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Baskowski Sarah S The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK, - - 2014
In phylogenetics, a common strategy used to construct an evolutionary tree for a set of species [Formula: see text] is to search in the space of all such trees for one that optimizes some given score function (such as the minimum evolution, parsimony or likelihood score). As this can be ...
Louys Julien J Department of Archaeology and Natural History, School of History, Culture and Languages, ANU College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, ACT 0200, Australia; Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
We test the performance of two models that use mammalian communities to reconstruct multivariate palaeoenvironments. While both models exploit the correlation between mammal communities (defined in terms of functional groups) and arboreal heterogeneity, the first uses a multiple multivariate regression of community structure and arboreal heterogeneity, while the second uses ...
Velázquez-Aviña Jacobo J Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Distrito Federal, México; Basil I. Hirschowitz Endoscopic Center of Excellence, Unit for Experimental Endoscopy and Advanced Endoscopy Training, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, - - 2014
Training and teaching of ERCP in biologic models has gained importance over the past decade. However, many existing models are expensive, are not widely available, or rely on live animals. We describe a novel and simple ex vivo, biologic model for hands-on teaching. Ex vivo porcine study. Experimental endoscopy unit. Experimental study ...
Bartolucci Francesco F Department of Economics, University of Perugia (IT), Perugia, - - 2014
Mixed latent Markov (MLM) models represent an important tool of analysis of longitudinal data when response variables are affected by time-fixed and time-varying unobserved heterogeneity, in which the latter is accounted for by a hidden Markov chain. In order to avoid bias when using a model of this type in ...
Takashima Yasuo Y Division of Organogenesis and Regeneration, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, - - 2014
During liver development, biliary epithelial cells differentiated from bipotential hepatic progenitor cells (hepatoblasts) form a cell layer called the ductal plate surrounding portal veins, and develop into intrahepatic bile ducts following developmental programs. Because intrahepatic bile ducts make duct structures in the liver, it is necessary to perform sequential and ...
Davies Jamie A - - 2014
BackgroundGlandular organs require the development of a correctly patterned epithelial tree. These arise by iterative branching: early branches have a stereotyped anatomy, while subsequent branching is more flexible, branches spacing out to avoid entanglement. Previous studies have suggested different genetic programs are responsible for these two classes of branches.ResultsHere, working ...
Pollheimer Marion J MJ Research Unit for Experimental and Molecular Hepatology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Graz, - - 2014
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are immune-mediated cholangiopathies with enigmatic etiology and pathogenesis. They have distinct clinical, laboratory, immunological, and histomorphological characteristics. Well-characterized animal models for PBC and PSC are utterly needed to develop novel pathogenetic concepts and to study innovative treatment strategies. The aim of ...
Rehnberg Lucas - - 2014
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in microgravity is challenging. There are three single-person CPR techniques that can be performed in microgravity: the Evetts-Russomano (ER), Handstand (HS), and Reverse Bear Hug (RBH). All three methods have been evaluated in parabolic flights, but only the ER method has been shown to be effective in ...
Kandelaki S S Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University; Al. Natishvili Institute of Morphology, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, - - 2014
Authors conducted the analysis of multiple data concerning the possible role of Helicobacters in pathogenesis of different hepato-biliary disorders in clinical as well as in experimental settings. Two pathways of Helicobacters penetration into hepato-biliary system - "translocation" and "ascending way" - are discussed. Selection of "control group" in both - ...
Sangchan Apichat - - 2014
Endoscopic biliary drainage using metal and plastic stent in unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCA) is widely used but little is known about their cost-effectiveness. This study evaluated the cost-utility of endoscopic metal and plastic stent drainage in unresectable complex, Bismuth type II-IV, HCA patients. Decision analytic model, Markov model, was used ...
Aschauer S S Division of Cardiology and Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, WähringerGürtel 18-20, Vienna 1090, Austria,, Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, WähringerGürtel 18-20, 1090 Wien, - - 2014
Improvement in predicting survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is of major medical, scientific and socioeconomic interest. The current study aimed at developing an accurate outcome-prediction tool for patients following out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. This retrospective cohort study was based on a cardiac arrest registry. From out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients (n=1932), a ...
