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Nishiura Hiroshi H School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Level 6, Core F, Cyberport 3, 100 Cyberport Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. - - 2012
Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method ...
Simpson Kit N - - 2011
Substantial immunological improvement has been reported for HIV-infected patients who switch from a failing regimen to a protease inhibitor regimen with Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). We use decision analysis modeling to estimate health and economic consequences expected from this switch. A Markov model combined best evidence for CD4(+) T-cell response, infectious disease ...
Vučurović Damjan G - - 2011
The batch fermentation process of sugar beet processing intermediates by free yeast cells is the most widely used method in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for producing ethanol as fuel. In this study a process and cost model was developed for producing ethanol from raw juice. The model can be ...
Sato Koichi - - 2011
Long dynamic scans (60-120min) are often required for estimating the k(3) value, an index of receptor density, by positron emission tomography (PET). However, the precision of k(3) is usually low in kinetic analyses for reversible PET ligands compared with irreversible ligands. That is largely due to unstable estimation of the ...
Hotes Stefanie - - 2011
A stochastic simulation model was used to assess the additional costs related to segregated transport to slaughter. This control measure was assumed to be implemented within a producers' association to decrease Salmonella prevalence in pork. Calculations were based on the additional shipments caused by the separate transport of low- and ...
Lu Kuo-Ming - - 2011
The present study extends the feedback-seeking behavior literature by investigating how supervisor-related antecedents (i.e., supervisors' expert power, reflected appraisals of supervisors, and supervisors' emotional intelligence) influence subordinates' negative feedback-seeking behavior (NFSB) through different cost/value perceptions (i.e., expectancy value, self-presentation cost, and ego cost). Using data collected from 216 supervisor-subordinate dyads ...
Madero Magdalena - - 2011
To discuss the most commonly used creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations, focus on the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, and review studies that have directly compared their performance, estimated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), ...
Willan Andrew R - - 2011
Methods for determining sample size requirements for cost-effectiveness studies are reviewed and illustrated. Traditional methods based on tests of hypothesis and power arguments are given for the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net benefit (INB). In addition, a full Bayesian approach using decision theory to determine optimal sample size is ...
Muscio A - - 2011
Purpose. The most important purpose is to assess by a trial and error method the financial effects of efficient prevention programmes in our country. The study provides an empiric evidence that Government could reduce public spending thorough investments in projects of prevention about visual care. Materials and methods. Authors focus ...
Inker Lesley A - - 2011
There is much interest in cystatin C to replace or supplement serum creatinine to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Here we review the performance of cystatin C and combined creatinine-cystatin C estimating equations compared to creatinine-based estimating equations in chronic and acute kidney disease. Drift in the cystatin C ...
Pullenayegum Eleanor M - - 2011
When calculating the decreases in health utility associated with adverse events, often a number ofrespondents achieve the upper utility bound of 1. "Marginal" Tobit or CLAD coefficients have been used to account for this. These are calculated by using a Tobit or a CLAD model to estimate the decrease in ...
Klemm Rebecca J - - 2011
The purpose of this analysis is threefold. We first examine the extent to which a longer series of data improves our understanding of air pollution on human mortality in the Atlanta, GA, area by updating the findings presented in Klemm and Mason (J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2000, 50, 1433-1439) ...
Richardson David B DB Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. - - 2011
Lagging exposure information is often undertaken to allow for a latency period in cumulative exposure-disease analyses. The authors first consider bias and confidence interval coverage when using the standard approaches of fitting models under several lag assumptions and selecting the lag that maximizes either the effect estimate or model goodness ...
Freedman Laurence S LS Biostatistics Unit, Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Tel Hashomer, Israel. - - 2011
The authors describe a statistical method of combining self-reports and biomarkers that, with adequate control for confounding, will provide nearly unbiased estimates of diet-disease associations and a valid test of the null hypothesis of no association. The method is based on regression calibration. In cases in which the diet-disease association ...
Staatz Christine E - - 2011
This review seeks to summarize the available data about Bayesian estimation of area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and dosage prediction for mycophenolic acid (MPA) and evaluate whether sufficient evidence is available for routine use of Bayesian dosage prediction in clinical practice. A literature search identified 14 studies that ...
Papp K - - 2011
Background  Scalp psoriasis is a difficult to treat and usually chronic manifestation of psoriasis. The CalePso study showed that CPS (Clobex(®) Shampoo) in maintenance therapy of scalp psoriasis (twice weekly) significantly increases the probability of keeping patient under remission during 6 months, compared with vehicle (40.3% relapses vs. 11.6% relapses, ITT). ...
Wardle Gavin G Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 95 Bertmount Ave, Toronto, ON, M4M 2X8, Canada. - - 2012
To examine the impact of diagnostic coding error on estimates of hospital costs attributable to adverse events. Original and reabstracted medical records of 9,670 complex medical and surgical admissions at 11 hospital corporations in Ontario from 2002 to 2004. Patient specific costs, not including physician payments, were retrieved from the ...
