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Lange Jean-Paul - - 2011
Furfural offers a promising, rich platform for lignocellulosic biofuels. These include methylfuran and methyltetrahydrofuran, valerate esters, ethylfurfuryl and ethyltetrahydrofurfuryl ethers as well as various C(10) -C(15) coupling products. The various production routes are critically reviewed, and the needs for improvements are identified. Their relative industrial potential is analysed by defining ...
McDonnell T C - - 2012
Estimation of base cation supply from mineral weathering (BC(w)) is useful for watershed research and management. Existing regional approaches for estimating BC(w) require generalized assumptions and availability of stream chemistry data. We developed an approach for estimating BC(w) using regionally specific empirical relationships. The dynamic model MAGIC was used to ...
Naci Huseyin H London School of Economics & Political Science, London, UK. - - 2012
To determine whether Medicare's decision to cover routine administration of erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) to treat anemia of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been a cost-effective policy relative to standard of care at the time. The authors used summary statistics from the actual cohort of ESRD patients receiving ESAs between ...
Wang Lu - - 2011
Summary In some survival analysis of medical studies, there are often long-term survivors who can be considered as permanently cured. The goals in these studies are to estimate the noncured probability of the whole population and the hazard rate of the susceptible subpopulation. When covariates are present as often happens ...
Wang Jixian - - 2011
Analysis of adverse events (AE) for drug safety assessment presents challenges to statisticians in observational studies as well as in clinical trials since AEs are typically recurrent with varying duration and severity. Routine analyses often concentrate on the number of patients who had at least one occurrence of a specific ...
Reel Sarah - - 2012
The ability to estimate accurately from known parameters is a fundamental aspect of science and is evident as an emerging approach in the area of footprints and stature estimation within the field of forensic identification. There are numerous foot dimensions that have been measured in the literature to predict stature ...
Leonards Pim E G - - 2011
A revised risk assessment for toxaphene was developed, based on the assumption that fish consumers are only exposed to toxaphene residues that differ substantially from technical toxaphene due to environmental degradation and metabolism. In vitro studies confirmed that both technical toxaphene and degraded toxaphene inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication that ...
Deng Lisha L School of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK. - - 2012
Health-care providers in the UK and elsewhere are required to maintain records of incidents relating to patient safety, including the date and time of each incident. However, for reporting and analysis, the resulting data are typically grouped into discrete time intervals, for example, weekly or monthly counts. The grouping represents ...
Farrow Scott - - 2011
Benefit-cost models are frequently used to inform environmental policy and management decisions. However, they typically omit a random or pure error which biases downward any estimated forecast variance. Ex-ante benefit-cost analyses create a particular problem because there are no historically observed values of the dependent variable, such as net present ...
Campos Nicole G - - 2012
Although the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is widely considered the most reliable method for evaluation of health care interventions, challenges to both internal and external validity exist. Thus, the efficacy of an intervention in a trial setting does not necessarily represent the real-world performance that decision makers seek to inform ...
Finley Brent L - - 2011
Tremolite is a noncommercial form of amphibole mineral that is present in some chrysotile, talc, and vermiculite deposits. Inhalation of asbestiform tremolite is suspected to have caused or contributed to an increased incidence of mesothelioma in certain mining settings; however, very little is known about the magnitude of tremolite exposure ...
Jaffa Miran A - - 2011
Analysis of longitudinal data is often complicated by the presence of informative right censoring. This type of censoring should be accounted for in the analysis so that valid slope estimates are attained. In this study, we developed a new likelihood-based approach wherein the likelihood function is integrated over random effects ...
Parthan Shantha R - - 2011
The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories - the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and ...
Staatz Christine E - - 2011
This review seeks to summarize the available data about Bayesian estimation of area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and dosage prediction for mycophenolic acid (MPA) and evaluate whether sufficient evidence is available for routine use of Bayesian dosage prediction in clinical practice. A literature search identified 14 studies that ...
Scafetta Nicola - - 2011
Probability distributions of human displacements have been fit with exponentially truncated Lévy flights or fat tailed Pareto inverse power law probability distributions. Thus, people usually stay within a given location (for example, the city of residence), but with a non-vanishing frequency they visit nearby or far locations too. Herein, we ...
Dams Judith - - 2011
The objective of this review was to assess models of cost effectiveness for Parkinson's disease (PD) published after July 2002 and to derive recommendations for future modelling. A systematic literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Current Contents, EMBASE, EconLit, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and DARE (Database ...
Schmidt Wolf-Peter - - 2011
Diarrhoea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality but is difficult to measure in epidemiological studies. Challenges include the diagnosis based on self-reported symptoms, the logistical burden of intensive surveillance and the variability of diarrhoea in space, time and person. We review current practices in sampling procedures to measure ...
