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Girling Alan J AJ Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. - - 2012
Product vendors and manufacturers are increasingly aware that purchasers of health care will fund new clinical treatments only if they are perceived to deliver value-for-money. This influences companies' internal commercial decisions, including the price they set for their products. Other things being equal, there is a price threshold, which is ...
Carroll Carlos - - 2011
  Centrality metrics evaluate paths between all possible pairwise combinations of sites on a landscape to rank the contribution of each site to facilitating ecological flows across the network of sites. Computational advances now allow application of centrality metrics to landscapes represented as continuous gradients of habitat quality. This avoids ...
Dams Judith - - 2011
The objective of this review was to assess models of cost effectiveness for Parkinson's disease (PD) published after July 2002 and to derive recommendations for future modelling.A systematic literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Current Contents, EMBASE, EconLit, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and DARE (Database of ...
Gomes Manuel M Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, - - 2012
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) may use data from cluster randomized trials (CRTs), where the unit of randomization is the cluster, not the individual. However, most studies use analytical methods that ignore clustering. This article compares alternative statistical methods for accommodating clustering in CEAs of CRTs. Our simulation study compared the performance ...
Basu Anirban A Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. - - 2012
To develop regression models for outcomes with truncated supports, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data, and account for features typical of such data such as a skewed distribution, spikes at 1 or 0, and heteroskedasticity. Regression estimators based on features of the Beta distribution. First, both a single ...
Schur Nadine - - 2011
Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. We analysed a large ...
Doody D G - - 2012
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) has initiated a shift towards a targeted approach to implementation through its focus on river basin districts as management units and the natural ecological characteristics of waterbodies. Due to its role in eutrophication, phosphorus (P) has received considerable attention, resulting in a significant body of ...
Sun Shawn X - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing roflumilast/tiotropium therapy vs tiotropium monotherapy in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD. Methods: The economic evaluation applied a disease-based Markov cohort model with five health states: (1) severe COPD, (2) severe COPD with a history of severe exacerbation, (3) very severe COPD, (4) ...
Komenda Paul - - 2012
More intensive and/or frequent hemodialysis may provide clinical benefits to patients with end-stage renal disease; however, these dialysis treatments are more convenient to the patients if provided in their homes. Here we created a standardized model, based on a systematic review of available costing literature, to determine the economic viability ...
Armoundas Antonis A AA Cardiovascular Research Center, Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA. - - 2012
T-wave alternans (TWA) has been associated with increased vulnerability to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, both random (white) noise and (patho)physiologic processes (ie, premature ventricular contractions and heart and respiration rates) may hamper TWA estimation and therefore lessen its clinical utility for risk stratification. To investigate the effect ...
Caulkins Jonathan P - - 2011
Aims  No modern jurisdiction has ever legalized commercial production, distribution and possession of cannabis for recreational purposes. This paper presents insights about the effect of legalization on production costs and consumption and highlights important design choices. Methods  Insights were uncovered through our analysis of recent legalization proposals in California. The ...
Chinthammit Chanadda - - 2011
Objectives: This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist discharge counseling on medication-related morbidity in both the high-risk elderly and general US population. Methods: A cost-effectiveness decision analytic model was developed using a health care system perspective based on published clinical trials. Costs included direct medical costs, and the effectiveness unit ...
Liang Zhenhu - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The Hurst exponent (HE) is a nonlinear method measuring the smoothness of a fractal time series. In this study we applied the HE index, extracted from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, as a measure of anesthetic drug effects on brain activity. METHODS: In 19 adult patients undergoing sevoflurane general anesthesia, we ...
Malinovsky Yaakov Y Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2012
Due to the rising cost of laboratory assays, it has become increasingly common in epidemiological studies to pool biospecimens. This is particularly true in longitudinal studies, where the cost of performing multiple assays over time can be prohibitive. In this article, we consider the problem of estimating the parameters of ...
Abildtrup Jens - - 2012
The Coase theorem depends on a number of assumptions, among others, perfect information about each other's payoff function, maximising behaviour and zero transaction costs. An important question is whether the Coase theorem holds for real market transactions when these assumptions are violated. This is the question examined in this paper. ...
Papathanasiou Nikolaos D - - 2012
A systematic meta-analysis of published studies on the diagnostic accuracy of presynaptic dopaminergic imaging with ¹²³I-FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We included (a) studies in which DaTSCAN was performed in cases of diagnostic uncertainty to differentiate between DLB and non-DLB dementia and (b) studies of patients with ...
Jones Byron - - 2011
In this paper we model the cost-benefit of excluding populations at risk through predictive toxicity biomarkers and diagnostics. False positives/ negatives inherent in predictive markers and the frequency and nature of adverse events determine whether biomarkers are beneficial and economically viable. We present a model that takes these and other ...
