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Results 301 - 350 of 2729
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Xue Chuan - - 2012
Cutaneous burn wounds represent a significant public health problem with 500,000 patients per year in the USA seeking medical attention. Immediately after skin burn injury, the volume of the wound burn expands due to a cascade of chemical reactions, including lipid peroxidation chain reactions. Such expansion threatens life and is ...
Hawk Mark - - 2011
Blunt thoracic injury (BTI) in older adults can lead to grave illness, permanent disability, and even death. Using Haddon's phase-factor matrix model, this article examines the phenomenon of BTI in older adults. Preventive, diagnostic, and treatment interventions are discussed from the perspective of the pre-event, event, and post-event phases. Relevant ...
Anastasopoulos Panagiotis Ch - - 2012
Relatively recent research has illustrated the potential that tobit regression has in studying factors that affect vehicle accident rates (accidents per distance traveled) on specific roadway segments. Tobit regression has been used because accident rates on specific roadway segments are continuous data that are left-censored at zero (they are censored ...
Rissel Chris - - 2012
This paper challenges the conclusion of a recent paper by Walter et al. (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2011, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.029) reporting that despite numerous data limitations repealing the helmet legislation in Australia could not be justified. This conclusion is not warranted because of the limited time period used in their analysis ...
Strandroth Johan - - 2012
This study set out to examine the effects of studded tires on fatal crashes on roads covered with ice or snow in Sweden and also to investigate the extra benefits of electronic stability control (ESC) during the winter months. Two different studies are presented in this paper. Both studies used ...
Frith Daniel - - 2011
Resurgent study of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has delivered considerable improvements in survival after injury. Robust, valid and clinically relevant experimental models of TIC are essential to support the evolution of our knowledge and management of this condition. The aims of this study were to identify and analyze contemporary animal models ...
Thompson Angela K - - 2011
Falls from beds and other household furniture are common scenarios stated to conceal child abuse. Knowledge of the biomechanics associated with short-distance falls may aid clinicians in distinguishing between abusive and accidental injuries. Computer simulation is a useful tool to investigate injury-producing events and to study the effect of altering ...
Plantman Stefan - - 2011
A penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) occurs when an object impacts the head with sufficient force to penetrate the skin, scull and meninges and inflict injury directly to the brain parenchyma. This type of injury has been notoriously difficult to model in small laboratory animals, such as rats or mice. ...
Chbat Nicolas W - - 2012
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating complication of acute illness and one of the leading causes of multiple organ failure and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). The detection of this syndrome is limited due to the complexity of the disease, insufficient understanding of its development and progression, ...
Simard J Marc - - 2012
In spinal cord injury (SCI), block of Sur1-regulated NC(Ca-ATP) channels by glibenclamide protects penumbral capillaries from delayed fragmentation, resulting in reduced secondary hemorrhage, smaller lesions and better neurological function. All published experiments demonstrating a beneficial effect of glibenclamide in rat models of SCI have used a cervical hemicord impact calibrated ...
Leopold Efrat - - 2011
Using animal and tissue-engineered experimental models, we previously found that a decreasing sigmoidal function is adequate for describing the diminishing tolerance of skeletal muscle tissue/cells for static mechanical strains delivered over time. Compressive loads at the tissue scale, which are associated with weight-bearing, appear to stretch the plasma membrane (PM) ...
Turner Elizabeth L - - 2012
We aimed to determine to what extent covariate adjustment could affect power in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a heterogeneous population with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We analyzed 14-day mortality in 9,497 participants in the Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) RCT of corticosteroid vs. placebo. Adjustment was ...
Mao Haojie - - 2011
The finite element (FE) method is a powerful tool to study brain injury that remains to be a critical health concern. Subject/patient-specific FE brain models have the potential to accurately predict a specific subject/patient's brain responses during computer-assisted surgery or to design subject-specific helmets to prevent brain injury. Unfortunately, efforts ...
Mills Ross - - 2011
Aim:  The research question is: is it possible to predict, at the time of workers compensation claim lodgement, which workers will have a prolonged return to work (RTW) outcome? This paper illustrates how a traditional analytic approach to the analysis of an existing large database can be insufficient to answer ...
Hanlon Erin - - 2011
PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study was to collect real-time head acceleration data for soccer impacts during girls' youth (U14) soccer play. METHODS: Linear and angular head accelerations were collected during girls' youth soccer scrimmages using a wireless head acceleration measurement device (HITS). Following field data collection each individual ...