Jiang Binhui B The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, - - 2014
Improved Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) approaches will largely benefit the children in need. The constant peak displacement and constant peak force loading methods were analyzed on hard bed for pediatric CPR by an anatomically-detailed 10 year-old (YO) child thorax finite element (FE) model. The chest compression and rib injury risk were ...
Hirasawa Tatsuya T Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, - - 2014
Turtles are characterized by their possession of a shell with dorsal and ventral moieties: the carapace and the plastron, respectively. In this review, we try to provide answers to the question of the evolutionary origin of the carapace, by revising morphological, developmental, and paleontological comparative analyses. The turtle carapace is ...
Harris John - - 2014
This article explores the consequences of interventions to secure moral enhancement that are at once compulsory and inescapable and of which the subject will be totally unaware. These are encapsulated in an arresting example used by Ingmar Perrson and Julian Savulescu concerning a "God machine" capable of achieving at least ...
Frisch Adam A Department of Emergency Medicine Albany Medical Center Hospital Albany, N.Y.. Electronic address: - - 2014
The timing of and interval between events in prehospital care is important for system design, patient outcome, and prehospital research. Since these data can guide treatment recommendations, it is imperative that time-based prehospital documentation is accurate and precise, especially for time-sensitive conditions such as out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We compared ...
Kleber C C Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, AG Polytrauma, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
In response to the vivid scientific discussion since we published the first prehospital trauma cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithm we address discuss the use of advanced prehospital diagnostics via ultrasound or Pneumoscan®. Furthermore, the compromise using needle pericradicentesis within the algorithm despite prehospital emergency thoracotomy is explained. We clarify that thoracostomy is ...
Dameff Christian C University of Arizona, Phoenix, - - 2014
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. Telephone CPR (TCPR) comprises CPR instruction given by emergency dispatchers to bystanders responding to OHCA and the CPR performed as a result. TCPR instructions improve bystander CPR rates, but the quality of the instructions varies widely. No standardized system exists ...
Tangney June P JP George Mason - - 2014
Psychological research using mostly cross-sectional methods calls into question the presumed function of shame as an inhibitor of immoral or illegal behavior. In a longitudinal study of 476 jail inmates, we assessed shame proneness, guilt proneness, and externalization of blame shortly after incarceration. We interviewed participants (N = 332) 1 ...
Eftestøl Trygve T Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, - - 2014
Background. During resuscitation of cardiac arrest victims a variety of information in electronic format is recorded as part of the documentation of the patient care contact and in order to be provided for case review for quality improvement. Such review requires considerable effort and resources. There is also the problem ...
Nasiri Ebrahim E Department Anesthesiology and Emergency Medicine, Faculty Member, Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, - - 2014
mask fixation in the lateral position is difficult during CPR. the aim of this study is to compare the lateral CPR for the use of bag-valve mask by single paramedic rescuer as well as over-the-head CPR on the chest compression and ventilation on the manikin. Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. ...
Farrahi Katayoun K Department of Computing, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, United - - 2014
Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction ...
Ayala U U Communications Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Alameda Urquijo S/N, 48013 Bilbao, - - 2014
Interruptions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) compromise defibrillation success. However, CPR must be interrupted to analyze the rhythm because although current methods for rhythm analysis during CPR have high sensitivity for shockable rhythms, the specificity for nonshockable rhythms is still too low. This paper introduces a new approach to rhythm analysis ...
Zong Shengwei S School of geographical sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, - - 2014
Tree line ecotone in the Changbai Mountains has undergone large changes in the past decades. Tree locations show variations on the four sides of the mountains, especially on the northern and western sides, which has not been fully explained. Previous studies attributed such variations to the variations in temperature. However, ...
