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Results 351 - 400 of 2742
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Bass Cameron R - - 2012
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are ...
Mihalik Jason P - - 2012
The age at which young hockey players should safely body check is unknown. We sought to determine if playing position (defensemen vs. forwards), event type (practice vs. game), or head impact location (top vs. back vs. front vs. sides) had an effect on head impact biomechanics in youth hockey. A ...
Finan John D - - 2012
Rat is the most commonly used animal model for the study of traumatic brain injury. Recent advances in imaging and computational modeling technology offer the promise of biomechanical models capable of resolving individual brain structures and offering greater insight into the causes and consequences of brain injury. However, there is ...
Patil Sunil - - 2012
Recent studies in the area of highway safety have demonstrated the usefulness of logit models for modeling crash injury severities. Use of these models enables one to identify and quantify the effects of factors that contribute to certain levels of severity. Most often, these models are estimated assuming equal probability ...
Day Kristin V - - 2012
Spinal cord injury affects walking balance control, which necessitates methods to quantify balance ability. The purposes of this study were to 1) examine walking balance through foot placement variability post-injury; 2) assess the relationship between measures of variability and clinical balance assessments; and 3) determine if spatial parameter variability might ...
Funk James R - - 2012
For several years, Virginia Tech and other schools have measured the frequency and severity of head impacts sustained by collegiate American football players in real time using the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System of helmet-mounted accelerometers. In this study, data from 37,128 head impacts collected at Virginia Tech during games ...
Douglas Clay - - 2011
Far-side impacts are not part of any regulated NCAP, FMVSS, or similar test regime despite accounting for 43 percent of the seriously injured persons and 30 percent of the harm in U.S. side impact crashes. Furthermore, injuries to the head and thorax account for over half of the serious injuries ...
Ainy E - - 2011
This study was conducted to assess political mapping in relation to road traffic injuries (RTIs) management and prevention to present a practical model for RTIs. A phenomenological qualitative study was developed to identify stakeholders on RTI in Iran in 2008. The designed questions were discussed by systematic discussion with the ...
Hu Wen - - 2011
Crossover and rollover crashes in earth-divided, traversable medians on rural divided highways can lead to severe injury outcomes. This study estimated severity models of these two crash types. Vehicle, driver, roadway, and median cross-section design data were factors considered in the models. A unique aspect of the data used to ...
Stergiou-Kita Mary - - 2011
Purpose: This paper is a qualitative synthesis of clients' perspectives of the elements significant to return to work following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is part of a larger review, completed to provide the evidence base for a vocational evaluation guideline. Methods: Processes outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic ...
Hein Tobias - - 2011
Several studies have used variability of continuous relative phase (CRP) to investigate overuse injuries, since low variability is thought to be related to running injuries. This study investigates whether the analysis of CRP variability leads to additional information about possible differences or similarities between healthy and injured runners. Further, a ...
Mujalli Randa Oqab - - 2011
This study describes a method for reducing the number of variables frequently considered in modeling the severity of traffic accidents. The method's efficiency is assessed by constructing Bayesian networks (BN). It is based on a two stage selection process. Several variable selection algorithms, commonly used in data mining, are applied ...
Giusti Sebastián - - 2011
The molecular pathways underlying the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning are promising, potentially drugable targets to promote cell survival. However, these pathways are complex and are not yet fully understood. In this study we have established a paradigm of hypoxic preconditioning based on a chick embryo model of normobaric acute hypoxia ...
Goldfine Andrew M - - 2011
Human consciousness requires brainstem, basal forebrain, and diencephalic areas to support generalized arousal, and functioning thalamocortical networks to respond to environmental and internal stimuli. Disconnection of these interconnected systems, typically from cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury, can result in disorders of consciousness. Brain injuries can also result in loss ...
Li Zhibin - - 2012
The study presented in this paper investigated the possibility of using support vector machine (SVM) models for crash injury severity analysis. Based on crash data collected at 326 freeway diverge areas, a SVM model was developed for predicting the injury severity associated with individual crashes. An ordered probit (OP) model ...
Schuld Christian - - 2011
Background and purpose: The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI), defined by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), and particularly the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) are widely used for research and clinical purposes. Although detailed procedures for scaling, scoring and classification have been defined, misclassifications remain ...
Panczykowski David - - 2011
Clinical trials in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been fraught with failure due in part to heterogeneity in pathology and insensitive outcome measurements. The International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) prognostic model has been purposed as a means of risk adjustment and outcome prediction ...
