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Wilson Kerrie A - - 2011
We need to set priorities for conservation because we cannot do everything, everywhere, at the same time. We determined priority areas for investment in threat abatement actions, in both a cost-effective and spatially and temporally explicit way, for the threatened mammals of the world. Our analysis presents the first fine-resolution ...
Khosa Patricia - - 2011
The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is a large aquatic reptile predominant in the tropics in Africa and Zimbabwe in particular. Clutch sizes and hatching rates of Nile crocodile eggs collected from the wild and on-farm in Lowveld, Highveld and Kariba regions of Zimbabwe were evaluated. A total of 274 egg ...
Jallon Romain - - 2011
This article follows an earlier one in which four criteria and four bases for the development of an indirect-cost calculation model adapted to the accuracy requirements and time constraints of workplace decision-makers were established. A two-level model for calculating indirect costs using process mapping of the organizational response to a ...
Schoenemann T - - 2011
We consider the problem of decomposing a video sequence into a superposition of (a given number of) moving layers. For this problem we propose an energy minimization approach based on coding cost. Our contributions affect both the model (what is minimized) and the algorithmic side (how it is minimized). The ...
Zhang Z - - 2011
There is growing interest in pooling specimens across subjects in epidemiologic studies, especially those involving biomarkers. This paper is concerned with regression analysis of epidemiologic data where a binary exposure is subject to pooling and the pooled measurement is dichotomized to indicate either that no subjects in the pool are ...
Korell Julia - - 2011
The aim of this work is to compare different labelling methods that are commonly used to estimate the lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs), e.g. in anaemia of renal failure, where the effect of treatment with erythropoietin depends on the lifespan of RBCs. A previously developed model for the survival ...
Skaltsa Konstantina - - 2011
In the diagnostic area, the usual setting considers two populations: nondiseased and diseased. The use of the standard ROC analysis methodology is well established. Sometimes, however, diagnostic problems inherently include more than two classification states. For example, 'yes, uncertain, no' or 'low, normal, high'. Here we consider a three-normal distribution ...
Chevalier Julie - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: While a French language version of the EQ-5D exists, to date, there has been no French value set to accompany it. The objective of our study was then to derive the French TTO value set of the EQ-5D. METHODS: A total of 452 respondents aged over 18 were recruited ...
Taylor Eleanor M - - 2011
Studies of the chronic effects of MDMA, or 'ecstasy', in humans have been largely inconsistent. We explored whether study-level characteristics are associated with the effect size estimate reported. We based our analyses on the recent systematic review by Rogers and colleagues, focusing on those meta-analyses within this report where there ...
Lu Juan - - 2012
This study extends our previous investigation regarding the effect of nondifferential dichotomous Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) misclassification in traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinical trials to the effect of GOS misclassification on ordinal analysis in TBI clinical trials. The impact of GOS misclassification and ordinal outcome analysis was explored via probabilistic ...
van Breukelen Gerard Jp - - 2011
For cluster randomized and multicentre trials evaluating the effect of a treatment on persons nested within clusters, equations have been published to compute the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person level as a function of sampling costs and intraclass correlation (ICC). Here, optimal means maximum power and precision ...
Bjerklund Johansen Truls E - - 2012
• To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) compared with alpha-blocker (AB), 5-alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) monotherapy or watchful waiting (WW) in male patients enrolled in the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAT) trial using a Norwegian economic model. • A decision analytic model was ...
Demiris Nikolaos - - 2011
Recent studies of (cost-) effectiveness in cardiothoracic transplantation have required estimation of mean survival over the lifetime of the recipients. In order to calculate mean survival, the complete survivor curve is required but is often not fully observed, so that survival extrapolation is necessary. After transplantation, the hazard function is ...
Siddiqui Chowdhury - - 2012
This study investigates the effect of spatial correlation using a Bayesian spatial framework to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes in Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs). Aggregate models for pedestrian and bicycle crashes were estimated as a function of variables related to roadway characteristics, and various demographic and socio-economic factors. It was ...
Li Dalin - - 2011
Variants identified in recent genome-wide association studies based on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis are far from fully explaining the hereditability of complex traits. Rare variants may, in part, explain some of the missing hereditability. Here, we explored the advantage of the extreme phenotype sampling in rare-variant analysis and refined this ...
Lu Wenbin - - 2012
Nested case-control (NCC) sampling is widely used in large epidemiological cohort studies for its cost effectiveness, but its data analysis primarily relies on the Cox proportional hazards model. In this paper, we consider a family of linear transformation models for analyzing NCC data and propose an inverse selection probability weighted ...
Geue Claudia - - 2011
In the absence of a 'gold standard' to estimate the economic burden of disease, a decision about the most appropriate costing method is required. Researchers have employed various methods to cost hospital stays, including per diem or diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based costs. Alternative methods differ in data collection and costing methodology. ...