Katanuma Akio A Center for Gastroenterology, Teine-Keijinkai Hospital, 1-40-1-12 Maeda Teine-ku, Sapporo 006-8555, - - 2014
Aim. We aimed to develop a simulation dry model for endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and needle knife precut sphincterotomy (NKP) and to evaluate its usefulness as a training simulator. Materials and Methods. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography trainer was used as a duodenum, bile duct, and papilla simulator. A simulated papilla was ...
Badriyah Tessy T Centre for Healthcare Modelling and Informatics, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, - - 2013
To compare the performance of a human-generated, trial and error-optimised early warning score (EWS), i.e., National Early Warning Score (NEWS), with one generated entirely algorithmically using Decision Tree (DT) analysis. We used DT analysis to construct a decision-tree EWS (DTEWS) from a database of 198755 vital signs observation sets collected ...
Kelleher Deirdre C DC Division of Trauma and Burn Surgery, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, - - 2013
Trauma resuscitations without pre-arrival notification are often initially chaotic, which can potentially compromise patient care. We hypothesized that trauma resuscitations without pre-arrival notification are performed with more variable adherence to ATLS protocol and that implementation of a checklist would improve performance. We analyzed event logs of trauma resuscitations from two ...
Churpek Matthew M - - 2013
Over 200,000 in-hospital cardiac arrests occur in the United States each year and many of these events may be preventable. Current vital sign-based risk scores for ward patients have demonstrated limited accuracy, which leads to missed opportunities to identify those patients most likely to suffer cardiac arrest and inefficient resource ...
Toonen Robert J - - 2013
On the 20th anniversary of the Convention on Biological Diversity, a network of very large marine protected areas (the Big Ocean network) has emerged as a key strategy in the move to arrest marine decline and conserve some of the last remaining relatively undisturbed marine areas on the globe. Here ...
Ebell Mark H MH Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens2Institute for Evidence-Based Practice in the Health Professions, University of Georgia, - - 2013
Informing patients and providers of the likelihood of survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), neurologically intact or with minimal deficits, may be useful when discussing do-not-attempt-resuscitation orders. To develop a simple prearrest point score that can identify patients unlikely to survive IHCA, neurologically intact or with minimal deficits. The study ...
Berger Mette M - - 2013
Over-resuscitation is deleterious in many critically ill conditions, including major burns. For more than 15 years, several strategies to reduce fluid administration in burns during the initial resuscitation phase have been proposed, but no single or simple parameter has shown superiority. Fluid administration guided by invasive hemodynamic parameters usually resulted in ...
Peace Jack M - - 2013
Conventional, paper-based resuscitation transcripts are notoriously inaccurate, often lacking the precision that is necessary for recording a fast-paced resuscitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a tablet computer-based application could improve upon conventional practices for resuscitation documentation. Nurses used either the conventional paper code sheet or a ...
Ebell Mark H - - 2013
To predict the likelihood that an inpatient who experiences cardiopulmonary arrest and undergoes cardiopulmonary resuscitation survives to discharge with good neurologic function or with mild deficits (Cerebral Performance Category score = 1). Classification and Regression Trees were used to develop branching algorithms that optimize the ability of a series of ...
Littmann Laszlo - - 2013
Cardiac arrest victims who present with pulseless electrical activity (PEA) usually have a grave prognosis. Several conditions, however, have cause-specific treatments which, if applied immediately, can lead to quick and sustained recovery. Current teaching focuses on recollection of numerous conditions that start with the letters H or T as potential ...
Tandon Navin - - 2013
Interruptions in chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can negatively impact survival. Several new endotracheal intubation (ETI) techniques including video laryngoscopy may allow for ETI with minimal or no interruptions in chest compressions. We sought to determine the impact of three different ETI techniques upon time to intubation (TTI) in a ...
Goto Yoshikazu - - 2013
Estimation of outcomes in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) soon after arrival to the hospital may help clinicians guide in-hospital strategies, particularly in the emergency department. This study aimed to develop a simple and generally applicable bedside model for predicting outcomes after cardiac arrest. We analyzed data for 390,226 ...
