Results 651  700 of 895  
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C. Michael Houze Jr.
We conducted a field study to evaluate whether coverboards are as effective for sampling terrestrial salamanders as searching natural cover objects such as fallen logs and branches. At each of five sites in Jenkins County, Georgia, we paired a grid of 100 wooden coverboards (30.4 × 30.4 × 2 cm) ...


Hasegawa Mikio   2002
We propose a novel approach for solving large scale traveling salesman problems (TSPs) by chaotic dynamics. First, we realize the tabu search on a neural network, by utilizing the refractory effects as the tabu effects. Then, we extend it to a chaotic neural network version. We propose two types of ...


Patrick Schmidlin   2002
PURPOSE: To evaluate the "Materials and Methods" of longterm clinical studies in relation to documentation, reproducibility and comparability with and without employing the systematic methods of evidencebased medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The "Materials and Methods" sections in 45 clinical longterm published studies of direct posterior resinbased composite restorations were evaluated ...


Tallis G M   2002
Relatives may tend to die of the same cause. A model is proposed specifying the degree of this association, simultaneously allowing for misclassification of cause of death. These mistakes usually degrade any existing correlation structure, the effects being marked when error rates reach between 20% to 30%. It is then ...


Affolder T   2002
We present the first general search for new heavy particles, X, which decay via X > WZ0 > e(nu)+jj as a function of M(X) and Gamma(X) in pp collisions at square root[s] = 1.8 TeV. No evidence is found for production of X in 110 pb(1) of data collected by ...


Turpin Andrew   2002
PURPOSE: To develop new test procedures for frequencydoubling technology (FDT) perimetry that improve performance beyond those currently used. METHODS: Two novel threshold estimation procedures were evaluated: a rapid, efficient binary search technique (REBS) and a maximumlikelihood estimation (ZEST) procedure. A computerized visual field simulation model was developed to determine the ...


Affolder T   2002
We have performed a search for gluinos (g) and scalar quarks (q) in a data sample of 84 pb(1) of pp collisions at square root[s] = 1.8 TeV, recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We investigate the final state of large missing transverse energy and three or more jets, ...


DeKay Michael L   2002
Gottman and Levenson (2002) report a number of post hoc ordinary least squares regressions to "predict" the length of marriage, given that divorce has occurred. We argue that the type of statistical model they use is inappropriate for answering clinically relevant questions about the causes and timing of divorce, and ...


Ihlenfeldt WolfDietrich   2002
A Webbased, graphical user interface has been developed to conduct rapid searches by numerous criteria in the more than 250,000 structures of the Open NCI Database. It is based on the chemistry information toolkit CACTVS. Nearly all structures and anticancer and antiHIV screening data provided by NCI's Developmental Therapeutics Program ...


Hemerik Lia   2002
Approximately three decades ago the question was first answered "whether parasitoids are able to assess the number or origin of eggs in a host" for a solitary parasitoid, Leptopilina heterotoma, by fitting theoretically derived distributions to empirical ones. We extend the set of different theoretically postulated distributions of eggs among ...


Bellido A   2002
A conspicuous shell polychromatism is observed in colonies of Cepaea nemoralis from western France (Brittany). The present study is intended to search for a spatial structure of shell features at this scale and to infer evolutionary processes from the observed patterns. We used a database of morph frequencies (six composite ...


Kamiya A   2002
Power plant startup scheduling is aimed at minimizing the startup time while limiting maximum turbine rotor stresses. This scheduling problem is highly nonlinear and has a number of local optima. In our previous research, we proposed an efficient search model: genetic algorithms (GAs) with enforcement operation to focus the search ...


Johnson Mark H   2002
To date, research involving functional neuroimaging of typical and atypical development has depended on several assumptions about the postnatal maturation of the brain. We consider evidence from multiple levels of analysis that brings into question these underlying assumptions and advance an alternative view. This alternative view, based on an "interactive ...


Cavicchioli Ricardo   2002
Extremophiles thrive in ice, boiling water, acid, the water core of nuclear reactors, salt crystals, and toxic waste and in a range of other extreme habitats that were previously thought to be inhospitable for life. Extremophiles include representatives of all three domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya); however, the majority are ...


Baldassi Stefano   2002
Search performance for a target tilted in a known direction among vertical distractors is well explained by signal detection theory models. Typically these models use a maximumofoutputs rule (Max rule) to predict search performance. The Max rule bases its decision on the largest response from a set of independent noisy ...


Blair David G   2002
Over the past few years a series of searches for interstellar radio beacons have taken place using the Parkes radio telescope. Here we report hitherto unpublished results from a search for optical beacons from 60 solartype stars using the PerthLowell telescope. We discuss the significance of the null results from ...