Rapsomaniki Eleni E Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming ...
Sánchez Oscar J - - 2011
In this work, the hierarchical decomposition methodology was used to conceptually design the production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane. The decomposition of the process into six levels of analysis was carried out. Several options of technological configurations were assessed in each level considering economic and environmental criteria. The most promising ...
Ngugi Anthony K AK Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, KEMRI, Kilifi 80108, Kenya. - - 2011
To estimate the pooled incidence of epilepsy from published studies and investigate sources of heterogeneity in the estimates. We searched online databases for incidence studies and used meta-analytic methods to analyze the data. Thirty-three articles met the entry criteria. The median incidence of epilepsy was 50.4/100,000/year (interquartile range [IQR] 33.6-75.6), ...
André Jean-Baptiste - - 2011
We model the evolution of the division of a resource between two individuals, according to a bargaining mechanism akin to the ultimatum game, in which a dominant proposer makes an offer that his partner can only accept or refuse. Individuals are randomly drawn from an infinite population and paired two-by-two. ...
Möller Jörgen - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness (cost per additional life-year [LY] and quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained) of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (LEN/DEX) compared with bortezomib for the treatment of relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma (rrMM) in Norway. Methods: A discrete-event simulation model was developed to predict patients' disease course using patient data, best ...
Kaizar Eloise E - - 2011
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the traditional gold standard evidence for medical decision-making. However, protocols that limit enrollment eligibility introduce selection error that severely limits a RCT's applicability to a wide range of patients. Conversely, high quality observational data can be representative of entire populations, but freedom to choose treatment ...
Olgiati Paolo - - 2011
The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates response to SSRIs and side-effect burden. The aim of this study is to quantify the cost-utility of incorporating 5-HTTLPR genotyping in drug treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously reported a theoretical model to simulate antidepressant treatment with citalopram or bupropion for 12weeks. ...
Cristofaro M - - 2011
PURPOSE: This study assessed radiology requests and the influence of previous radiological procedures on their specificity and appropriateness, evaluated diagnostic outcomes and recorded the economic impact of inappropriate examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively analysed 4,018 outpatient requests, the appropriateness of which was assessed using an evaluation form. Economic analysis ...
Herrick Robert L - - 2011
Approximately 690 000-1 790 000 Salmonella cases, 20 000 hospitalizations, and 400 deaths occur in the USA annually, costing approximately $2.6bn. Existing models estimate morbidity, mortality, and cost solely from incidence. They do not estimate illness duration or use time as an independent cost predictor. Existing models may underestimate physician visits, hospitalizations, deaths, and ...
Chanjaruporn Farsai - - 2011
Thailand does not currently require Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) assessment. The present study aimed to estimate the annual drug cost and the incremental impact on the hospital pharmaceutical budget of the introduction of pemetrexed to a Thai teaching hospital. The budget impact model was conducted in accordance with the Guidelines ...
Cha E - - 2011
The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of 3 different types of clinical mastitis (CM) (caused by gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and other organisms) at the individual cow level and thereby identify the economically optimal management decision for each type of mastitis. We made modifications to an ...
Willan Andrew R - - 2011
Previous applications of value of information methods for determining optimal sample size in randomized clinical trials have assumed no between-study variation in mean incremental net benefit. By adopting a hierarchical model, we provide a solution for determining optimal sample size with this assumption relaxed. The solution is illustrated with two ...
Myles Latoya - - 2011
Trace gas fluxes exhibit extensive spatial and temporal variability that is dependent on a number of factors, including meteorology, ambient concentration, and emission source size. Previous studies have found that agricultural fertilization contributes to higher fluxes of certain gases. The magnitude of trace gas fluxes over unfertilized crops is still ...
Tosh Jonathan - - 2011
The Sheffield RA health economic model has been used in several published cost-effectiveness analyses in both the UK and internationally to evaluate different treatments for patients with RA. This article presents the key methods and assumptions that underpin the model, including justifications for using an individual patient sampling methodology, and ...
- - 2011
Text-line extraction in unconstrained handwritten documents remains a challenging problem due to non-uniform character scale, spatially varying text orientation, and the interference between text-lines. In order to address these problems, we propose a new cost function that considers the interactions between text-lines as well as the curvilinearity of each textline. ...
Bakal Jeffrey A - - 2011
The preferred reperfusion strategy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) provided it can be performed in a timely fashion at an expert 24/7 facility. However, many Canadians reside in areas precluding timely transport to a specialized facility. A new regional PCI facility could be economically ...
Kim Kun - - 2011
Antipsychotic medications are the mainstay for schizophrenia treatment, and olanzapine and risperidone are popular choices among atypical antipsychotics in Norway. Our aim was to develop a decision analytic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antipsychotics in a Norwegian setting. The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) score was used to ...