Al-Rasheed Rakan S - - 2013
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instructor/coordinator (CPR-I/C) adherence to published guidelines during resuscitation and learner assessment for basic life support (BLS)/CPR skills has not been experimentally studied. Investigators sought to (1) determine the quality of CPR-I/C chest compression and the accuracy of CPR-I/C chest compression assessment, and (2) improve CPR-I/C compression and ...
Basile Kathleen C - - 2013
This study tested resource and feminist-informed theories to explain physical, sexual, psychological, and stalking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by court-mandated men. Data were obtained from 340 men arrested for physical assault of a partner before their court-ordered treatment. Using path analysis, findings provided partial support for each model. Ineffective ...
Gohier Francis - - 2013
The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is often inconsistent and frequently fails to meet recommended guidelines. One promising approach to address this problem is for clinicians to use an active feedback device during CPR. However, one major deficiency of existing feedback systems is that they fail to account for the ...
Park Yubin - - 2013
We model the temporal symptomatic characteristics of 171 cardiac arrest patients in Intensive Care Units. The temporal and feature dependencies in the data are illustrated using a mixture of matrix normal distributions. We found that the cardiac arrest temporal signature is best summarized with six hours data prior to cardiac ...
Ponicki William R - - 2013
The introduction and spread of high potency methamphetamine has led to dramatic increases in drug-related problems in California. Prior research suggests that drug abuse rates are related to local demographic and economic characteristics, law enforcement activities, and sentencing practices. Methamphetamine abuse in particular has been shown to be reduced by ...
Dawes Donald Murray - - 2013
Despite human laboratory and field studies that have demonstrated a reasonable safety profile for TASER brand conducted electrical weapons (CEW), the results of some swine studies and arrest related deaths temporal to the use of the CEWs continue to raise questions regarding cardiac safety. TASER International, Inc., has released a ...
Yun Ilhong - - 2013
Drawing upon a recent study on the association between low self-control and differential responses from the criminal justice system, this study examined whether academic performance, a construct linked to self-control, was also associated with the probability of police arrest. The result indicated that academic performance did have a statistically significant ...
- - 2013
The aim of this paper is to respond to the Commentary, "Reassessing Findings from the Fast Track Study: Problems of Methods and Analysis" provided by E. Michael Foster (Foster, this issue) to our article "Fast Track Intervention Effects on Youth Arrests and Delinquency" (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group 2010, Journal ...
Delisi Matt - - 2013
The use of aliases has been shown to be associated with antisocial behavior, but the empirical research on this topic is modest. The current study employs a multiple analytical approach to explore the association between aliases and career criminality in two large samples of adult offenders. We hypothesized that the ...
Sund Björn - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate ...
Fabisch Alexander - - 2013
We examine two methods which are used to deal with complex machine learning problems: compressed sensing and model compression. We discuss both methods in the context of feed-forward artificial neural networks and develop the backpropagation method in compressed parameter space. We further show that compressing the weights of a layer ...
Hsiao Hongwei - - 2013
This article presented four anthropometric theories (univariate, bivariate/probability distribution, multivariate, and shape-based methods) for protective equipment design decisions. While the significance of anthropometric information for product design is well recognized, designers continue to face challenges in selecting efficient anthropometric data processing methods and translating the acquired information into effective product ...
Root Elisabeth Dowling ED Department of Geography and Institute for Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, 260 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. - - 2013
Despite evidence to suggest significant spatial variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) rates, geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis have not been widely used to understand the reasons behind this variation. This study employs spatial statistics to identify the location and extent of clusters ...
Corrigan Derek - - 2013
A lack of acceptance has hindered the widespread adoption and implementation of clinical prediction rules (CPRs). The use of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) has been advocated as one way of facilitating a broader dissemination and validation of CPRs. This requires computable models of clinical evidence based on open standards ...
Gong Yushun - - 2013
Various filtering strategies have been adopted and investigated to suppress the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) artifact. In this article, two types of artifact removal methods are reviewed: one is the method that removes CPR artifact using only ECG signals, and the other is the method with additional reference signals, such as ...
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