Lee Who-Seung - - 2011
Abstract Fast growth can be costly, so trade-offs between growth and fitness are to be predicted when organisms adjust their growth to compensate for earlier environmental conditions. We developed four generic models of increasing complexity with different processes to predict the indeterminate growth of vertebrate ectotherms, which is sensitive to ...
Al-Kandari Noriah M A - - 2011
In the competing risks problem an important role is played by the cumulative incidence function (CIF), whose value at time t is the probability of failure by time t from a particular type of risk in the presence of other risks. Assume that the lifetime distributions of two populations are ...
Assareh Hassan - - 2011
Precise identification of the time when a change in a clinical process has occurred enables experts to identify a potential special cause more effectively. In this article, we develop change point estimation methods for a clinical dichotomous process in the presence of case mix. We apply Bayesian hierarchical models to ...
Cunio Machado Fonseca Marcelo - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Metastatic bone disease (MBD) is responsible for >99% of malignant tumors that affect the bone. MBD patients have increased risk of skeletal complications that are often dramatic and result in loss of function or disability, leading to rapid deterioration of quality of life. Bisphosphonates have become the standard therapy ...
Winterburn J B - - 2011
Biosurfactants could potentially outperform traditional surfactants in many applications whilst being more sustainable to source, manufacture, use and dispose of. However, currently available fermentation production methods are too inefficient to manufacture biosurfactants for these high volume markets. Foaming in an inherent issue with biosurfactant production and adds significantly to the ...
Quina Margarida J - - 2011
Taking into account current environmental concerns, the main objective of this work focused a national inventory aiming to estimate the amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) released in Portugal in 2006. The methodology used was based on the Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxins and Furan ...
Davis Linda J - - 2011
The likelihood ratio paradigm has been studied as a means for quantifying the strength of evidence for a variety of forensic evidence types. Although the concept of a likelihood ratio as a comparison of the plausibility of evidence under two propositions (or hypotheses) is straightforward, a number of issues arise ...
Girling Alan J AJ Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. - - 2012
Product vendors and manufacturers are increasingly aware that purchasers of health care will fund new clinical treatments only if they are perceived to deliver value-for-money. This influences companies' internal commercial decisions, including the price they set for their products. Other things being equal, there is a price threshold, which is ...
Carroll Carlos - - 2011
  Centrality metrics evaluate paths between all possible pairwise combinations of sites on a landscape to rank the contribution of each site to facilitating ecological flows across the network of sites. Computational advances now allow application of centrality metrics to landscapes represented as continuous gradients of habitat quality. This avoids ...
Dams Judith - - 2011
The objective of this review was to assess models of cost effectiveness for Parkinson's disease (PD) published after July 2002 and to derive recommendations for future modelling.A systematic literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Current Contents, EMBASE, EconLit, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and DARE (Database of ...
Gomes Manuel M Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, - - 2012
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) may use data from cluster randomized trials (CRTs), where the unit of randomization is the cluster, not the individual. However, most studies use analytical methods that ignore clustering. This article compares alternative statistical methods for accommodating clustering in CEAs of CRTs. Our simulation study compared the performance ...
Basu Anirban A Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. - - 2012
To develop regression models for outcomes with truncated supports, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data, and account for features typical of such data such as a skewed distribution, spikes at 1 or 0, and heteroskedasticity. Regression estimators based on features of the Beta distribution. First, both a single ...
Schur Nadine - - 2011
Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. We analysed a large ...
Doody D G - - 2012
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) has initiated a shift towards a targeted approach to implementation through its focus on river basin districts as management units and the natural ecological characteristics of waterbodies. Due to its role in eutrophication, phosphorus (P) has received considerable attention, resulting in a significant body of ...
Sun Shawn X - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing roflumilast/tiotropium therapy vs tiotropium monotherapy in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD. Methods: The economic evaluation applied a disease-based Markov cohort model with five health states: (1) severe COPD, (2) severe COPD with a history of severe exacerbation, (3) very severe COPD, (4) ...
Komenda Paul - - 2012
More intensive and/or frequent hemodialysis may provide clinical benefits to patients with end-stage renal disease; however, these dialysis treatments are more convenient to the patients if provided in their homes. Here we created a standardized model, based on a systematic review of available costing literature, to determine the economic viability ...
Armoundas Antonis A AA Cardiovascular Research Center, Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA. - - 2012
T-wave alternans (TWA) has been associated with increased vulnerability to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, both random (white) noise and (patho)physiologic processes (ie, premature ventricular contractions and heart and respiration rates) may hamper TWA estimation and therefore lessen its clinical utility for risk stratification. To investigate the effect ...