Mitchell Rebecca - - 2011
Information from hospital trauma registries is increasingly being used to support injury surveillance efforts. This research examines the potential of using trauma registry data for road traffic injury surveillance for different types of road users in terms of both the information collected and how representative trauma data are compared to ...
Varier Sreedevi - - 2011
The effect of age at injury on outcome after acquired brain injury (ABI) has been the subject of much debate. Many argue that young brains are relatively tolerant of injury. A contrasting viewpoint due to Hebb argues that greater system integrity may be required for the initial establishment of a ...
Furlan Julio C - - 2011
Background: Miscoding is a common source of error in population-based registries. Given this, we performed a validation study comparing the Canadian National Trauma Registry (NTR) data based on the 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases coding with clinical data from an institutional database. Methods: All patients with acute ...
Chow C B - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience in the development of an electronic emergency department (ED)-based injury surveillance (IS) system in Hong Kong using data-mining and geo-spatial information technology (IT) for a Safe Community setup. METHODS: This paper described the phased development of an emergency department-based IS system based on World Health ...
Stojadinović Saša - - 2011
Mining, especially underground coal mining, has always been a dangerous occupation. Injuries, unfortunately, even those resulting in death, are one of the major occupational risks that all miners live with. Despite the fact that all workers are aware of the risk, efforts must be and are being made to increase ...
Kane Michael J - - 2012
A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive ...
Liew Chin Yee - - 2011
Drug-induced liver injury, although infrequent, is an important safety concern that can lead to fatality in patients and failure in drug developments. In this study, we have used an ensemble of mixed learning algorithms and mixed features for the development of a model to predict hepatic effects. This robust method ...
Zirkle Robert A - - 2011
The Human Response Injury Profile (HRIP) nuclear methodology provides an estimate of casualties occurring as a consequence of nuclear attacks against military targets for planning purposes. The approach develops user-defined, time-based casualty and fatality estimates based on progressions of underlying symptoms and their severity changes over time. This paper provides ...
Li Yan - - 2011
A modified Marmarou impact acceleration model was developed to study the mechanical responses induced by this model and their correlation to traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was induced in 31 anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (392±13 g) by a custom-made 450-g impactor from heights of 1.25 m or 2.25 m. An ...
Mak Arthur F T - - 2011
Deep tissue injuries (DTI) involve damages in the subcutaneous tissues under intact skin incurred by prolonged excessive epidermal loadings. This paper presents a new theoretical model for the development of DTI, broadly based on the experimental evidence in the literatures. The model covers the loading damages implicitly inclusive of both ...
Ansorge Heather L - - 2012
During neonatal development, tendons undergo a well-orchestrated process whereby extensive structural and compositional changes occur in synchrony to produce a normal tissue. Conversely, during the repair response to injury, structural and compositional changes occur, but a mechanically inferior tendon is produced. As a result, developmental processes have been postulated as ...
Kirkman Matthew A - - 2011
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has the highest mortality of all stroke subtypes, yet treatments are mainly limited to supportive management, and surgery remains controversial. Despite significant advances in our understanding of ICH pathophysiology, we still lack preclinical models that accurately replicate the underlying mechanisms of injury. Current experimental ICH models (including ...
Aziz Omar - - 2011
Falls are the number one cause of injury in older adults. Wearable sensors, typically consisting of accelerometers and/or gyroscopes, represent a promising technology for preventing and mitigating the effects of falls. At present, the goal of such "ambulatory fall monitors" is to detect the occurrence of a fall and alert ...
Sankarasubramanian Vishwanath - - 2011
Objective:  In spinal cord stimulation, neurosurgeons increasingly tend to implant dual leads. Dual leads (longitudinal bipole/tripole) provide medio-lateral control over the recruited dorsal column (DC) area by steering the injected cathodal currents. However, the DC recruited area is suboptimal when dual aligned leads straddling the midline programmed as longitudinal guarded ...
Ogunshola Omolara O - - 2011
Proper understanding of blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulation is crucial to reduce/prevent its disruption during injury. Since high brain complexity makes interpretation of in vivo data challenging BBB studies are frequently performed using simplified in vitro models. Although such models represent an important and frequently employed alternative for investigation of BBB ...
Conte Juan C - - 2011
We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents), we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19). Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a ...
Gulliver Pauline J - - 2011
Objectives: Counts of mortality and morbidity based on routinely collected national datasets have undercounted Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. To correct for the undercount, when estimating fatal and serious non-fatal injury incidence, the 'ever-Māori' method has been used. This study sought to determine how well the ever-Māori method ...
