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Berger David D Uppsala University; - - 2014
Empirical evidence for diminishing fitness returns of beneficial mutations supports Fisher's geometric model. We show that a similar pattern emerges through the phenomenon of regression-to-the-mean and that few studies correct for it. Although biases are often small, regression-to-the-mean has overemphasized diminishing returns and will hamper cross-study comparisons unless corrected for.
Taghipoor M M INRA, UR83 Recherches Avicoles, F-37380 Nouzilly, France; Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (UMR CNRS 7350) Fédération Denis Poisson (FR CNRS 2964) Université de Tours Faculté des Sciences et Techniques Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours, - - 2014
In this work, the modelling of the digestion in the small intestine is developed by investigating specifically the effects of dietary fiber. As our previous model, this new version takes into account the three main phenomena of digestion: transit of the bolus, degradation of feedstuffs and absorption through the intestinal ...
Benecke Gunthard G PETRA III, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg 22607, Germany ; Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam, Brandenbug 14476, - - 2014
X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. ...
Degen Judith J Department of Psychology, Stanford - - 2014
Three experiments investigated the processing of the implicature associated with some using a "gumball paradigm." On each trial, participants saw an image of a gumball machine with an upper chamber with 13 gumballs and an empty lower chamber. Gumballs then dropped to the lower chamber and participants evaluated statements, such ...
Falkenström Fredrik F Linköping University, Linkoping, Sweden Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden - - 2014
The working alliance concerns the quality of collaboration between patient and therapist in psychotherapy. One of the most widely used scales for measuring the working alliance is the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI). For the patient-rated version, the short form developed by Hatcher and Gillaspy (WAI-SR) has shown the best psychometric ...
Pandey Preetanshu P Drug Product Science and Technology, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New Brunswick, New Jersey, - - 2014
Although significant progress had been made in developing general scale-up rules for an aqueous pan-coating process, there are often scenarios where small-scale experiments are not found to be truly reflective of what may be observed at the large scale. This article reviews some of the methods traditionally used for scale-up, ...
Huang Jen-Ching JC Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tungnan University, ShenKeng, New Taipei City, - - 2014
This study focused on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire during nanomachining. The coated diamond probe is used to as a tool, and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) is as an experimental platform for nanomachining. To understand the effect of normal force on single-crystal sapphire machining, this ...
Youm Jae Boum JB Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, Busan, South Korea. Electronic address: - - 2014
It is widely accepted that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) generate pacemaker potentials to propagate slow waves along the whole gastrointestinal tract. Previously, we constructed a biophysically based model of ICCs in mouse small intestine to explain the pacemaker mechanism. Our previous model, however, could not explain non-uniformity of pacemaker ...
Davis Tony D TD Pharmacology Program-Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, ‡Gerstner Sloan Kettering Summer Undergraduate Research Program, §Molecular Pharmacology & Chemistry Program and Tri-Institutional Research Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , 1275 York Avenue, Box 422, New York, New York 10065, United - - 2014
The chemical features that impact small-molecule permeability across bacterial membranes are poorly understood, and the resulting lack of tools to predict permeability presents a major obstacle to the discovery and development of novel antibiotics. Antibacterials are known to have vastly different structural and physicochemical properties compared to nonantiinfective drugs, as ...
Doescher Mark P MP Peggy and Charles Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
. The role of the built environment on walking in rural United States (U.S.) locations is not well characterized. We examined self-reported and measured built environment correlates of walking for utilitarian purposes among adult residents of small rural towns. . In 2011-12, we collected telephone survey and geographic data from ...
Fagerberg Jonas H JH Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Biomedical Centre, P.O. Box 580, SE-751 23, Uppsala, - - 2014
To develop predictive models of apparent solubility (Sapp) of lipophilic drugs in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and aspirated human intestinal fluid (HIF). Measured Sapp values in FaSSIF, HIF and phosphate buffer pH 6.5 (PhBpH6.5) for 86 lipophilic drugs were compiled and divided into training (Tr) and test (Te) sets. ...
Congdon Peter P School of Geography and Life Sciences Institute, Queen Mary University of - - 2014
Existing analyses of trends in disability free life expectancy (DFLE) are mainly at aggregate level (national or broad regional). However, major differences in DFLE, and trends in these expectancies, exist between different neighbourhoods within regions, so supporting a small area perspective. However, this raises issues regarding the stability of conventional ...