Turner-Stokes Lynne L King's College London School of Medicine, Department of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, London, - - 2012
To describe the rationale and development of a casemix model and costing methodology for tariff development for specialist neurorehabilitation services in the UK. Patients with complex needs incur higher treatment costs. Fair payment should be weighted in proportion to costs of providing treatment, and should allow for variation over time ...
Roessner Stephen - - 2011
Forming statistical combinations of the results of repeated acoustical measurements taken under identical conditions is a common practice to reduce the effects of random noise. The most common method is to calculate the arithmetic mean of an ensemble of test results, which is based on the assumption that all experiments ...
Hu Liang-Ping - - 2011
This article introduces the general concepts and methods of sample size estimation and testing power analysis. It focuses on parametric methods of sample size estimation, including sample size estimation of estimating the population mean and the population probability. It also provides estimation formulas and introduces how to realize sample size ...
Ono Duane - - 2011
Particulate matter < or =10 microm (PM10) emissions due to wind erosion can vary dramatically with changing surface conditions. Crust formation, mechanical disturbance, soil texture, moisture, and chemical content of the soil can affect the amount of dust emitted during a wind event. A refined method of quantifying windblown dust ...
Monsef Florian - - 2011
The ensemble-average value of the mean-square pressure is often assessed by using the spatial-average technique, underlying an equivalence principle between spatial and ensemble estimators. Using the ideal-diffuse-field model, the accuracy of the spatial-average method has been studied theoretically forty years ago in the case of a single-tone excitation. This study ...
Bobinac Ana - - 2011
Estimates of WTP per QALY can be taken as an indication of the monetary value of health gains, which may carry information regarding the appropriate height of the cost-effectiveness threshold. Given the far-reaching consequences choosing a particular threshold, and thus the potential relevance of WTP per QALY estimates, it is ...
Blackwood Julie C - - 2011
The interaction between multiple stressors on Caribbean coral reefs, namely, fishing effort and hurricane impacts, is a key element in the future sustainability of reefs. We develop an analytic model of coral-algal interactions and explicitly consider grazing by herbivorous reef fish. Further, we consider changes in structural complexity, or rugosity, ...
Manca Andrea A Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK. - - 2012
To assess the value for money of alternative chemotherapy strategies for managing advanced colorectal cancer using irinotecan or oxaliplatin, either in sequence or in combination with fluorouracil. A cost-effectiveness model was developed using data from the U.K. fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and CPT11 (irinotecan)--use and sequencing (FOCUS) trial. The analysis adopted the ...
Burton T - - 2011
Individual differences in the energy cost of self-maintenance (resting metabolic rate, RMR) are substantial and the focus of an emerging research area. These differences may influence fitness because self-maintenance is considered as a life-history component along with growth and reproduction. In this review, we ask why do some individuals have ...
Wilson Kerrie A - - 2011
We need to set priorities for conservation because we cannot do everything, everywhere, at the same time. We determined priority areas for investment in threat abatement actions, in both a cost-effective and spatially and temporally explicit way, for the threatened mammals of the world. Our analysis presents the first fine-resolution ...
Khosa Patricia - - 2011
The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is a large aquatic reptile predominant in the tropics in Africa and Zimbabwe in particular. Clutch sizes and hatching rates of Nile crocodile eggs collected from the wild and on-farm in Lowveld, Highveld and Kariba regions of Zimbabwe were evaluated. A total of 274 egg ...
Jallon Romain R École Polytechnique de Montréal, Département de Mathématiques et de génie industriel, C.P. 6079, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, H3C 3A7, Québec, Canada. - - 2011
This article follows an earlier one in which four criteria and four bases for the development of an indirect-cost calculation model adapted to the accuracy requirements and time constraints of workplace decision-makers were established. A two-level model for calculating indirect costs using process mapping of the organizational response to a ...
Schoenemann T - - 2011
We consider the problem of decomposing a video sequence into a superposition of (a given number of) moving layers. For this problem we propose an energy minimization approach based on coding cost. Our contributions affect both the model (what is minimized) and the algorithmic side (how it is minimized). The ...
Zhang Z - - 2011
There is growing interest in pooling specimens across subjects in epidemiologic studies, especially those involving biomarkers. This paper is concerned with regression analysis of epidemiologic data where a binary exposure is subject to pooling and the pooled measurement is dichotomized to indicate either that no subjects in the pool are ...
Korell Julia - - 2011
The aim of this work is to compare different labelling methods that are commonly used to estimate the lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs), e.g. in anaemia of renal failure, where the effect of treatment with erythropoietin depends on the lifespan of RBCs. A previously developed model for the survival ...
Skaltsa Konstantina - - 2011
In the diagnostic area, the usual setting considers two populations: nondiseased and diseased. The use of the standard ROC analysis methodology is well established. Sometimes, however, diagnostic problems inherently include more than two classification states. For example, 'yes, uncertain, no' or 'low, normal, high'. Here we consider a three-normal distribution ...