Fang J - - 2011
Rehabilitation of walking is an essential element in the treatment of incomplete spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. During the early post injury period, patients find it challenging to practice upright walking. Simulating stepping movements in a supine posture may be easier and promote earlier rehabilitation. A robotic orthotic device for ...
Tohira Hideo - - 2011
The Abbreviated Injury Scale 2008 (AIS 2008) is the most recent injury coding system. A mapping table from a previous AIS 98 to AIS 2008 is available. However, AIS 98 codes that are unmappable to AIS 2008 codes exist in this table. Furthermore, some AIS 98 codes can be mapped ...
Revina E S - - 2011
Qualitative and quantitative composition of phospholipids in different compartments of the spinal cord was studied in normal rabbits and in experimental model of multiple sclerosis. The content of initial and final LPO products in compartments of the rabbit spinal cord was studied during different stages of the disease. The emergence ...
Hinkelbein Jochen - - 2011
Whereas accident rates and fatal accident rates for Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) were investigated sufficiently, resulting consequences for the occupants remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to classify HEMS accidents in Germany to prognosticate accident severity with regard to the helicopter model used. German HEMS accidents (1 Sept. ...
Aidinoff E - - 2011
Study design:The spinal cord injury ability realization measurement index (SCI-ARMI) assesses rehabilitation potential and efficacy based on the linear relationship between the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) and the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS) motor scores (AMS).Objectives:The objective of this study is to develop new SCI-ARMI formulas using ...
Kalson Nicholas S - - 2011
Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death in the first four decades of life. However, current estimates for traumatic injury rates fail to take into account burns. The aim of this work was to estimate the contribution of burns to serious traumatic injury in England and Wales. We have ...
Ellison William D - - 2011
Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses, affect and ...
Schepers Paul - - 2011
ObjectiveThis paper examines the relationship between the amount of bicycle use and the number of single-bicycle crashes (ie, only one cyclist involved) in Dutch municipalities. Previous research has focused on crashes between bicycles and motor vehicles; however, most cyclists admitted to hospital are victims of single-bicycle crashes.MethodsThis correlational study used ...
Friedman Joshua R - - 2011
While it has been well established that the fetal liver originates from foregut endoderm, the identity of the mechanisms that maintain liver mass under both basal and injury conditions remains controversial. Dramatically different models have been proposed based on the experimental design employed. In this issue of the JCI, Malato ...
Austin Laurel C - - 2011
Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research ...
Zarruk J G - - 2011
A critical aspect in all models is the assessment of the final outcome of the modelling procedure. In the case of a focal ischaemic brain injury, apart from the determination of the size of the lesion, another valuable tool is the evaluation of the final functional deficit. Indeed, ischaemic damage ...
Zhu Hong-Ming - - 2011
Context: Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) has many advantages that make it a promising choice for the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD). To study the mechanism of IHDs or pharmacological actions of THM, many hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte injury models have been established. Radix Salvia miltorrhiza (Danshen) was used as a representative ...
Kemper Andrew R - - 2011
Blunt splenic injuries are most frequently caused as a result of motor vehicle collisions and are associated with high mortality rates. In order to accurately assess the risk of automotive related spleen injuries using tools such as finite element models, tissue level tolerance values and suitable material models must be ...
Kimmel Lara A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Accurate prediction of the likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation following lower limb fracture made on admission to hospital may assist patient discharge planning and decrease the burden on the hospital system caused by delays in decision making. AIMS: To develop a prognostic model for discharge to inpatient rehabilitation. ...
Hu Jian-Zhong - - 2011
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) always leads to severe destruction of the microvascular networks. To investigate the three-dimensional (3D) alterations of microvasculature following SCI, we utilized an established rat SCI model. Based on the hypothesis that the spinal cord would undergo reorganization and postinjury modification of the vascular networks after ...
Redondo Miriam - - 2011
A simple and efficient synthetic method for the preparation of quinazoline type phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitors, based on microwave irradiation, has been developed. The use of this methodology improved yields and reaction times, providing a scalable procedure. These compounds are pharmacologically interesting because of their in vivo efficacy both in spinal ...
McKenzie Kirsten - - 2011
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is used to categorize diseases, injuries, and external causes of injury, and it is a key epidemiologic tool enabling storage and retrieval of data from health and vital records to produce core international mortality and morbidity statistics. The ICD is updated periodically to ensure ...
Friess Stuart H SH Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2011
Small-animal models have been used in traumatic brain injury (TBI) research to investigate the basic mechanisms and pathology of TBI. Unfortunately, successful TBI investigations in small-animal models have not resulted in marked improvements in clinical outcomes of TBI patients. To develop a clinically relevant immature large-animal model of pediatric neurocritical ...
