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Vap Linda L Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1610, USA. Electronic address: - - 2015
Interpretation of camelid hematology results is similar to that of other mammals. Obtaining accurate results and using appropriate reference intervals can be a bit problematic, particularly when evaluating the erythron. Camelid erythrocytes vary from other mammals in that they are small, flat, and elliptical. This variation makes data obtained from ...
Korpela Katri K Department of Biological and Environmental Science, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, - - 2014
The cyclic population dynamics of vole and predator communities is a key phenomenon in northern ecosystems, and it appears to be influenced by climate change. Reports of collapsing rodent cycles have attributed the changes to warmer winters, which weaken the interaction between voles and their specialist subnivean predators. Using population ...
Bois Frederic Y FY 1 Université de Technologie de Compiègne and Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France - - 2014
Abstract Because of the huge number of graphs possible even with a small number of nodes, inference on network structure is known to be a challenging problem. Generating large random directed graphs with prescribed probabilities of occurrences of some meaningful patterns (motifs) is also difficult. We show how to generate ...
Gräwert Tobias - - 2014
Cattle husbandry is a major contributor to atmospheric methane which is considered as an important greenhouse gas. Moreover, the generation of methane in the intestine of domestic ruminants by methanogenic bacteria is a drag on feed efficacy. Studies on methanogenesis have typically implied model organisms that are, however, not relevant ...
Kuniya Toshikazu T Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. - - 2014
In this paper, we formulate an SIR epidemic model with hybrid of multigroup and patch structures, which can be regarded as a model for the geographical spread of infectious diseases or a multi-group model with perturbation. We show that if a threshold value, which corresponds to the well-known basic reproduction ...
Ehlert Kurt K Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, - - 2014
To respect the nature of discrete parts in a system, stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) must update for each action (i) all part counts and (ii) each action's probability of occurring next and its timing. This makes it expensive to simulate biological networks with well-connected "hubs" such as ATP that affect ...
Reece Christian C School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, - - 2014
Varying degrees of order have been found experimentally for a series of covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) when synthesised under different reaction conditions. Here, we use molecular modelling to discuss the potential origins of this structural order by analysis of the node and strut building blocks. We use a combination of ...
McDonald Julie A K JA Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, - - 2014
In vivo studies of human mucosal gut microbiota are often limited to end-point analyses and confounded by bowel cleansing procedures. Therefore, we used biofilm reactors to incorporate a simulated mucosal environment into an in vitro gut chemostat model. Communities developed were complex, reproducible, distinct, and representative of in vivo communities.
Rogers Emily E School of Computational Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 266 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0765, - - 2014
As the biomedical impact of small RNAs grows, so does the need to understand competing structural alternatives for regions of functional interest. Suboptimal structure analysis provides significantly more RNA base pairing information than a single minimum free energy prediction. Yet computational enhancements like Boltzmann sampling have not been fully adopted ...
Maharaj Anil A School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, - - 2014
To facilitate accurate predictions of oral drug disposition, mechanistic absorption models require optimal parameterization. Furthermore, parameters should maintain a biological basis to establish confidence in model predictions. This study will serve to calculate an optimal parameter value for small intestinal water volume (SIWV) using a model-based approach. To evaluate physiologic ...
Doolittle Emily L EL Department of Music, Cornish College of the Arts, Seattle, WA - - 2014
Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically ...
Bras Wim W Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE@ESRF, BP 220, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble 38043, - - 2014
Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS) are standard tools in materials research. The simultaneous measurement of SAXS and WAXS data in time-resolved studies has gained popularity due to the complementary information obtained. Furthermore, the combination of these data with non X-ray based techniques, via either simultaneous or independent measurements, ...
Alaraby Mohamed M Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus de Bellaterra , Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona , Spain - - 2014
Abstract Although in vitro approaches are the most used for testing the potential harmful effects of nanomaterials, in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data. In this context, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to ...
Valentini Erica E European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, Notkestr. 85, Geb. 25a, 22603 Hamburg, - - 2014
Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are fundamental tools used to study the global shapes of proteins, nucleic acids, macromolecular complexes and assemblies in solution. Due to recent advances in instrumentation and computational methods, the quantity of experimental scattering data and subsequent publications is increasing dramatically. The need ...