Bojke Laura - - 2011
A probabilistic model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of three biologics, etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, compared with palliative care for the treatment of active and progressive PsA in patients who have an inadequate response to standard treatment (including DMARDs). A previous model was revised to evaluate the impact of ...
Zhang Qingtao - - 2011
This study is aimed to systematically estimate marginal land resources with different grades (total area; land with certain eco-environmental-economic feasibility; centralized reserve land) in China, and evaluate potential energy production from microalgae on marginal lands in the long-, mid- and near-term, based on a model. The annual potential energy production ...
Hamacher D - - 2011
Falls not only present a considerable health threat, but the resulting treatment and loss of working days also place a heavy economic burden on society. Gait instability is a major fall risk factor, particularly in geriatric patients, and walking is one of the most frequent dynamic activities of daily living. ...
Hu L L Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Ministry of Education) and School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, - - 2011
Across-trial averaging is a widely used approach to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of event-related potentials (ERPs). However, across-trial variability of ERP latency and amplitude may contain physiologically relevant information that is lost by across-trial averaging. Hence, we aimed to develop a novel method that uses 1) wavelet filtering (WF) ...
Corino V - - 2011
This paper introduces a model of the atrioventricular node function during atrial fibrillation (AF), and describes the related ECG-based estimation method. The proposed model is defined by parameters which characterize the arrival rate of atrial impulses, the probability of an impulse choosing either one of the two atrioventricular nodal pathways, ...
Fernández O - - 2011
Background: Although not definitively proven, there is commonly accepted to be a latitudinal gradient in the distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is more frequent in temperate zones. The European Mediterranean countries are situated in a zone of median frequency, although ever increasing figures have been noted in the last ...
Sood Neeraj N Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. - - 2012
To examine how the 2004 introduction of behind-the-counter (BTC) simvastatin in the United Kingdom affected utilization, prices, and expenditures. Secondary data on simvastatin utilization, prices, and expenditures between 1997 and 2007 in the United Kingdom and four other countries. We used a difference-in-differences approach to estimate how the introduction of ...
Townsend Rebecca - - 2011
Published economic evaluations have reported available treatments for chronic hepatitis C to be cost-effective as part of the current approach to disease management, but as standards of care evolve, their approach to modeling should be reconsidered. This study aimed to review structural frameworks and key model parameters as reported in ...
Feng Bihua - - 2011
CaMKII plays a critical role in long-term potentiation (LTP). The kinase is a major component of the postsynaptic density (PSD); however, it is also contained in the spine cytoplasm. CaMKII can now be monitored optically in living neurons, and it is therefore important to understand the contribution of the PSD ...
Carnevale Claudio - - 2011
Environmental Agencies require Decision Support Systems, in order to plan Air Quality Policies considering the cost of emission reduction measures and the human health effects (with related social costs). The use of Decision Support Systems is also useful to spread information to general public, explaining the effectiveness of proposed air ...
Cheney Karen L - - 2012
Aggressive mimics are predatory species that resemble a 'model' species to gain access to food, mating opportunities or transportation at the expense of a signal receiver. Costs to the model may be variable, depending on the strength of the interaction between mimics and signal receivers. In the Indopacific, the bluestriped ...
Moolenaar Lobke M - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost effectiveness of ovarian reserve testing in in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: A Markov decision model based on data from the literature and original patient data. SETTING: Decision analytic framework. PATIENT(S): Computer-simulated cohort of subfertile women aged 20 to 45 years who are eligible for IVF. INTERVENTION(S): ...
Jutkowitz Eric - - 2012
Evaluating cost effectiveness of interventions for aging in place is essential for adoption in service settings. We present the cost effectiveness of Advancing Better Living for Elders (ABLE), previously shown in a randomized trial to reduce functional difficulties and mortality in 319 community-dwelling elders. ABLE involved occupational and physical therapy ...
Rutherford Mark J - - 2011
Background: It is vital that unbiased estimates of relative survival are estimated and reported by cancer registries. A single figure of relative survival is often required to make reporting simpler. This can be obtained by pooling all ages or, more commonly, by using age-standardisation. The various methods for providing a ...
Timsit Jean-François - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically discuss the attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and potential sources of variation. RECENT FINDINGS: The review will cover the available estimates (0-50%). It will also explore the source of variation because of definition of VAP (being lower if inaccurate), case-mix issues (being lower for ...
Wang Xinlei - - 2011
Summary In applications that require cost efficiency, sample sizes are typically small so that the problem of empty strata may often occur in judgment poststratification (JPS), an important variant of balanced ranked set sampling. In this article, we consider estimation of population cumulative distribution functions (CDF) from JPS samples with ...
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