Chen Yen-Chang - - 2011
Discharge measurement in a tidal stream is always a difficult task. Owing to the complex flow conditions, discharge measurement in tidal streams has to be finished quickly, and must be highly efficient in order to yield an accurate measurement of real-time discharge. Measuring the discharge of tidal streams is done ...
Poletika Nicholas N - - 2011
This risk assessment applied a framework for determining probable co-occurrence of juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) with agricultural pesticides in the Willamette Basin, Oregon (Teply et al., this issue) to characterize risk to the threatened population. The assessment accounted for spatial and temporal distribution of six acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides in ...
Grubb Anders - - 2012
GFR-prediction equations based upon cystatin C and creatinine have better diagnostic performance in estimating GFR than equations based upon only one of the two markers. The present work concerns in what way a comparison between separate estimations of GFR based upon cystatin C (eGFR(cystatin C)) or creatinine (eGFR(creatinine)) can be ...
Malhi Yadvinder - - 2011
The allocation of the net primary productivity (NPP) of an ecosystem between canopy, woody tissue and fine roots is an important descriptor of the functioning of that ecosystem, and an important feature to correctly represent in terrestrial ecosystem models. Here, we collate and analyse a global dataset of NPP allocation ...
Dakin Helen - - 2011
We aim to establish whether it is ever appropriate to conduct cost-minimisation analysis (CMA) rather than cost-effectiveness analysis.We perform a literature review to examine how the use of CMA has changed since Briggs & O'Brien announced its death in 2001. Examples of simulated and trial data are presented: firstly to ...
Ellis David I - - 2011
As the world progresses from a fossil-fuel based economy to a more sustainable one, synthetic biology will become increasingly important for the production of high-value fine chemicals as well as low-value commodities in bulk. The integration of metabolomics and fluxomics within synthetic biology projects will be vital at all levels, ...
Behera Millie A - - 2011
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-minimization analysis of abdominal, traditional laparoscopic and robotic-assisted myomectomy. DESIGN: Cost analysis (Canadian Task Force Classification III). SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENTS: Women undergoing myomectomy by various surgical approaches. INTERVENTIONS: We developed a decision model to compare the costs ($2009) of different approaches to myomectomy ...
Hölgye Zoltán - - 2011
Activities of (131)I and (137)Cs excreted in urine from two healthy males during May 1986, when contaminated air masses from Chernobyl arrived on the territory of the Czech Republic, were determined by bioassay. The data were used to estimate the intakes and committed effective doses from these radionuclides. The results ...
Ajami Hoori - - 2011
Climate variability and change impact groundwater resources by altering recharge rates. In semi-arid Basin and Range systems, this impact is likely to be most pronounced in mountain system recharge (MSR), a process which constitutes a significant component of recharge in these basins. Despite its importance, the physical processes that control ...
Baker Timothy M - - 2011
Abstract Objectives: Losartan will shortly become generic, and this may encourage switching to the generic drug. However, valsartan was shown in a meta-analysis to be statistically superior in lowering blood pressure (BP) to losartan. This paper examines the costs of treatment with these two drugs and the potential consequences of ...
Graham A H D - - 2011
We present an electrode based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology that can be made fully biocompatible and chemically inert using a simple, low-cost and non-specialised process. Since these devices are based on ubiquitous CMOS technology, the integrated circuits can be readily developed to include appropriate amplifiers, filters and ...
Niu Xun - - 2012
The goal of the research is to reconstruct the unknown cost (objective) function(s) presumably used by the neural controller for sharing the total force among individual fingers in multifinger prehension. The cost function was determined from experimental data by applying the recently developed Analytical Inverse Optimization (ANIO) method (Terekhov et ...
Schildcrout Jonathan S JS Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1161 21st Ave South, S-2323 Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232-2158, USA. - - 2012
Outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) study designs are commonly implemented with rare diseases or when prospective studies are infeasible. In longitudinal data settings, when a repeatedly measured binary response is rare, an ODS design can be highly efficient for maximizing statistical information subject to resource limitations that prohibit covariate ascertainment of all ...
French Benjamin - - 2011
Recently, there has been much interest in using volume outcome data to establish causal associations between measures of surgical experience or quality and patient outcomes following a surgical procedure, such as coronary artery bypass graft, total hip replacement, and radical prostatectomy. However, there does not appear to be a standard ...
Glass Kathryn - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: During the 2009 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1), many studies reported estimates of the reproduction number from outbreak data. Since then, seroprevalence studies have been conducted in a number of countries to assess the proportion of the population that was infected in the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS:: ...
Matuszewski Szymon - - 2011
  Some carrion insects appear on carcasses late in decomposition. While using these late-arriving taxa to estimate postmortem interval, it is vital to accurately estimate an interval preceding their appearance on a cadaver called the preappearance interval (PAI). This paper tests the possibilities of a PAI estimation from temperature in ...
