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Results 201 - 250 of 2728
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Ben-Yosef Guy - - 2012
We propose a theory for cortical representation and computation of visually completed curves that are generated by the visual system to fill in missing visual information (e.g., due to occlusions). Recent computational theories and physiological evidence suggest that although such curves do not correspond to explicit image evidence along their ...
Liu Mei M Department of Biology, Harbin Normal University, PR - - 2012
Fruit structural characters have traditionally been important in the taxonomy of the family Apiaceae. Previous investigations using a limited number of taxa have shown that the carpophore may be especially useful in helping to circumscribe subfamily Azorelloideae. The present study examines, for the first time, carpophore structure in 92 species ...
Martel Sylvain - - 2012
Microorganisms and specifically motile bacteria have been recently added to the list of micro-actuators typically considered for the implementation of microsystems and microrobots. Such trend has been motivated by the fact these microorganisms are self-powered actuators with overall sizes at the lower end of the micrometer range and which have ...
Barry David J - - 2012
The productivity of an industrial fermentation process involving a filamentous microbe is heavily dependent on the morphological form adopted by the organism. The development of systems capable of rapidly and accurately characterizing morphology within a given process represents a significant challenge, as the complex phenotypes that are manifested are not ...
Witnauer James E - - 2012
Previous simulations revealed that the sometimes competing retrieval model (SOCR; Stout & Miller, Psychological Review, 114, 759-783, 2007), which assumes local error reduction, can explain many cue interaction phenomena that elude traditional associative theories based on total error reduction. Here, we applied SOCR to a new set of Pavlovian phenomena. ...
Loop Torsten - - 2012
Although a potentially toxic gaseous molecule, carbon monoxide recently gains rising scientifically and clinical interest as its beneficial effects and mechanisms of action are defined substantially in various in vitro and in vivo experiments. Its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties but its increasing impact concerning numerous disease models in means ...
König Gerhard - - 2012
New methods for computing eigenvectors of symmetric block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations are explored. The relation of the block where two twisted factorizations meet to an eigenvector of the block tridiagonal matrix is reviewed. Based on this, several new algorithmic strategies for computing the eigenvector efficiently are ...
Saakian David B - - 2012
We considered a multiblock molecular model of biological evolution, in which fitness is a function of the mean types of alleles located at different parts (blocks) of the genome. We formulated an infinite population model with selection and mutation, and calculated the mean fitness. For the case of recombination, we ...
Gershman Samuel J - - 2012
We frame behavior in classical conditioning experiments as the product of normative statistical inference. According to this theory, animals learn an internal model of their environment from experience. The basic building blocks of this internal model are latent causes-explanatory constructs inferred by the animal that partition observations into coherent clusters. ...
Deng Dong-dong - - 2012
In order to better understand biatrial conduction, investigate various conduction pathways, and compare the differences between isotropic and anisotropic conductions in human atria, we present a simulation study of biatrial conduction with known/assumed conduction pathways using a recently developed human atrial model. In addition to known pathways: (1) Bachmann's bundle ...
Adl Sina M - - 2012
This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52 (2005) 399], retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability ...
Netopilík Miloš - - 2012
The SEC separation of a randomly branched polymer, in particular local dispersity due to branching, are theoretically examined. A model of the SEC separation of randomly branched polymer with tetrafunctional branch points enabling the estimation of local dispersity was developed. Measurable quantities (branching indices) were compared with real data. Local ...
Minchin Dan - - 2012
A rapid assessment, using the abundance and distribution range method, was used to evaluate the status of a large branching bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum attached to the immersed part of marina pontoons in the Canary Islands. Colonies were also found attached to the hulls of leisure craft berthed alongside pontoons at ...
Coenen Pieter - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Cumulative low-back load is suggested to be associated with low back pain, possibly due to (micro-)fractures of spinal segments. Based on available in vitro data it can be assumed that, in order to predict spine segment failure from cumulative compressive loading, load magnitude should be weighted with an exponent ...
Hassan Tahsin - - 2012
Mean electromyogram (EMG) conduction delay is often estimated as the average time delay between two surface EMG recordings arranged along the conduction path. It has previously been shown that the complete distribution of conduction delays can be estimated from the impulse response relating the "upstream" EMG recording to the "downstream" ...
Toyoizumi Hiroshi - - 2012
Large-degree nodes may have a larger influence on the network, but they can be bottlenecks for spreading information since spreading attempts tend to concentrate on these nodes and become redundant. We discuss that the reverse preferential spread (distributing information inversely proportional to the degree of the receiving node) has an ...
Gilboa Elad - - 2012
Finding the electrical conductivity of tissue is important for understanding the tissue's structure and functioning. However, the inverse problem of inferring spatial conductivity from data is highly ill-posed and computationally intensive. In this paper, we propose a novel method to solve the inverse problem of inferring tissue conductivity from a ...