Newman David G - - 2011
Modern super agile fighter aircraft have significantly expanded maneuverability envelopes, often involving very high angles of attack (AOA) in the post-stall region. One such maneuver is the high AOA velocity vector roll. The geometry of this flight maneuver is such that during the roll there is a significant lateral C ...
Michalek Arthur J - - 2011
Extensive experimental work on the effects of penetrating annular injuries indicated that large injuries impact axial compressive properties of small animal intervertebral discs, yet there is some disagreement regarding the sensitivity of mechanical tests to small injury sizes. In order to understand the mechanism of injury size sensitivity, this study ...
Davie Gabrielle - - 2011
Background Effective use of routinely collected hospital discharge data (HDD) to estimate injury incidence requires a separate identification of new injuries from readmissions for a previous injury. The aim was to determine the accuracy of a computerised algorithm to identify injury readmissions in HDD. Methods A random sample of 2000 ...
Aviv Abraham - - 2011
The model we propose to explain the links between atherosclerosis and telomere dynamics (birth telomere length and its age-dependent shortening) in leukocytes takes cues from three facts: atherosclerosis is a disease of the vascular endothelium; the hematopoietic system and the vascular endothelium share a common embryonic origin; interindividual variation in ...
Murphy Gregory C - - 2011
Objectives: This exploratory study examined the extent to which postinjury employment was predictable when patients were followed up 2 years' postdischarge from a specialist Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Unit. Participants and Design: Seventy-two individuals with SCI for whom there were discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, 60 complete sets of ...
Gayzik F S - - 2011
The objective of this study was to develop full body CAD geometry of a seated 50th percentile male. Model development was based on medical image data acquired for this study, in conjunction with extensive data from the open literature. An individual (height, 174.9 cm, weight, 78.6 ± 0.77 kg, and ...
Guízar-Sahagún Gabriel - - 2011
Background  Current models of spinal cord injury (SCI) have been ineffective for translational research. Primate blunt SCI, which more closely resembles human injury, could be a promising model to fill this gap. Methods  Graded compression SCI was produced by inflating at T9 an epidural balloon as a function of spinal ...
López-Bonilla Indiana Mercedes - - 2011
We attempt to estimate the rate of fatal occupational injuries (FOI) in Nicaragua for 2005, using 10 incomplete data sources. Based on the 173 identified FOIs, the crude empirical FOI rate estimate was 8.3 per 100,000 employed (12.3 men; 1.8 women) and highest in the 25-29 age group (15). The ...
Razzak Junaid Abdul - - 2011
To assess the feasibility of using Geographical Information System for mapping of road traffic injuries with an existing data source in a developing country. The study was a retrospectives case series of road traffic injury cases registered with the medico-legal office located in the three major trauma centers in Karachi ...
Therien Sean P - - 2011
: Prehospital care of combat casualties is a critical phase of emergency medical practice on the battlefield. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR) was developed to standardize a system of data collection for combat casualty care; however, the degree of population and granularity of prehospital data were unknown. : This ...
Martin Thomas R - - 2011
Acute lung injury (ALI) involves the activation of multiple pathways leading to lung injury, resolution, and repair. Exploration of the roles of individual pathways in humans and animal models has led to a greater understanding of the complexity of ALI and the links between ALI and systemic multiorgan failure. However, ...
Gloede Eric - - 2011
Diacetyl vapor is associated with bronchiolar injury in man, but primarily large airway injury in the rat. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for inspired vapor dosimetry and to apply the model to diacetyl. The respiratory tract was modeled as a series of ...
Qiu Tian-Xia - - 2011
Increasingly, musculoskeletal models of the human body are used as powerful tools to study biological structures. The lower limb, and in particular the foot, is of interest because it is the primary physical interaction between the body and the environment during locomotion. The goal of this paper is to adopt ...
Panzer Matthew B - - 2011
Predicting neck response and injury resulting from motor vehicle accidents is essential to improving occupant protection. A detailed human cervical spine finite element model has been developed, with material properties and geometry determined a priori of any validation, for the evaluation of global kinematics and tissue-level response. Model validation was ...
Harris M Anne - - 2011
Background and Aims Bicycling may be less appealing in parts of the world where cycling is less safe. Differences between jurisdictions suggest route design is key to improving safety and increasing ridership. Previous studies faced difficulties in effectively assessing denominators for risk calculations and controlling confounding. This paper describes the ...
Rhee J Y - - 2011
Transplantation of donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers has higher rates of organ failure and complications, specifically ischemic biliary injuries. Reported large animal DCD models all employ active means to halt circulation, contrary to human DCD protocol. We report a DCD porcine model in which the animal passively progresses to ...
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