Marze Sébastien S UR1268 Biopolymères Interactions Assemblages, INRA, F-44300 Nantes, France. - - 2014
Despite the considerable number of in vivo and in vitro studies on the digestive fate of lipophilic nutrients, micronutrients, and bioactives, the effects of the structure and composition of foods on the physicochemical mechanisms of luminal digestion are still poorly understood. Studying them is indeed complex because the number of ...
Toscano Rosario R Université de Lyon, LTDS, UMR CNRS 5513 - ECL/ENISE, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper introduces a new control scheme which incorporates the concept of shaping filter together with the use of the ν-gap metric and the robust design of a structured controller. The main motivation in doing this is related to the development of efficient control laws for small size actuators. Designing ...
Ducatelle R R Department of Pathology,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Ghent University,Salisburylaan 133,9820 - - 2014
Dysbiosis or dysbacteriosis is defined as a shift in the intestinal microbiota composition resulting in an imbalance between beneficial and harmful bacteria. Since the ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feed in the EU, dysbiosis has emerged as a major problem in intensive animal production. Prebiotics and ...
Vuorinen Anna A Institute of Pharmacy/Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck - CMBI, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck, - - 2014
Biological effects of small molecules in an organism result from favorable interactions between the molecules and their target proteins. These interactions depend on chemical functionalities, bonds, and their 3D-orientations towards each other. These 3D-arrangements of chemical functionalities that make a small molecule active towards its target can be described by ...
Sharma Tarun Kumar TK Ian Potter NanoBioSensing Facility, NanoBiotechnology Research Laboratory, School of Applied Science, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne VIC 3001, Australia. - - 2014
A new ultrafast and highly sensitive 'turn-off/turn-on' biosensing approach that combines the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with the high affinity and specificity of a ssDNA aptamer is presented for the efficient detection of a model small molecule kanamycin.
Braz André A University Institute of Research in Police Sciences, University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.600, 28871 Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain; Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Multipurpose Building of Chemistry, University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.600, 28871 Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), - - 2014
This manuscript aims to study the inter and intra brand, model and batch variability in the Raman spectral signature among modern pen inks that will help forensic document examiners during the interpretation process. Results showed that most oil-based samples have similar Raman signatures that are characteristic of the Crystal Violet ...
Berger David D Animal Ecology at Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden - - 2014
Empirical evidence for diminishing fitness returns of beneficial mutations supports Fisher's geometric model. We show that a similar pattern emerges through the phenomenon of regression to the mean and that few studies correct for it. Although biases are often small, regression to the mean has overemphasized diminishing returns and will ...
Taghipoor M M INRA, UR83 Recherches Avicoles, F-37380 Nouzilly, France; Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (UMR CNRS 7350) Fédération Denis Poisson (FR CNRS 2964) Université de Tours Faculté des Sciences et Techniques Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours, - - 2014
In this work, the modelling of the digestion in the small intestine is developed by investigating specifically the effects of dietary fiber. As our previous model, this new version takes into account the three main phenomena of digestion: transit of the bolus, degradation of feedstuffs and absorption through the intestinal ...
Benecke Gunthard G PETRA III, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg 22607, Germany ; Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam, Brandenbug 14476, - - 2014
X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. ...
Dwyer-Lindgren Laura L Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Birth history data-the primary source of data on under-5 mortality in developing countries-are infrequently used for subnational estimates due to concerns over small sample sizes. In this study we consider different methods for analyzing birth history data in combination with various small area models. We construct a simulation environment to ...
Chen Cici C Department of Biostatistics, Brown University, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hierarchical modeling has been used extensively for small area estimation. However, design weights that are required to reflect complex surveys are rarely considered in these models. We develop computationally efficient, Bayesian spatial smoothing models that acknowledge the design weights. Computation is carried out using the integrated nested Laplace approximation, which ...
Sullins Veronica F VF Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Current animal models of mechanical lengthening separate intestinal segments from enteric continuity. Such models are difficult to use for repeated lengthening procedures and result in intestinal tissue loss during restoration into continuity. We sought to create a novel surgical model to allow multiple lengthening procedures for the purpose of maximizing ...