Thomsen Troels B TB Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark. - - 2014
The mucus overlying mucosal epithelial surfaces presents not only a biological barrier to the penetration of potential pathogens, but also therapeutic modalities including RNAi-based nanocarriers. Movement of nanomedicines across the mucus barriers of the gastrointestinal mucosa is modulated by interactions of the nanomedicine carriers with mucin glycoproteins inside the mucus, ...
Rautava Jaana J Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, - - 2014
Oral mucosal pathologies are frequent in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Since host-microbiome interactions are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, in this study the potential for changes affecting the oral microbiome was evaluated using two complementary mouse models of colitis: either chemically (dextran sulphate sodium, DSS) or with Citrobacter rodentium ...
Liu L L Computational Biophysics, MESA+, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands. - - 2014
An analysis is presented of forces acting on the centers of mass of three-armed star polymers in the molten state. The arms consist of 35 Kremer-Grest beads, which is slightly larger than needed for one entanglement mass. For a given configuration of the centers of mass, instantaneous forces fluctuate wildly ...
Juhasz Albert L - - 2014
To evaluate the capabilities of in vitro assays to predict arsenic (As) relative bioavailability (RBA), we examined the relationship between As bioaccessibility, determined using a number of in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) methodologies (SBRC, IVG, PBET, DIN and UBM) and As RBA determined in a mouse assay for nine As-contaminated soils ...
Szavits-Nossan Juraj J SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, United - - 2014
In small volumes, the kinetics of filamentous protein self-assembly is expected to show significant variability, arising from intrinsic molecular noise. This is not accounted for in existing deterministic models. We introduce a simple stochastic model including nucleation and autocatalytic growth via elongation and fragmentation, which allows us to predict the ...
Zamora Juan Carlos JC Mycology, Real Jardín Botánico-CSIC, Madrid, Madrid, 28014, Spain - - 2014
Systematics of the recently proposed Geastrum sect. Schmidelia are addressed through statistical analyses of quantitative morphological variables and phylogenetic reconstructions based on a multilocus approach. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic placement of G. schmidelii var. parvisporum. This variety is found to be not phylogenetically close to G. schmidelii var. ...
Greenberg David D University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA - - 2014
This article describes eight flaws that occur in impact evaluations. The eight flaws are grouped into four categories on how they affect impact estimates: statistical imprecision; biases; failure of impact estimates to measure effects of the planned treatment; and flaws that result from weakening an evaluation design. Each flaw is ...
Mazza Angelo A Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania, Corso Italia 55, 95129 , Catania, Italy, - - 2014
Various parametric/nonparametric techniques have been proposed in literature to graduate mortality data as a function of age. Nonparametric approaches, as for example kernel smoothing regression, are often preferred because they do not assume any particular mortality law. Among the existing kernel smoothing approaches, the recently proposed (univariate) discrete beta kernel ...
Randhawa Puneet Kaur PK Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, - - 2014
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are a set of chronic, idiopathic, immunological and relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract referred to as inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD). Although the etiological factors involved in the perpetuation of IBD remain uncertain, development of various animal models provides new insights to unveil the ...
Prado José L JL INCUAPA, CONICET-UNICEN, National University of Central Buenos Aires Province, Olavarría, - - 2014
The contemporary South American mammalian communities were determined by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses and gomphotheres were 2 very conspicuous groups of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. The present study ...
Saadati Maral M Division of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg, D-69120, - - 2014
With the fast growing field of epigenetics comes the need to better understand the intricacies of DNA methylation data analysis. High-throughput profiling using techniques, such as Illumina's BeadArray assay, enable the quantitative assessment of methylation. Challenges arise from the fact that resulting methylation levels (so-called beta values) are proportions between ...
Willenberg Ina I University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Institute of Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, - - 2015
Resveratrol oligomers are biologically active polyphenols found in wine. No information about the bioavailability of these polyphenols is available. In order to discover if the resveratrol oligomers can pass the intestinal barrier, transport of the dimer ε-viniferin and the tetramer hopeaphenol was studied in the Caco-2 transwell system. A flux ...
Wang Xinhui - - 2014
Non-specific feature selection is a dimension reduction procedure performed prior to cluster analysis of high dimensional molecular data. Not all measured features are expected to show biological variation, so only the most varying are selected for analysis. In DNA methylation studies, DNA methylation is measured as a proportion, bounded between ...