Chou C I   2002
A new optimization algorithm, the guided simulated annealing method, for use in Xray crystallographic studies is presented. In the traditional simulated annealing method, the search for the global minimum of a cost function is only determined by the ratio of energy change to the temperature. This method designs a new ...


Swain M T   2001
Sidechain placement is an important subtask in protein modelling. Selecting conformations for sidechains is a difficult problem because of the large search space to be explored. This problem can be addressed using constraint logic programming (CLP), which is an artificial intelligence technique developed to solve large combinatorial search problems. The ...


Ouwens M J   2001
This article discusses the generalization of the local influence measures for normally distributed responses to local influence measures for generalized linear models with random effects. For these models, it is shown that the subjectoriented influence measure is a special case of the proposed observationoriented influence measure. A twostep diagnostic procedure ...


Haslam N   2001
Whether visual search involves two distinct processestraditionally referred to as serial and parallelor a single process operating on a continuum of efficiency or speed, is an issue with a long history in the study of attention. On the basis of the unimodality of search slope distributions in a very large ...


Aubert B   2001
We present a limit on the branching fraction for the decay B0>gammagamma using data collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEPII asymmetric energy e+e collider. Based on the observation of one event in the signal region, out of a sample of 21.3x10(6) e+e>Upsilon(4S)>BB decays, we ...


Abazov V M   2001
We describe QUAERO, a method that (i) enables the automatic optimization of searches for physics beyond the standard model, and (ii) provides a mechanism for making high energy collider data generally available. We apply QUAERO to searches for standard model WW, ZZ, and t t macro production, to searches for ...


Chen Y W   2001
NMR structures can serve as a good source of search models in crystal structure determination by molecular replacement. However, owing to the inherent problems of NMR models, this procedure is not always straightforward. Here, an updated overview is presented with particular emphasis on the preparation of NMR search models and ...


Kissinger C R   2001
Stochastic search algorithms can be used to perform rapid sixdimensional molecularreplacement searches. A molecularreplacement procedure has been developed that uses an evolutionary algorithm to simultaneously optimize the orientation and position of a search model in a unit cell. Here, the performance of this algorithm and its dependence on search model ...


Cowtan K   2001
Various approaches have been demonstrated for the automatic interpretation of crystallographic data in terms of atomic models. The use of a masked Fourierbased search function has some benefits for this task. The application and optimization of this procedure is discussed in detail. The search function also acquires a statistical significance ...


Hübner R   2001
Guided Search 2 (GS2) is currently one of the most detailed models of visual search and has been used to predict search times for different stimulus conditions by means of detailed computer simulations. The present article goes a step further and presents formulas that allow for the calculation of the ...


Ingui B J   2001
OBJECTIVES: Clinical prediction rules have been advocated as a possible mechanism to enhance clinical judgment in diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic assessment. Despite renewed interest in the their use, inconsistent terminology makes them difficult to index and retrieve by computerized search systems. No validated approaches to locating clinical prediction rules appear ...


Gardner S   2001
The correlation coefficients a, A, and B in neutron beta decay are proportional to the ratio of the axialvectortovector weak coupling constants, gA/gV, to leading recoil order. With the advent of the next generation of neutrondecay experiments, the recoilorder corrections to these expressions become experimentally accessible, admitting a plurality of ...


Franz A   2001
Finding the ground state of a system with a complex energy landscape is important for many physical problems including protein folding, spin glasses, chemical clusters, and neural networks. Such problems are usually solved by heuristic search methods whose efficacy is judged by empirical performance on selected examples. We present a ...


König R   2001
Solvent entropy is a force to consider in protein folding and protein design but is difficult to model. It is investigated here in the context of the hp model: Two types of residues, hydrophobic and hydrophilic, are modeled on a lattice. Nine chains and two and threedimensional simulations are compared. ...


Abbott B   2001
We apply a quasimodelindependent strategy ("Sleuth") to search for new high p(T) physics in approximately 100 pb(1) of pp collisions at square root of (s) = 1.8 TeV collected by the D0 experiment during 19921996 at the Fermilab Tevatron. We systematically analyze many exclusive final states and demonstrate sensitivity to ...


Hui L   2001
Conventional cold dark matter cosmological models predict cuspy halos which are in apparent conflict with observations. We show that unitarity arguments imply interesting constraints on two proposals to address this problem: collisional dark matter and strongly annihilating dark matter. Efficient scattering in both implies m less, similar to 12 GeV ...


Mertz C   2001
Highprecision 1H(e,e'p)pi(0) measurements at Q2 = 0.126 (GeV/c)2 are reported, which allow the determination of quadrupole amplitudes in the gamma*N>Delta transition; they simultaneously test the reliability of electroproduction models. The derived quadrupoletodipole ( I = 3/2) amplitude ratios, R(SM) = (6.5+/0.2(stat+sys)+/2.5(mod))% and R(EM) = (2.1+/0.2(stat+sys)+/2.0(mod))%, are dominated by model error. ...