Degen Judith J Department of Psychology, Stanford - - 2014
Three experiments investigated the processing of the implicature associated with some using a "gumball paradigm." On each trial, participants saw an image of a gumball machine with an upper chamber with 13 gumballs and an empty lower chamber. Gumballs then dropped to the lower chamber and participants evaluated statements, such ...
Falkenström Fredrik F Linköping University, Linkoping, Sweden Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden - - 2014
The working alliance concerns the quality of collaboration between patient and therapist in psychotherapy. One of the most widely used scales for measuring the working alliance is the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI). For the patient-rated version, the short form developed by Hatcher and Gillaspy (WAI-SR) has shown the best psychometric ...
Pandey Preetanshu P Drug Product Science and Technology, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New Brunswick, New Jersey, - - 2014
Although significant progress had been made in developing general scale-up rules for an aqueous pan-coating process, there are often scenarios where small-scale experiments are not found to be truly reflective of what may be observed at the large scale. This article reviews some of the methods traditionally used for scale-up, ...
Huang Jen-Ching JC Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tungnan University, ShenKeng, New Taipei City, - - 2014
This study focused on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire during nanomachining. The coated diamond probe is used to as a tool, and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) is as an experimental platform for nanomachining. To understand the effect of normal force on single-crystal sapphire machining, this ...
Hilpert Markus M Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Small gasoline spills frequently occur at gasoline dispensing stations. We have developed a mathematical model to estimate both the amount of gasoline that infiltrates into the concrete underneath the dispensing stations and the amount of gasoline that evaporates into the typically turbulent atmosphere. Our model shows that the fraction of ...
Youm Jae Boum JB Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, Busan, South Korea. Electronic address: - - 2014
It is widely accepted that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) generate pacemaker potentials to propagate slow waves along the whole gastrointestinal tract. Previously, we constructed a biophysically based model of ICCs in mouse small intestine to explain the pacemaker mechanism. Our previous model, however, could not explain non-uniformity of pacemaker ...
Davis Tony D TD Pharmacology Program-Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, ‡Gerstner Sloan Kettering Summer Undergraduate Research Program, §Molecular Pharmacology & Chemistry Program and Tri-Institutional Research Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , 1275 York Avenue, Box 422, New York, New York 10065, United - - 2014
The chemical features that impact small-molecule permeability across bacterial membranes are poorly understood, and the resulting lack of tools to predict permeability presents a major obstacle to the discovery and development of novel antibiotics. Antibacterials are known to have vastly different structural and physicochemical properties compared to nonantiinfective drugs, as ...
Doescher Mark P MP Peggy and Charles Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
. The role of the built environment on walking in rural United States (U.S.) locations is not well characterized. We examined self-reported and measured built environment correlates of walking for utilitarian purposes among adult residents of small rural towns. . In 2011-12, we collected telephone survey and geographic data from ...
Fagerberg Jonas H JH Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Biomedical Centre, P.O. Box 580, SE-751 23, Uppsala, - - 2014
To develop predictive models of apparent solubility (Sapp) of lipophilic drugs in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and aspirated human intestinal fluid (HIF). Measured Sapp values in FaSSIF, HIF and phosphate buffer pH 6.5 (PhBpH6.5) for 86 lipophilic drugs were compiled and divided into training (Tr) and test (Te) sets. ...
Congdon Peter P School of Geography and Life Sciences Institute, Queen Mary University of - - 2014
Existing analyses of trends in disability free life expectancy (DFLE) are mainly at aggregate level (national or broad regional). However, major differences in DFLE, and trends in these expectancies, exist between different neighbourhoods within regions, so supporting a small area perspective. However, this raises issues regarding the stability of conventional ...
Thomsen Troels B TB Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark. - - 2014
The mucus overlying mucosal epithelial surfaces presents not only a biological barrier to the penetration of potential pathogens, but also therapeutic modalities including RNAi-based nanocarriers. Movement of nanomedicines across the mucus barriers of the gastrointestinal mucosa is modulated by interactions of the nanomedicine carriers with mucin glycoproteins inside the mucus, ...
Rautava Jaana J Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, - - 2014
Oral mucosal pathologies are frequent in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Since host-microbiome interactions are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, in this study the potential for changes affecting the oral microbiome was evaluated using two complementary mouse models of colitis: either chemically (dextran sulphate sodium, DSS) or with Citrobacter rodentium ...