Hayami Masao M Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, 169-8555, - - 2014
An algorithm of the accompanying coordinate expansion and recurrence relation (ACE-RR), which is used for the rapid evaluation of the electron repulsion integral (ERI), has been extended to the general-contraction (GC) scheme. The present algorithm, denoted by GC-ACE-RR, is designed for molecular calculations including heavy elements, whose orbitals consist of ...
Ghaedi M M Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2014
The influence of variables, namely initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage (g), stirrer speed (rpm) and contact time (min) on the removal of methyl orange (MO) by gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) and Tamarisk were investigated using multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) and the variables ...
DeGrandi-Hoffman Gloria G Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ, 85719, USA, - - 2014
Varroa (Varroa destuctor Anderson and Trueman) populations in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies might be kept at low levels by well-timed miticide applications. HopGuard(®) (HG) that contains beta plant acids as the active ingredient was used to reduce mite populations. Schedules for applications of the miticide that could maintain ...
Stier Adrian C - - 2014
Trophic island biogeography theory predicts that the effects of predators on prey diversity are context dependent in heterogeneous landscapes. Specifically, models predict that the positive effect of habitat area on prey diversity should decline in the presence of predators, and that predators should modify the partitioning of alpha and beta ...
Galvis Diana M DM Departamento de Estatística, IMECC-UNICAMP, Campinas, São Paulo, - - 2014
Continuous (clustered) proportion data often arise in various domains of medicine and public health where the response variable of interest is a proportion (or percentage) quantifying disease status for the cluster units, ranging between zero and one. However, because of the presence of relatively disease-free as well as heavily diseased ...
Messner Michael J MJ Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, - - 2014
This study utilizes old and new Norovirus (NoV) human challenge data to model the dose-response relationship for human NoV infection. The combined data set is used to update estimates from a previously published beta-Poisson dose-response model that includes parameters for virus aggregation and for a beta-distribution that describes variable susceptibility ...
Panero L M LM Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, 22100 Como, - - 2014
The internal alpha dose assessment (ICRP 65, 1994) depends on the value of the equilibrium factor F. This parameter is generally not measured and a mean conventional value ranging between 0.4 and 0.6 is assumed, possibly leading to a significant bias in the dose assessments. In this paper, a method ...
Hernández-Ceballos M A MA Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain, - - 2014
Airborne pollen transport at micro-, meso-gamma and meso-beta scales must be studied by atmospheric models, having special relevance in complex terrain. In these cases, the accuracy of these models is mainly determined by the spatial resolution of the underlying meteorological dataset. This work examines how meteorological datasets determine the results ...
Amato Ernesto E Section of Radiological Sciences, Department Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, - - 2014
To assess the radiation burden of non-human living organisms, dose coefficients are available in the literature, precalculated by assuming an ellipsoidal shape of each organism. A previously developed analytical method was applied for the determination of absorbed fractions inside ellipsoidal volumes from alpha, beta, and gamma radiations to the calculation ...
Wang Xiao-Feng XF Department of Quantitative Health Sciences/Biostatistics Section, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, 44195, - - 2014
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging technique that measures the three-dimensional diffusion of water molecules within tissue through the application of multiple diffusion gradients. This technique is rapidly increasing in popularity for studying white matter properties and structural connectivity in the living human brain. One of ...
Cao Teng - - 2014
The fatigue that users suffer when using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can cause a number of serious problems such as signal quality degradation and system performance deterioration, users' discomfort and even risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures, posing heavy restrictions on the applications of SSVEP-based BCIs. Towards ...
Yang Jinzhong J Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address: - - 2014
To develop a new approach for interobserver variability analysis. Eight radiation oncologists specializing in breast cancer radiation therapy delineated a patient's left breast "from scratch" and from a template that was generated using deformable image registration. Three of the radiation oncologists had previously received training in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group ...
Höcht Christian C Universidad de Buenos Aires, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Department of Pharmacology , Junín 956, (C1113AAD) Buenos Aires , Argentina +54 11 4964 8265 ; +54 11 4508 3645 ; - - 2014
Introduction: β-blocker therapy plays an important role in the treatment of various diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Although all β-blockers shared their ability to competitively block β1-adrenoceptor, this therapeutic class showed great heterogeneity in their pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties. Areas covered: The present review describes ...