Yu Zhangsheng - - 2012
We consider frailty models with additive semiparametric covariate effects for clustered failure time data. We propose a doubly penalized partial likelihood (DPPL) procedure to estimate the nonparametric functions using smoothing splines. We show that the DPPL estimators could be obtained from fitting an augmented working frailty model with parametric covariate ...
Davis Sarah - - 2011
AimsTo assess the cost-effectiveness of implantable loop recorders (ILRs) in people with transient loss of consciousness (TLoC), which, after initial assessment and specialist cardiovascular assessment, is either suspected to be arrhythmic in origin or remains unexplained. This analysis was conducted to inform clinical guideline recommendations made by the National Institute ...
Liu Nan N Department of Health Policy and Management, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2012
To develop simple stylized models for evaluating the productivity and cost-efficiencies of different practice models to involve nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care, and in particular to generate insights on what affects the performance of these models and how. The productivity of a practice model is defined as the maximum ...
Shaw Andrew D - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after cardiac surgery, and expeditious recognition with specific biomarkers may help improve outcome. OBJECTIVE: Because the economic impact of a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy is unknown, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for the diagnosis of AKI after cardiac ...
Nishiura Hiroshi H School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Level 6, Core F, Cyberport 3, 100 Cyberport Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. - - 2012
Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method ...
Simpson Kit N - - 2011
Substantial immunological improvement has been reported for HIV-infected patients who switch from a failing regimen to a protease inhibitor regimen with Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). We use decision analysis modeling to estimate health and economic consequences expected from this switch. A Markov model combined best evidence for CD4(+) T-cell response, infectious disease ...
Vučurović Damjan G - - 2011
The batch fermentation process of sugar beet processing intermediates by free yeast cells is the most widely used method in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for producing ethanol as fuel. In this study a process and cost model was developed for producing ethanol from raw juice. The model can be ...
Sato Koichi - - 2011
Long dynamic scans (60-120min) are often required for estimating the k(3) value, an index of receptor density, by positron emission tomography (PET). However, the precision of k(3) is usually low in kinetic analyses for reversible PET ligands compared with irreversible ligands. That is largely due to unstable estimation of the ...
Hotes Stefanie - - 2011
A stochastic simulation model was used to assess the additional costs related to segregated transport to slaughter. This control measure was assumed to be implemented within a producers' association to decrease Salmonella prevalence in pork. Calculations were based on the additional shipments caused by the separate transport of low- and ...
Lu Kuo-Ming - - 2011
The present study extends the feedback-seeking behavior literature by investigating how supervisor-related antecedents (i.e., supervisors' expert power, reflected appraisals of supervisors, and supervisors' emotional intelligence) influence subordinates' negative feedback-seeking behavior (NFSB) through different cost/value perceptions (i.e., expectancy value, self-presentation cost, and ego cost). Using data collected from 216 supervisor-subordinate dyads ...
Madero Magdalena - - 2011
To discuss the most commonly used creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations, focus on the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, and review studies that have directly compared their performance, estimated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), ...
Willan Andrew R - - 2011
Methods for determining sample size requirements for cost-effectiveness studies are reviewed and illustrated. Traditional methods based on tests of hypothesis and power arguments are given for the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net benefit (INB). In addition, a full Bayesian approach using decision theory to determine optimal sample size is ...
Muscio A - - 2011
Purpose. The most important purpose is to assess by a trial and error method the financial effects of efficient prevention programmes in our country. The study provides an empiric evidence that Government could reduce public spending thorough investments in projects of prevention about visual care. Materials and methods. Authors focus ...
Inker Lesley A - - 2011
There is much interest in cystatin C to replace or supplement serum creatinine to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Here we review the performance of cystatin C and combined creatinine-cystatin C estimating equations compared to creatinine-based estimating equations in chronic and acute kidney disease. Drift in the cystatin C ...
Pullenayegum Eleanor M - - 2011
When calculating the decreases in health utility associated with adverse events, often a number ofrespondents achieve the upper utility bound of 1. "Marginal" Tobit or CLAD coefficients have been used to account for this. These are calculated by using a Tobit or a CLAD model to estimate the decrease in ...
Klemm Rebecca J - - 2011
The purpose of this analysis is threefold. We first examine the extent to which a longer series of data improves our understanding of air pollution on human mortality in the Atlanta, GA, area by updating the findings presented in Klemm and Mason (J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2000, 50, 1433-1439) ...
Richardson David B DB Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. - - 2011
Lagging exposure information is often undertaken to allow for a latency period in cumulative exposure-disease analyses. The authors first consider bias and confidence interval coverage when using the standard approaches of fitting models under several lag assumptions and selecting the lag that maximizes either the effect estimate or model goodness ...
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