Kim Tae Yup TY Department of Neurosurgery, Guro Teun Teun Hospital, Seoul, - - 2012
A finite element analysis. To evaluate the differences between surgical techniques in terms of the effects of arthrodesis on adjacent segments. Augmentation with posterior rigid fixation combined with transpedicular screw insertion, which is one of the most popular techniques for lumbar arthrodesis, shows benefits in immediate stabilization and a higher ...
Wilson Jefferson R - - 2012
To improve clinicians' ability to predict outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to help classify patients within clinical trials, we have created a novel prediction model relating acute clinical and imaging information to functional outcome at 1 year. Data were obtained from two large prospective SCI datasets. Functional independence ...
De Bruyn Kristof - - 2012
We have recently seen new upper bounds for B_{s}^{0}→μ^{+}μ^{-}, a key decay to search for physics beyond the standard model. Furthermore a nonvanishing decay width difference ΔΓ_{s} of the B_{s} system has been measured. We show that ΔΓ_{s} affects the extraction of the B_{s}^{0}→μ^{+}μ^{-} branching ratio and the resulting constraints ...
Yang Zhi - - 2012
This paper models in vivo neural signals and noise for extracellular spike detection. Although the recorded data approximately follow Gaussian distribution, they clearly deviate from white Gaussian noise due to neuronal synchronization and sparse distribution of spike energy. Our study predicts the coexistence of two components embedded in neural data ...
Liu Meizhu - - 2012
Fiber tracking from diffusion tensor images is an essential step in numerous clinical applications. There is a growing demand for an accurate and efficient framework to perform quantitative analysis of white matter fiber bundles. In this paper, we propose a robust framework for fiber clustering. This framework is composed of ...
Carlozzi Noelle E - - 2012
Purpose: Virtual reality (VR) is a relatively new technology that is currently utilized in a wide variety of settings to test and train individuals in specialized skills. This study examines methods for improving driver retraining protocols for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: We compared a VR driving simulator, ...
Berry Tyrus - - 2012
We develop a method from semiparametric statistics (Cox, 1972) for the purpose of tracking links and connection strengths over time in a neuronal network from spike train data. We consider application of the method as implemented in (Masud and Borisyuk, 2011), and evaluate its use on data generated independently of ...
Thaler Martin - - 2012
: Kuntz et al recently introduced a new system for classifying spinal deformities. This classification of spinal deformity was developed from age-dependent deviations from the neutral upright spinal alignment. : To determine the interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities of the new Kuntz et al system for classifying scoliosis. : Fifty consecutive ...
Eijkholt Marleen - - 2012
Aims: The purpose of this study was to characterize the self-perceived role of professionals and personal caregivers in decision-making about participation in stem cell clinical trials by individuals in early post-spinal cord injury time-points. Materials & methods: Data were obtained from focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews from two networks: ...
Ferreira Leonardo M R - - 2012
One only needs to see a salamander regrowing a lost limb to become fascinated by regeneration. However, the lack of robust axonal regeneration models for which good cellular and molecular tools exist has hampered progress in the field. Nevertheless, the nervous system has been revealed to be an excellent model ...
Hussain Mozammil - - 2012
Biomechanics of normal vertebral segments adjacent to a degenerated segment in the cervical spine. To test the hypothesis that posterior facet joints of adjacent segments are loaded more when degeneration occurs in the intermediate disc segment. Degeneration progression in adjacent segments is a clinical concern. Literature studies that have documented ...
Choi D S - - 2012
We present asymptotic and finite-sample results on the use of stochastic blockmodels for the analysis of network data. We show that the fraction of misclassified network nodes converges in probability to zero under maximum likelihood fitting when the number of classes is allowed to grow as the root of the ...
Worobey Lynn - - 2012
The aims of this study were to report the current incidence of wheelchair breakdowns, repairs, and consequences and to compare current data with historical data. A convenience sample survey of 723 participants with spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for more than 40 hrs/wk treated at a Spinal Cord ...
Cowan Rachel E - - 2012
PURPOSE: To assess 6 minute push test (6MPT) reliability, determine if the 6MPT is sensitive to fitness differences, and assess if 6MPT distance predicts fitness level in persons with spinal cord injury or disease (SCI). METHODS: Forty individuals with SCI who could self-propel a manual wheelchair completed an incremental arm ...
Ginis Kathleen A Martin - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Most studies of physical activity predictors in people with disability have lacked a guiding theoretical framework. Identifying theory-based predictors is important for developing activity-enhancing strategies. PURPOSE: To use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to identify predictors of leisure time physical activity ...
Cox Brett W - - 2012
PURPOSE: Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used to manage spinal metastases. However, target volume definition varies considerably and no consensus target volume guidelines exist. This study proposes consensus target volume definitions using common scenarios in metastatic spine radiosurgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seven radiation oncologists and 3 neurological surgeons with ...