Caulkins Jonathan P - - 2011
Aims  No modern jurisdiction has ever legalized commercial production, distribution and possession of cannabis for recreational purposes. This paper presents insights about the effect of legalization on production costs and consumption and highlights important design choices. Methods  Insights were uncovered through our analysis of recent legalization proposals in California. The ...
Chinthammit Chanadda - - 2011
Objectives: This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist discharge counseling on medication-related morbidity in both the high-risk elderly and general US population. Methods: A cost-effectiveness decision analytic model was developed using a health care system perspective based on published clinical trials. Costs included direct medical costs, and the effectiveness unit ...
Liang Zhenhu - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The Hurst exponent (HE) is a nonlinear method measuring the smoothness of a fractal time series. In this study we applied the HE index, extracted from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, as a measure of anesthetic drug effects on brain activity. METHODS: In 19 adult patients undergoing sevoflurane general anesthesia, we ...
Malinovsky Yaakov Y Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2012
Due to the rising cost of laboratory assays, it has become increasingly common in epidemiological studies to pool biospecimens. This is particularly true in longitudinal studies, where the cost of performing multiple assays over time can be prohibitive. In this article, we consider the problem of estimating the parameters of ...
Abildtrup Jens - - 2012
The Coase theorem depends on a number of assumptions, among others, perfect information about each other's payoff function, maximising behaviour and zero transaction costs. An important question is whether the Coase theorem holds for real market transactions when these assumptions are violated. This is the question examined in this paper. ...
Papathanasiou Nikolaos D - - 2012
A systematic meta-analysis of published studies on the diagnostic accuracy of presynaptic dopaminergic imaging with ¹²³I-FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We included (a) studies in which DaTSCAN was performed in cases of diagnostic uncertainty to differentiate between DLB and non-DLB dementia and (b) studies of patients with ...
Jones Byron - - 2011
In this paper we model the cost-benefit of excluding populations at risk through predictive toxicity biomarkers and diagnostics. False positives/ negatives inherent in predictive markers and the frequency and nature of adverse events determine whether biomarkers are beneficial and economically viable. We present a model that takes these and other ...
Turner-Stokes Lynne L King's College London School of Medicine, Department of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, London, - - 2012
To describe the rationale and development of a casemix model and costing methodology for tariff development for specialist neurorehabilitation services in the UK. Patients with complex needs incur higher treatment costs. Fair payment should be weighted in proportion to costs of providing treatment, and should allow for variation over time ...
Roessner Stephen - - 2011
Forming statistical combinations of the results of repeated acoustical measurements taken under identical conditions is a common practice to reduce the effects of random noise. The most common method is to calculate the arithmetic mean of an ensemble of test results, which is based on the assumption that all experiments ...
Hu Liang-Ping - - 2011
This article introduces the general concepts and methods of sample size estimation and testing power analysis. It focuses on parametric methods of sample size estimation, including sample size estimation of estimating the population mean and the population probability. It also provides estimation formulas and introduces how to realize sample size ...
Ono Duane - - 2011
Particulate matter < or =10 microm (PM10) emissions due to wind erosion can vary dramatically with changing surface conditions. Crust formation, mechanical disturbance, soil texture, moisture, and chemical content of the soil can affect the amount of dust emitted during a wind event. A refined method of quantifying windblown dust ...
Monsef Florian - - 2011
The ensemble-average value of the mean-square pressure is often assessed by using the spatial-average technique, underlying an equivalence principle between spatial and ensemble estimators. Using the ideal-diffuse-field model, the accuracy of the spatial-average method has been studied theoretically forty years ago in the case of a single-tone excitation. This study ...
Bobinac Ana - - 2011
Estimates of WTP per QALY can be taken as an indication of the monetary value of health gains, which may carry information regarding the appropriate height of the cost-effectiveness threshold. Given the far-reaching consequences choosing a particular threshold, and thus the potential relevance of WTP per QALY estimates, it is ...
Blackwood Julie C - - 2011
The interaction between multiple stressors on Caribbean coral reefs, namely, fishing effort and hurricane impacts, is a key element in the future sustainability of reefs. We develop an analytic model of coral-algal interactions and explicitly consider grazing by herbivorous reef fish. Further, we consider changes in structural complexity, or rugosity, ...
Manca Andrea A Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK. - - 2012
To assess the value for money of alternative chemotherapy strategies for managing advanced colorectal cancer using irinotecan or oxaliplatin, either in sequence or in combination with fluorouracil. A cost-effectiveness model was developed using data from the U.K. fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and CPT11 (irinotecan)--use and sequencing (FOCUS) trial. The analysis adopted the ...
Burton T - - 2011
Individual differences in the energy cost of self-maintenance (resting metabolic rate, RMR) are substantial and the focus of an emerging research area. These differences may influence fitness because self-maintenance is considered as a life-history component along with growth and reproduction. In this review, we ask why do some individuals have ...
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