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Friede Tim - - 2013
The internal pilot study design allows for modifying the sample size during an ongoing study based on a blinded estimate of the variance thus maintaining the trial integrity. Various blinded sample size re-estimation procedures have been proposed in the literature. We compare the blinded sample size re-estimation procedures based on ...
Song Xiaofeng X Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China. - - 2013
In addition to experimental identification of pre-miRNAs, the computational prediction method is also becoming a hot research spot. Most existing prediction methods are usually excluding those pre-miRNAs with multiple loops. But as more and more miRNA have been identified, quite a number of miRNA precursor with multiple loops have been ...
Zaghetto A - - 2013
This paper proposes a hybrid pattern matching/transform-based compression method for scanned documents. The idea is to use regular video interframe prediction as a pattern matching algorithm that can be applied to document coding. We show that this interpretation may generate residual data that can be efficiently compressed by a transform-based ...
Sommer David E - - 2013
Block-type lumped-element models of the vocal folds are widely used for speech investigations due in part to the rich dynamics exhibited over a range of input parameters, particularly for asymmetric tissue properties. While self-consistent in derivation and application, block-type models of the vocal fold masses are inherently susceptible to non-physical ...
Suleymanov Y - - 2013
A mathematical model is developed to describe and investigate interstitial branching of axonal networks during nervous system development. The model under consideration describes axonal network growth in which the concentration of axon guidance molecules controls axon's growth and interstitial branching from axon shaft. Numerical simulations show that in the model ...
Roscoe Eileen M - - 2013
Hand mouthing (HM) is a chronic problem in many individuals with intellectual disabilities. Although the prevalence of mouthing has been estimated, data on the frequency, severity, or functions of the behavior were not included. In Study 1, we examined the prevalence and risk of HM. Results obtained from interviews showed ...
Jackman Andrea M - - 2013
According to the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 and subsequent federal policy, local governments are required to have a Hazard Mitigation Plan (HMP) written and approved by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to be eligible for federal mitigation assistance. This policy took effect on November 1, 2004. Using FEMA's ...
Raudys Sarunas - - 2013
In this paper, we consider using profit/loss histories of multiple automated trading systems (ATSs) as N input variables in portfolio management. By means of multivariate statistical analysis and simulation studies, we analyze the influences of sample size (L) and input dimensionality on the accuracy of determining the portfolio weights. We ...
Antoneli Fernando - - 2013
In this paper, we revisit and adapt to viral evolution an approach based on the theory of branching process advanced by Demetrius et al. (Bull. Math. Biol. 46:239-262, 1985), in their study of polynucleotide evolution. By taking into account beneficial effects, we obtain a non-trivial multivariate generalization of their single-type ...
Crawford Forrest W FW Department of Biostatistics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. - - 2013
The branching structure of biological evolution confers statistical dependencies on phenotypic trait values in related organisms. For this reason, comparative macroevolutionary studies usually begin with an inferred phylogeny that describes the evolutionary relationships of the organisms of interest. The probability of the observed trait data can be computed by assuming ...
Hon Nicholas - - 2013
The effect of target probability on detection times is well-established: Even when detection accuracy is high, lower probability targets are detected more slowly than higher probability ones. Although this target probability effect on detection times has been well-studied, one aspect of it has remained largely unexamined: How the effect develops ...
Aichholzer Oswin - - 2013
Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay triangulation of [Formula: see text] there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest ...
Long Tao - - 2013
This paper studies the problem of single-channel noise reduction in the time domain and presents a block-based approach where a vector of the desired speech signal is recovered by filtering a frame of the noisy signal with a rectangular filtering matrix. With this formulation, the noise reduction problem becomes one ...
Morgan John W R JW University Chemical Laboratories, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United - - 2013
A model potential for colloidal building blocks is defined with two different types of attractive surface sites, described as complementary patches and antipatches. A Bernal spiral is identified as the global minimum for clusters with appropriate arrangements of three patch-antipatch pairs. We further derive a minimalist design rule with only ...
Schouteden Martijn - - 2013
Often data are collected that consist of different blocks that all contain information about the same entities (e.g., items, persons, or situations). In order to unveil both information that is common to all data blocks and information that is distinctive for one or a few of them, an integrated analysis ...
Faes Luca - - 2013
In the past years, several frequency-domain causality measures based on vector autoregressive time series modeling have been suggested to assess directional connectivity in neural systems. The most followed approaches are based on representing the considered set of multiple time series as a realization of two or three vector-valued processes, yielding ...
Lane Stephanie T - - 2013
Startle habituation is present in all startle studies, whether as a dependent variable, discarded habituation block, or ignored nuisance. However, there is still much that remains unknown about startle habituation, including: (1) what is the nature of the startle habituation curve?; (2) at what point does startle habituation approach an ...