Jette Alan M - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: To describe the calibration of the Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI) and report on the initial psychometric evaluation of the SCI-FI scales in each content domain. DESIGN:: Cross sectional survey followed by calibration data simulations. SETTING:: Inpatient and community settings PARTICIPANTS:: A sample of 855 participants with traumatic spinal ...
Tulsky David S DS Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2012
To develop a comprehensive set of patient-reported items to assess multiple aspects of physical functioning relevant to the lives of people with spinal cord injury (SCI), and to evaluate the underlying structure of physical functioning. Cross-sectional. Inpatient and community. Item pools of physical functioning were developed, refined, and field tested ...
Hiremath Shivayogi V - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate new energy expenditure (EE) prediction models for manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with spinal cord injury (SCI) based on a commercially available multi-sensor-based activity monitor. DESIGN: Cross-sectional SETTING: Laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Volunteer sample of 45 MWUs with SCI INTERVENTION: Subjects were asked to perform four activities including ...
Devedžić Goran - - 2012
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of abnormal curvature observed in spine and it progresses rapidly during the puberty period. The most followed clinical way of assessing the spinal deformity is subjective by measuring the characteristic angles of spinal curve from a set of radiographic images. This paper ...
Aaltonen T - - 2012
The decays B_{s}^{0}→D_{s}^{(*)+}D_{s}^{(*)-} are reconstructed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.8  fb^{-1} collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron pp[over ¯] collider. All decay modes are observed with a significance of more than 10σ, and we measure the B_{s}^{0} production rate times B_{s}^{0}→D_{s}^{(*)+}D_{s}^{(*)-} branching ...
Zurita Mercedes - - 2012
The regenerative medicine techniques that are beginning to be applied to the nervous system have led to increased hope in the treatment of diseases that have been considered incurable and that require experimental models on which to test new therapeutic strategies. We present our experience with adult pigs (minipigs) that ...
Seshadhri C - - 2012
Community structure plays a significant role in the analysis of social networks and similar graphs, yet this structure is little understood and not well captured by most models. We formally define a community to be a subgraph that is internally highly connected and has no deeper substructure. We use tools ...
Peixoto Tiago P - - 2012
Stochastic blockmodels are generative network models where the vertices are separated into discrete groups, and the probability of an edge existing between two vertices is determined solely by their group membership. In this paper, we derive expressions for the entropy of stochastic blockmodel ensembles. We consider several ensemble variants, including ...
Noonan Vanessa K - - 2012
Background: Despite decades of research, there are no national estimates of the incidence or prevalence of spinal cord injury (SCI) in Canada. Our objective was to utilize the best available data to estimate the incidence and prevalence of traumatic SCI (TSCI) and non-traumatic SCI (NTSCI) in Canada for 2010. Methods: ...
Weisse B - - 2012
The knowledge of spinal kinematics is of paramount importance for many aspects of clinical application (i.e. diagnosis, treatment and surgical intervention) and for the development of new spinal implants. The aim of this study was to determine the translational and rotational stiffnesses of a functional spinal unit (FSU) L4-L5 using ...
Tan Sidhartha - - 2012
Nanomedicine treatment postnatally in an inflammatory model of cerebral palsy ameliorates motor deficits.
Wong Johnny - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Post-traumatic syringomyelia affects approximately 28% of spinal cord injury patients and current treatments are often ineffective. The pathogenesis of this condition remains poorly understood. Previous reports have focused on pathways and mechanisms of fluid inflow; however, disturbances of fluid outflow mechanisms and pathways may be important in syrinx formation ...
Corbett Elaine A - - 2012
Neuroprosthetic devices promise to allow paralyzed patients to perform the necessary functions of everyday life. However, to allow patients to use such tools it is necessary to decode their intent from neural signals such as electromyograms (EMGs). Because these signals are noisy, state of the art decoders integrate information over ...
Lacquaniti Francesco - - 2012
Neural control of locomotion in human adults involves the generation of a small set of basic patterned commands directed to the leg muscles. The commands are generated sequentially in time during each step by neural networks located in the spinal cord, called Central Pattern Generators. This review outlines recent advances ...
Nout Yvette S - - 2012
Primates are an important and unique animal resource. We have developed a nonhuman primate model of spinal cord injury (SCI) to expand our knowledge of normal primate motor function, to assess the impact of disease and injury on sensory and motor function, and to test candidate therapies before they are ...
Charlifue S - - 2012
Study design:Survey of expert opinion, feedback, and development of final consensus.Objective:Present the background, purpose, development process and results for the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Quality of Life (QoL) Basic Data Set.Setting:International.Methods:A committee of experts was established to select and define data elements to be included in an International SCI ...
Chen Yao - - 2012
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is considered to be one of the most important targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously our group has reported a series of tacrine-based hybrids as potent AChE inhibitors (AChEI). To discover more novel scaffolds, molecular docking and dynamics stimulation were applied to acquire the binding ...
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