Payton Seth B SB School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University Public Policy Institute, United States. Electronic address: - - 2015
Although neighborhood stability has long been considered a substantial determinant of crime, foreclosures have not been the subject of concerted research among criminologists until recently. A number of recent studies have examined the linkage between home foreclosures and crime. Though generally finding a significant relationship, studies have used different approaches ...
Liu L L Computational Biophysics, MESA+, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands. - - 2014
An analysis is presented of forces acting on the centers of mass of three-armed star polymers in the molten state. The arms consist of 35 Kremer-Grest beads, which is slightly larger than needed for one entanglement mass. For a given configuration of the centers of mass, instantaneous forces fluctuate wildly ...
Juhasz Albert L - - 2014
To evaluate the capabilities of in vitro assays to predict arsenic (As) relative bioavailability (RBA), we examined the relationship between As bioaccessibility, determined using a number of in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) methodologies (SBRC, IVG, PBET, DIN and UBM) and As RBA determined in a mouse assay for nine As-contaminated soils ...
Szavits-Nossan Juraj J SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, United - - 2014
In small volumes, the kinetics of filamentous protein self-assembly is expected to show significant variability, arising from intrinsic molecular noise. This is not accounted for in existing deterministic models. We introduce a simple stochastic model including nucleation and autocatalytic growth via elongation and fragmentation, which allows us to predict the ...
Zamora Juan Carlos JC Mycology, Real Jardín Botánico-CSIC, Madrid, Madrid, 28014, Spain - - 2014
Systematics of the recently proposed Geastrum sect. Schmidelia are addressed through statistical analyses of quantitative morphological variables and phylogenetic reconstructions based on a multilocus approach. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic placement of G. schmidelii var. parvisporum. This variety is found to be not phylogenetically close to G. schmidelii var. ...
Greenberg David D University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA - - 2014
This article describes eight flaws that occur in impact evaluations. The eight flaws are grouped into four categories on how they affect impact estimates: statistical imprecision; biases; failure of impact estimates to measure effects of the planned treatment; and flaws that result from weakening an evaluation design. Each flaw is ...
Mazza Angelo A Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania, Corso Italia 55, 95129 , Catania, Italy, - - 2014
Various parametric/nonparametric techniques have been proposed in literature to graduate mortality data as a function of age. Nonparametric approaches, as for example kernel smoothing regression, are often preferred because they do not assume any particular mortality law. Among the existing kernel smoothing approaches, the recently proposed (univariate) discrete beta kernel ...
Randhawa Puneet Kaur PK Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, - - 2014
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are a set of chronic, idiopathic, immunological and relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract referred to as inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD). Although the etiological factors involved in the perpetuation of IBD remain uncertain, development of various animal models provides new insights to unveil the ...
Prado José L JL INCUAPA, CONICET-UNICEN, National University of Central Buenos Aires Province, Olavarría, - - 2014
The contemporary South American mammalian communities were determined by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses and gomphotheres were 2 very conspicuous groups of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. The present study ...
Saadati Maral M Division of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg, D-69120, - - 2014
With the fast growing field of epigenetics comes the need to better understand the intricacies of DNA methylation data analysis. High-throughput profiling using techniques, such as Illumina's BeadArray assay, enable the quantitative assessment of methylation. Challenges arise from the fact that resulting methylation levels (so-called beta values) are proportions between ...
Willenberg Ina I University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Institute of Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, - - 2015
Resveratrol oligomers are biologically active polyphenols found in wine. No information about the bioavailability of these polyphenols is available. In order to discover if the resveratrol oligomers can pass the intestinal barrier, transport of the dimer ε-viniferin and the tetramer hopeaphenol was studied in the Caco-2 transwell system. A flux ...
Hayami Masao M Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, 169-8555, - - 2014
An algorithm of the accompanying coordinate expansion and recurrence relation (ACE-RR), which is used for the rapid evaluation of the electron repulsion integral (ERI), has been extended to the general-contraction (GC) scheme. The present algorithm, denoted by GC-ACE-RR, is designed for molecular calculations including heavy elements, whose orbitals consist of ...
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