De Roover Kim - - 2013
Given multivariate multiblock data (e.g., subjects nested in groups are measured on multiple variables), one may be interested in the nature and number of dimensions that underlie the variables, and in differences in dimensional structure across data blocks. To this end, clusterwise simultaneous component analysis (SCA) was proposed which simultaneously ...
Joppa Lucas N - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Networks of single interaction types, such as plant-pollinator mutualisms, are biodiversity's "building blocks". Yet, the structure of mutualistic and antagonistic networks differs, leaving no unified modeling framework across biodiversity's component pieces. METHODSPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use a one-dimensional "niche model" to predict antagonistic and mutualistic species interactions, finding that accuracy ...
Neaux Dimitri - - 2013
The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses ...
Ng Ying Woo - - 2013
Introduction: This study aimed to develop a realistic and lifelike uterine model for the training of hysteroscopy skills. Materials and Methods: A lifelike "uterine" model was constructed using female pig bladder. The pig bladder was enclosed within a malleable mould, with both ureters blocked by pins. Both rigid and fl ...
Kello Christopher T - - 2013
It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes ...
Zhang Xingyou - - 2013
Traditional survey methods for obtaining nationwide small-area estimates (SAEs) of childhood obesity are costly. This study applied a geocoded national health survey in a multilevel modeling framework to estimate prevalence of childhood obesity at the census block-group level. We constructed a multilevel logistic regression model to evaluate the influence of ...
Kim Kyu-Won - - 2013
One of the most important measures for detecting molecular adaptations between species/lineages at the gene level is the comparison of relative fixation rates of synonymous (dS) and non-synonymous (dN) mutations. This study shows that the branch model is sensitive to tree topology and proposes an alternative approach, devogs, which does ...
Liesche Johannes - - 2013
Plasmodesmata (PD) play a key role in loading of sugars into the phloem. In plant species that employ the so-called active symplasmic loading strategy, sucrose that diffuses into their unique intermediary cells (ICs) is converted into sugar oligomers. According to the prevalent hypothesis, the oligomers are too large to pass ...
Xu Xuecai - - 2013
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety impact of selected access management techniques in urban areas because access management techniques play an important role in urban roadway safety on the roadway network. Methods: In order to correct the interdependency between safety and mobility for heterogeneous mid-block ...
Blagojević Milan - - 2013
It is well known that endothelial shear stress affects occurrence of plaque in arteries. Lack of a method for measuring this physical quantity limits scientific understanding of this phenomenon. Application of numerical methods in this area has considerable amount of experimental verifications in terms of quantities that can be measured ...
Iber Dagmar - - 2013
Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle ...
Casas-Cordero C - - 2013
Interviewer observations made during the process of data collection are currently used to inform responsive design decisions, to expand the set of covariates for nonresponse adjustments, to explain participation in surveys, and to assess nonresponse bias. However, little effort has been made to assess the quality of such interviewer observations. ...
Teo Bee Guan - - 2013
In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model ...
Bapst David W DW Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA. - - 2013
Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses are the only option for reconstructing relationships among extinct lineages, but often find support for conflicting hypotheses of relationships. The resulting lack of phylogenetic resolution is generally explained in terms of data quality and methodological issues, such as character selection. A previous suggestion is that sampling ancestral ...
Ros Christian C Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany ; Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, - - 2013
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography are important tools to map the cerebral white matter microstructure in vivo and to model the underlying axonal pathways in the brain with three-dimensional fiber tracts. As the fast and consistent extraction of anatomically correct fiber bundles for multiple datasets is still challenging, ...
Price Charles A CA School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, - - 2013
Models that predict the form of hierarchical branching networks typically invoke optimization based on biomechanical similitude, the minimization of impedance to fluid flow, or construction costs. Unfortunately, due to the small size and high number of vein segments found in real biological networks, complete descriptions of networks needed to evaluate ...
Guo Xue-Min XM College of Life Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology Qinhuangdao, - - 2013
Kiwi fruit is of great agricultural, botanical, and economic interest. The flower of kiwi fruit has axile placentation, which is typical for Actinidiaceae. Axile placentation is thought derived through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placentation according to the traditional doctrine. Recent progress in angiosperm systematics has refuted this traditional ...
Stiefel Klaus M KM The MARCS Institute, Sydney, University of Western Sydney NSW, - - 2013
Myelin is the multi-layered lipid sheet periodically wrapped around neuronal axons. It is most frequently found in vertebrates. Myelin allows for saltatory action potential (AP) conduction along axons. During this form of conduction, the AP travels passively along the myelin-covered part of the axon, and is recharged at the intermittent ...