Henriques E S   2001
We present the search for a new model of betafactor XIIa, a blood coagulation enzyme, with an unknown experimental 3Dstructure. We decided to build not one but three different models using different homologous proteins as well as different techniques and different modelers. Additional studies, including extensive molecular dynamics simulations on ...


Rognes T   2001
There is a need for faster and more sensitive algorithms for sequence similarity searching in view of the rapidly increasing amounts of genomic sequence data available. Parallel processing capabilities in the form of the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) technology are now available in common microprocessors and enable a single ...


Nicoll L H   2001
In conclusion, the World Wide Web offers an incredible variety of resources, many of which are available free of charge. To begin accessing these resources, one must first become comfortable with using browser software. Once this is done, master the basics of searching. Keep in mind that for a search ...


Mendonça E A   2001
As part of an effort to develop a knowledge base to support searching online medical literature according to individual needs, we have studied the possibility of using the cooccurrence of MeSH terms in MEDLINE citations associated with the search strategies optimal for evidence based medicine to automated construction of a ...


Nicodème P   2001
We present in this article a fast approximate method for computing the statistics of a number of nonselfoverlapping matches of motifs in a random text in the nonuniform Bernoulli model. This method is well suited for protein motifs where the probability of selfoverlap of motifs is small. For 96% of ...


Ignat'ev N A   2001
After the abundant literature on normative decision analysis centered on Bayes' rule, the artificial intelligence approach left aside the proposed formalism in favor of symbolic approach. Thus, diagnosis was identified as a dynamic cognitive process, characterized by the search for evidence to test a given hypothesis where heuristic thinking plays ...


Heil W   2001
Interpreting analytes measured in extravascular body fluids can be problematic as the only suitable literature reference, the Geigy Scientific Tables (1), is almost 20 years old, dating back to the year 1981. It is not always possible to apply the values indicated therein to modern analytical procedures since many of ...


Imoto T   2001
Here I show the following facts using a simple random search model without including any sophisticated energy term. As the size of elements exponentially affects the efficiency of folding, it can be remarkably enhanced by dividing the elements into small blocks. As the folding of the blocks is completely independent, ...


Chen Y S   2001
Block matching is a widely used method for stereo vision, visual tracking, and video compression. Many fast algorithms for block matching have been proposed in the past, but most of them do not guarantee that the match found is the globally optimal match in a search range. This paper presents ...


Wu X   2001
Multiple local minima exist in almost every coplanar or noncoplanar radiotherapy treatment planning problem. We used a global optimization method based on topographical information about the distribution of local minima to find all local minima and select the best as the global minimum. We uniformly select N random points from ...


Knowledgebased function optimization using fuzzy cultural algorithms with evolutionary programming.
Reynolds R G   2001
In this paper, the advantages of a fuzzy representation in problem solving and search is investigated using the framework of Cultural algorithms (CAs). Since all natural languages contain a fuzzy component, the natural question is "Does this fuzzy representation facilitate the problemsolving process, within these systems". In order to investigate ...


Donk M   2001
Theories on visual search differ substantially with respect to the relationship they assume between localization and identification processes. The aim of the present study was to rigorously compare the alternative theoretical notions on how localization and identification processes are related. In two experiments, participants searched for a target with a ...


Baud R H   2001
Search by content in a large corpus of free texts in the medical domain is, today, only partially solved. The socalled GREP approach (Get Regular Expression and Print), based on highly efficient string matching techniques, is subject to inherent limitations, especially its inability to recognize domain specific knowledge. Such methods ...


Chan Y L   2001
Block motion estimation using the exhaustive full search is computationally intensive. Fast search algorithms offered in the past tend to reduce the amount of computation by limiting the number of locations to be searched. Nearly all of these algorithms rely on this assumption: the mean absolute difference (MAD) distortion function ...


Emmerich M   2001
This paper describes the adaptation of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the structural optimization of chemical engineering plants, using rigorous process simulation combined with realistic costing procedures to calculate target function values. To represent chemical engineering plants, a network representation with typed vertices and variable structure will be introduced. For this ...


Quinn H R   2000
We suggest a novel method to determine the sign of cos2beta in the decays B > psiK, by creating interference between K(L) and K(S) final states via "regeneration," that is propagation through a matter target region to convert some K(L) to K(S). The determination of this quantity resolves an ambiguity ...


Vagin A   2000
The molecularreplacement method has been extended to a simultaneous search for multiple copies of the macromolecule in the unit cell. The central point of this approach is the construction of a multicopy search model from the properly oriented monomers using a special translation function. The multicopy search method has been ...


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