy (ART), largely attributable to tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB diagnostic strategies to reduce this early mortality. METHODS: We developed a decision-analytic model to estimate the incremental cost, deaths ...
Stapleton John A - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: The popularity of smoking cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis has grown rapidly. Differences in models and inputs mean results may not be comparable, and researchers may have to take them on trust because the methods are beyond their expertise and not always transparent. We describe a direct method and tables of ...
Prenger Rilana - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions typically use a dichotomous outcome criterion. However, achieving behavioral change is a complex process involving several steps towards a change in behavior. Delayed effects may occur after an intervention period ends, which can lead to underestimation of these interventions. To account for such delayed ...
Martí-Herrero J - - 2012
The aim of this paper is to present a novel, universal, methodology for the design of low cost tubular digesters. This method improves on the established methodology by avoiding assumptions that tend to reduce the final hydraulic retention time (HRT) of digesters once installed. This work recommends designing the digester ...
Frazer L Neil - - 2012
Host density thresholds are a fundamental component of the population dynamics of pathogens, but empirical evidence and estimates are lacking. We studied host density thresholds in the dynamics of ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on salmon farms. Empirical examples include a 1994 epidemic in Atlantic Canada and a 2001 epidemic ...
Guthardt Torres P - - 2012
Cells sense the geometry and stiffness of their adhesive environment by active contractility. For strong adhesion to flat substrates, two-dimensional contractile network models can be used to understand how force is distributed throughout the cell. Here we compare the shape and force distribution for different variants of such network models. ...
Lu Jianhua - - 2012
As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most current versions ...
Kelly Colleen - - 2012
Laska et al. ( 1994 ) proposed a model-free method of detecting synergy in two drug combinations that requires no assumptions about the underlying dose-response curves of the drugs, just an estimate of the potency ratio of the two drugs. It was noted that the power of this method is ...
Simpson Kit N - - 2012
Clinical trials may furnish data to conduct economic analyses. An economic analysis requires us to identify all opportunity costs associated with the intervention over the time horizon chosen for the analysis and enumerate the improvements in benefits from the intervention of interest. We review the basic steps used when performing ...
Heikkilä A-M - - 2012
Bovine mastitis is an economic and a welfare problem on dairy farms. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of clinical mastitis (CM), having a special focus on the cost variation related to culling decisions. A dynamic optimization model was developed to determine an optimal replacement time ...
Jafri M Saleet - - 2012
Excitation-contraction coupling describes the processes relating to electrical excitation through force generation and contraction in the heart. It occurs at multiple levels from the whole heart, to single myocytes and down to the sarcomere. A central process that links electrical excitation to contraction is calcium mobilization. Computational models that are ...
Abreu Leonardo - - 2012
Mobile phones obtained large popularization in Brazil thanks to pre-paid (pay as you go) contracts. This kind of contract represents 82% of mobile phone connections in Brazil, corresponding to 143 million in a total of 174 million mobile phone accesses in the country. In this scenario, a research about the ...
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