Sun Deqiang - - 2014
Bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) is the gold standard for studying genome-wide DNA methylation. We developed MOABS to increase the speed, accuracy, statistical power and biological relevance of BS-seq data analysis. MOABS detects differential methylation with 10-fold coverage at single-CpG resolution based on a Beta-Binomial hierarchical model and is capable of processing ...
Mroczek Dariusz D 1Chair of Motor Activity, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland 2Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, - - 2014
The present study aims to assess motor activity of volleyball players using an original video recording method developed by the authors. 28 volleyball players taking part in four matches of the Polish Volleyball League were examined. The recorded data were analyzed in view of the mean total distance covered by ...
Demetrashvili Nino N 1Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, RB Groningen, the - - 2014
Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in agreement studies with continuous outcomes are model-specific and no generic approach exists. This paper provides two generic approaches for intraclass correlation coefficients of the form $$\sum _{q=1}^{Q}{\sigma }_{q}^{2}/(\sum _{q=1}^{Q}{\sigma }_{q}^{2}+\sum _{p=Q+1}^{P}{\sigma }_{p}^{2})$$. The first approach uses Satterthwaite's approximation and an F-distribution. The second ...
Kim Jae-Kwan JK Vorononi Diagram Research Center, Hanyang University, - - 2014
Molecular external structure is important for molecular function, with voids on the surface and interior being one of the most important features. Hence, recognition of molecular voids and accurate computation of their geometrical properties, such as volume, area and topology, are crucial, yet most popular algorithms are based on the ...
Meaney Christopher - - 2014
In biomedical research, response variables are often encountered which have bounded support on the open unit interval - (0,1). Traditionally, researchers have attempted to estimate covariate effects on these types of response data using linear regression. Alternative modelling strategies may include: beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression ...
Choi Yongju - - 2014
The validity of a hydrophobic organic contaminant mass transfer model to predict the effectiveness of in-situ AC treatment under stagnant sediment-AC contact is studied for different contaminants and sediments. The modeling results and data from a previous 24-month column study experiment of uptake in polyethylene samplers are within a factor ...
Wang Xiaoyan - - 2014
Among the methods of parallel magnetic resonance imaging (PMRI), Generalized Auto-calibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) technique reconstructs the missing k-space data by a set of weights, which are derived from auto-calibration signal (ACS) lines acquired in parallel to the reduced lines. In this paper, a novel hybrid method is proposed ...
Martin Andrew A NHS Greater Manchester Commissioning Support Unit, Salford, Manchester, - - 2014
Background: Generic losartan provides an opportunity to enhance angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) prescribing efficiency, with all ARBs essentially being similar. Initially, there was limited activity in NHS Bury (UK). This changed in March 2011 with therapeutic switching and other measures encouraging the prescribing of losartan following generics to enhance its ...
Legendre Pierre P Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, , C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada , H3C 3J7, Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR CNRS 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, , rue Dumont d'Urville, Plouzané 29280, - - 2014
This review focuses on the analysis of temporal beta diversity, which is the variation in community composition along time in a study area. Temporal beta diversity is measured by the variance of the multivariate community composition time series and that variance can be partitioned using appropriate statistical methods. Some of ...
Otani Koichi - - 2014
It has been suggested that interpersonal sensitivity, a personality trait associated with depression and anxiety disorders, is linked with attachment insecurity. To confirm this link, we studied the correlations of interpersonal sensitivity with working models of the self and other. The subjects were 301 healthy Japanese. Interpersonal sensitivity and working ...
Montero-Marin Jesus J Faculty of Health Sciences and Sports, University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain ; REDIAPP "Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud" (Research Network on Preventative Activities and Health Promotion), Zaragoza, - - 2014
Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of 'overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect', belonging to the 'frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out' subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate ...
Marcon Eric E AgroParisTech, UMR Écologie des Forêts de Guyane, Kourou Cedex, - - 2014
Traditional measures of diversity, namely the number of species as well as Simpson's and Shannon's indices, are particular cases of Tsallis entropy. Entropy decomposition, i.e. decomposing gamma entropy into alpha and beta components, has been previously derived in the literature. We propose a generalization of the additive decomposition of Shannon ...
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