Borkenhagen Kai K Senckenberg Research Institute and Museum of Nature, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany ; Research and Technology Centre (FTZ), University of Kiel, Hafentörn 1, D-25761 Büsum, - - 2013
Representatives of the fish genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Middle East and North Africa were previously placed in 14 different genus-group taxa (Barbellion, Barbus, Barynotus, Capoeta, Carasobarbus, Cyclocheilichthys, Kosswigobarbus, Labeobarbus, Luciobarbus, Pseudotor, Puntius, Systomus, Tor and Varicorhinus). The generic assignment of several species changed frequently, necessitating a ...
Ge Bao B School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xian, - - 2013
Clustering streamline fibers derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data into functionally meaningful bundles with group-wise correspondences across individuals and populations has been a fundamental step for tract-based analysis of white matter integrity and brain connectivity modeling. Many approaches of fiber clustering reported in the literature so far used geometric ...
Ghanbari Yasser - - 2013
The high dimensionality of connectivity networks necessitates the development of methods identifying the connectivity building blocks that not only characterize the patterns of brain pathology but also reveal representative population patterns. In this paper, we present a non-negative component analysis framework for learning localized and sparse sub-network patterns of connectivity ...
Ghaderi Viviane S - - 2013
In this paper, we present a hardware implementation of a second order Laguerre Expansion of Volterra Kernel (LEV) model with four basis functions. The model is versatile enough to be applied at different abstraction levels (synapse, neuron, or network of neurons) and is implemented with analog building blocks in a ...
De Roover Kim K Methodology of Educational Sciences Research Unit, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2013
In many fields of research, so-called 'multiblock' data are collected, i.e., data containing multivariate observations that are nested within higher-level research units (e.g., inhabitants of different countries). Each higher-level unit (e.g., country) then corresponds to a 'data block'. For such data, it may be interesting to investigate the extent to ...
Ma Zhenjun - - 2012
The balance of important baseline covariates is essential for convincing treatment comparisons. Stratified permuted block design and minimization are the two most commonly used balancing strategies, both of which require the covariates to be discrete. Continuous covariates are typically discretized in order to be included in the randomization scheme. But ...
Foda Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad - - 2012
Manual tissue microarray (TMA) construction had been introduced to avoid the high cost of automated and semiautomated techniques. The cheapest and simplest technique for constructing manual TMA was that of using mechanical pencil tips. This study was carried out to modify this method, aiming to raise its quality to reach ...
Blasinski H - - 2012
We propose a color barcode framework for mobile phone applications by exploiting the spectral diversity afforded by the cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y) print colorant channels commonly used for color printing and the complementary red (R), green (G), and blue (B) channels, respectively, used for capturing color images. ...
Orendorff David - - 2012
A new algorithm, "HiER-leap" (hierarchical exact reaction-leaping), is derived which improves on the computational properties of the ER-leap algorithm for exact accelerated simulation of stochastic chemical kinetics. Unlike ER-leap, HiER-leap utilizes a hierarchical or divide-and-conquer organization of reaction channels into tightly coupled "blocks" and is thereby able to speed up ...
Peña Javier - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine which skills and factors better predicted the outcomes of regular season volleyball matches in the Spanish "Superliga" and were significant for obtaining positive results in the game. The study sample consisted of 125 matches played during the 2010-2011 Spanish men's first ...
Bao Xiao-Lei - - 2012
Multifactor designs that are able to examine the interactions include factorial design, factorial design with a block factor, repeated measurement design; orthogonal design, split-block design, etc. Among all the above design types that are able to examine the interactions, the factorial design is the most commonly used. It is also ...
Doerk Gregory S - - 2012
The realization of viable designs for circuit patterns using the dense features formed by block copolymer directed self-assembly (DSA) will require precise and quantitative understanding of self-assembled feature registration to guiding templates or chemical prepatterns. Here we report measurements of DSA placement error for lamellar block copolymer domains indexed to ...
Tallman Melissa - - 2012
Researchers often attempt to use limb proportions to ascertain the locomotor repertoires of fossil hominins. This can be problematic as there are few skeletons in the fossil record that preserve both a full forelimb and hindlimb; therefore, estimates of full limb lengths are typically associated with substantial error. In this ...
Poolkhet C - - 2012
The aim of this study is to explain the social networks of the backyard chicken in Ratchaburi, Suphan Buri and Nakhon Pathom Provinces. In this study, we designed the nodes as groups of persons or places involved in activities relating to backyard chickens. The ties are all activities related to ...
Frament Cameron M - - 2012
Knowledge of nanopore size and shape is critical for many implementations of these single-molecule sensing elements. Geometry determination by fitting the electrolyte-concentration-dependence of the conductance of surface-charged, solid-state nanopores has been proposed to replace demanding electron microscope-based methods. The functional form of the conductance poses challenges for this method by ...
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