Chevalier Julie - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: While a French language version of the EQ-5D exists, to date, there has been no French value set to accompany it. The objective of our study was then to derive the French TTO value set of the EQ-5D. METHODS: A total of 452 respondents aged over 18 were recruited ...
Taylor Eleanor M - - 2011
Studies of the chronic effects of MDMA, or 'ecstasy', in humans have been largely inconsistent. We explored whether study-level characteristics are associated with the effect size estimate reported. We based our analyses on the recent systematic review by Rogers and colleagues, focusing on those meta-analyses within this report where there ...
Lu Juan - - 2012
This study extends our previous investigation regarding the effect of nondifferential dichotomous Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) misclassification in traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinical trials to the effect of GOS misclassification on ordinal analysis in TBI clinical trials. The impact of GOS misclassification and ordinal outcome analysis was explored via probabilistic ...
van Breukelen Gerard Jp - - 2011
For cluster randomized and multicentre trials evaluating the effect of a treatment on persons nested within clusters, equations have been published to compute the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person level as a function of sampling costs and intraclass correlation (ICC). Here, optimal means maximum power and precision ...
Bjerklund Johansen Truls E - - 2012
• To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) compared with alpha-blocker (AB), 5-alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) monotherapy or watchful waiting (WW) in male patients enrolled in the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAT) trial using a Norwegian economic model. • A decision analytic model was ...
Demiris Nikolaos - - 2011
Recent studies of (cost-) effectiveness in cardiothoracic transplantation have required estimation of mean survival over the lifetime of the recipients. In order to calculate mean survival, the complete survivor curve is required but is often not fully observed, so that survival extrapolation is necessary. After transplantation, the hazard function is ...
Siddiqui Chowdhury - - 2012
This study investigates the effect of spatial correlation using a Bayesian spatial framework to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes in Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs). Aggregate models for pedestrian and bicycle crashes were estimated as a function of variables related to roadway characteristics, and various demographic and socio-economic factors. It was ...
Li Dalin - - 2011
Variants identified in recent genome-wide association studies based on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis are far from fully explaining the hereditability of complex traits. Rare variants may, in part, explain some of the missing hereditability. Here, we explored the advantage of the extreme phenotype sampling in rare-variant analysis and refined this ...
Lu Wenbin W Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. - - 2012
Nested case-control (NCC) sampling is widely used in large epidemiological cohort studies for its cost effectiveness, but its data analysis primarily relies on the Cox proportional hazards model. In this paper, we consider a family of linear transformation models for analyzing NCC data and propose an inverse selection probability weighted ...
Geue Claudia - - 2011
In the absence of a 'gold standard' to estimate the economic burden of disease, a decision about the most appropriate costing method is required. Researchers have employed various methods to cost hospital stays, including per diem or diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based costs. Alternative methods differ in data collection and costing methodology. ...
Rapsomaniki Eleni E Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming ...
Sánchez Oscar J - - 2011
In this work, the hierarchical decomposition methodology was used to conceptually design the production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane. The decomposition of the process into six levels of analysis was carried out. Several options of technological configurations were assessed in each level considering economic and environmental criteria. The most promising ...
Ngugi Anthony K AK Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, KEMRI, Kilifi 80108, Kenya. - - 2011
To estimate the pooled incidence of epilepsy from published studies and investigate sources of heterogeneity in the estimates. We searched online databases for incidence studies and used meta-analytic methods to analyze the data. Thirty-three articles met the entry criteria. The median incidence of epilepsy was 50.4/100,000/year (interquartile range [IQR] 33.6-75.6), ...
André Jean-Baptiste - - 2011
We model the evolution of the division of a resource between two individuals, according to a bargaining mechanism akin to the ultimatum game, in which a dominant proposer makes an offer that his partner can only accept or refuse. Individuals are randomly drawn from an infinite population and paired two-by-two. ...
Möller Jörgen - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness (cost per additional life-year [LY] and quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained) of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (LEN/DEX) compared with bortezomib for the treatment of relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma (rrMM) in Norway. Methods: A discrete-event simulation model was developed to predict patients' disease course using patient data, best ...
Kaizar Eloise E - - 2011
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the traditional gold standard evidence for medical decision-making. However, protocols that limit enrollment eligibility introduce selection error that severely limits a RCT's applicability to a wide range of patients. Conversely, high quality observational data can be representative of entire populations, but freedom to choose treatment ...
Olgiati Paolo - - 2011
The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates response to SSRIs and side-effect burden. The aim of this study is to quantify the cost-utility of incorporating 5-HTTLPR genotyping in drug treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously reported a theoretical model to simulate antidepressant treatment with citalopram or bupropion for 12weeks. ...
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