Salifu Mohammed - - 2011
Having reliable estimates of the shortfalls in road traffic crash data is an important prerequisite for setting more realistic targets for crash/casualty reduction programmes and for a better appreciation of the socio-economic significance of road traffic crashes. This study was carried out to establish realistic estimates of the overall shortfall ...
Hammond Terry R - - 2011
BACKGROUND: This study assesses state-level data sources for numerators and denominators in occupational fatality rates. Data from Oregon Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation, 2003-2007, are used to assess numerators, and to produce fatality rates using different data sources for denominators. METHODS: Data sources for state-level occupational fatalities and the employed ...
Sterling Michele - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Study Design. Non-systematic review and discussion of prognosis following whiplash injuryObjective. To summarise the research and identify a research agenda for improving prognostic models following whiplash injurySummary of Background Data. With up to 50% of individuals failing to fully recover following whiplash injury, the capacity to determine a precise ...
Sterling Michele - - 2011
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT: Study Design. Non systematic reviewObjective. Review of prognostic indicators for outcome following whiplash injury and the implications for clinical practice and future researchSummary of Background Data. The capacity to predict outcome following whiplash injury is important to guide the management of the condition. There have now been numerous ...
Bass Cameron R - - 2012
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are ...
Mihalik Jason P - - 2012
The age at which young hockey players should safely body check is unknown. We sought to determine if playing position (defensemen vs. forwards), event type (practice vs. game), or head impact location (top vs. back vs. front vs. sides) had an effect on head impact biomechanics in youth hockey. A ...
Finan John D - - 2012
Rat is the most commonly used animal model for the study of traumatic brain injury. Recent advances in imaging and computational modeling technology offer the promise of biomechanical models capable of resolving individual brain structures and offering greater insight into the causes and consequences of brain injury. However, there is ...
Patil Sunil - - 2012
Recent studies in the area of highway safety have demonstrated the usefulness of logit models for modeling crash injury severities. Use of these models enables one to identify and quantify the effects of factors that contribute to certain levels of severity. Most often, these models are estimated assuming equal probability ...
Day Kristin V - - 2012
Spinal cord injury affects walking balance control, which necessitates methods to quantify balance ability. The purposes of this study were to 1) examine walking balance through foot placement variability post-injury; 2) assess the relationship between measures of variability and clinical balance assessments; and 3) determine if spatial parameter variability might ...
Funk James R - - 2012
For several years, Virginia Tech and other schools have measured the frequency and severity of head impacts sustained by collegiate American football players in real time using the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System of helmet-mounted accelerometers. In this study, data from 37,128 head impacts collected at Virginia Tech during games ...
Douglas Clay - - 2011
Far-side impacts are not part of any regulated NCAP, FMVSS, or similar test regime despite accounting for 43 percent of the seriously injured persons and 30 percent of the harm in U.S. side impact crashes. Furthermore, injuries to the head and thorax account for over half of the serious injuries ...
Ainy E - - 2011
This study was conducted to assess political mapping in relation to road traffic injuries (RTIs) management and prevention to present a practical model for RTIs. A phenomenological qualitative study was developed to identify stakeholders on RTI in Iran in 2008. The designed questions were discussed by systematic discussion with the ...
Hu Wen - - 2011
Crossover and rollover crashes in earth-divided, traversable medians on rural divided highways can lead to severe injury outcomes. This study estimated severity models of these two crash types. Vehicle, driver, roadway, and median cross-section design data were factors considered in the models. A unique aspect of the data used to ...
Stergiou-Kita Mary - - 2011
Purpose: This paper is a qualitative synthesis of clients' perspectives of the elements significant to return to work following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is part of a larger review, completed to provide the evidence base for a vocational evaluation guideline. Methods: Processes outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic ...
Hein Tobias - - 2011
Several studies have used variability of continuous relative phase (CRP) to investigate overuse injuries, since low variability is thought to be related to running injuries. This study investigates whether the analysis of CRP variability leads to additional information about possible differences or similarities between healthy and injured runners. Further, a ...
Mujalli Randa Oqab - - 2011
This study describes a method for reducing the number of variables frequently considered in modeling the severity of traffic accidents. The method's efficiency is assessed by constructing Bayesian networks (BN). It is based on a two stage selection process. Several variable selection algorithms, commonly used in data mining, are applied ...
Giusti Sebastián - - 2011
The molecular pathways underlying the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning are promising, potentially drugable targets to promote cell survival. However, these pathways are complex and are not yet fully understood. In this study we have established a paradigm of hypoxic preconditioning based on a chick embryo model of normobaric acute hypoxia ...
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