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Livadiotis G G a Southwest Research Institute , San Antonio , TX , - - 2015
We introduce a discrete-time host-parasitoid model with a strong Allee effect on the host. We adapt the Nicholson-Bailey model to have a positive density dependent factor due to the presence of an Allee effect, and a negative density dependence factor due to intraspecific competition. It is shown that there are ...
Macpherson A J AJ Maurice Müller Laboratories, Department of Clinical Research (DKF), UVCM, University Hospital, Bern, - - 2014
An appreciation of the importance of interactions between microbes and multicellular organisms is currently driving research in biology and biomedicine. Many human diseases involve interactions between the host and the microbiota, so investigating the mechanisms involved is important for human health. Although microbial ecology measurements capture considerable diversity of the ...
Sterba Sonya K SK a Department of Psychology and Human Development , Vanderbilt - - 2014
Clinical psychology researchers studying adolescents and young adults long have been interested in characterizing the latent categorical (classes/profiles) versus continuous (factors) nature of psychological syndromes. To inform this debate, researchers sometimes compare the fit of finite mixture versus factor analysis models to symptom data. This study explains and evaluates how ...
Marston Christopher G CG School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool. L3 3AF, UK. c.g.marston@ljmu.ac.uk Tel: - - 2014
Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for ...
Lion Sebastien S CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS-Universite de Montpellier-Universite Paul-Valery Montpellier-EPHE, 1919, route de Mende, 34293, Montpellier, Cedex 5, - - 2014
Spatial structure has dramatic effects on the demography and the evolution of species. A large variety of theoretical models have attempted to understand how local dispersal may shape the coevolution of interacting species such as host-parasite interactions. The lack of a unifying framework is a serious impediment for anyone willing ...
Buck Julia C JC Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA, - - 2014
Free-living stages of parasites are consumed by a variety of predators, which might have important consequences for predators, parasites, and hosts. For example, zooplankton prey on the infectious stage of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen responsible for amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. Predation on parasites ...
Oyeyemi Oyebode J OJ Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, - - 2014
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) hijacks host cellular processes to replicate within its host. Through interactions with host proteins, it perturbs and interrupts signal pathways that alter key cellular functions. Whereas networks of viral-host interactions have been relatively well characterized, the dynamics of the perturbation process is poorly understood. ...
Beveridge Ian I Department of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Veterinary Clinical Centre, Werribee, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Despite current attempts to document the extent of biodiversity on Earth, significant problems exist in fully documenting the helminth parasites of wildlife. Using the Australasian marsupials as an example, we examine some of these difficulties, including challenges in collecting uncommon host species, the ongoing description of new species of marsupials, ...
Litsios Glenn G Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Quartier Sorge, 1015 Lausanne, - - 2014
Why generalist and specialist species coexist in nature is a question that has interested evolutionary biologists for a long time. While the coexistence of specialists and generalists exploiting resources on a single ecological dimension has been theoretically and empirically explored, biological systems with multiple resource dimensions (e.g. trophic, ecological) are ...
Lamberton Poppy - - 2014
BackgroundGhana is renowned for its sibling species diversity of the Simulium damnosum complex, vectors of Onchocerca volvulus. Detailed entomological knowledge becomes a priority as onchocerciasis control policy has shifted from morbidity reduction to elimination of infection. To date, understanding of transmission dynamics of O. volvulus has been mainly based on ...
JÄ…kalski Marcin M University of Münster, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Bioinformatics, Niels-Stensen Strasse 14, 48149 Münster, - - 2014
The previous release of our Full-parasites database (http://fullmal.hgc.jp/) brought enhanced functionality, an expanded full-length cDNA content, and new RNA-Seq datasets from several important apicomplexan parasites. The 2015 update witnesses the major shift in the databases content with focus on diverse transcriptomes of the apicomplexan parasites. The content of the database ...
Rapp Monica - - 2014
When people use mathematics to model real-life situations, their use of mathematical expressions is often mediated by semantic alignment (Bassok, Chase, & Martin, 1998): The entities in a problem situation evoke semantic relations (e.g., tulips and vases evoke the functionally asymmetric "contain" relation), which people align with analogous mathematical relations ...
Seifert David D ETH Zurich; Swiss Institute of - - 2014
Fitness is a central quantity in evolutionary models of viruses. However, it remains difficult to determine viral fitness experimentally, and existing in vitro assays can be poor predictors of in vivo fitness of viral populations within their hosts. Next-generation sequencing can nowadays provide snapshots of evolving virus populations, and these ...
Martin John J The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63108, - - 2014
Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). ...
Barron Mc M a Landcare Research , PO Box 69040, Lincoln 7640 , New - - 2014
Abstract AIM: To explore how the inclusion of multi-host dynamics affects the predicted prevalence of TB in possums and other host species following the current best practice for control of tuberculosis (TB) in large difficult and remote areas, to identify which host species are responsible for changes in predicted prevalence, ...
Numminen Elina E Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 68, 00014 Helsinki, Finland - - 2014
There has been growing interest in the statistics community to develop methods for inferring transmission pathways of infectious pathogens from molecular sequence data. For many datasets, the computational challenge lies in the huge dimension of the missing data. Here, we introduce an importance sampling scheme in which the transmission trees and ...
Mohamad Rihab R Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, UMR CNRS 7261, Université François Rabelais, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc Grandmont, 37200, Tours, - - 2014
The presence of competitors may affect the pay-off of individuals' foraging strategies. They should therefore modify their resource exploitation decisions accordingly. In such a direct competition situation, theory predicts that individuals should stay longer on a resource patch than when foraging alone. However, models predicting patch residence time focus on ...
Padró Julián J Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellón II, C1428 EHA, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
Host shifts cause drastic consequences on fitness in cactophilic species of Drosophila. It has been argued that changes in the nutritional values accompanying host shifts may elicited these fitness responses, but they may also reflect the presence of potentially toxic secondary compounds that affect resource quality. Recent studies reported that ...
Ferreri Luca L Computational Epidemiology Group, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; Applied Research on Computational Complex Systems Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Torino, Torino, - - 2014
The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE) sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy). The tail of ...
Bechikh Slim - - 2014
Recently, a new metaheuristic called chemical reaction optimization was proposed. This search algorithm, inspired by chemical reactions launched during collisions, inherits several features from other metaheuristics such as simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization. This fact has made it, nowadays, one of the most powerful search algorithms in solving mono-objective ...
Lauron Elvin J EJ Department of Biology,San Francisco State University,San Francisco,California - - 2014
SUMMARY The coevolutionary relationships between avian malaria parasites and their hosts influence the host specificity, geographical distribution and pathogenicity of these parasites. However, to understand fine scale coevolutionary host-parasite relationships, robust and widespread sampling from closely related hosts is needed. We thus sought to explore the coevolutionary history of avian ...
Godin Bruno B Walloon Agricultural Research Center - CRA-W, Valorisation of Agricultural Products Department - Biomass, Bioproducts and Energy Unit, Chaussée de Namur, 146, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
The reliability of different models to predict the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of various plant biomasses using a multispecies dataset was compared. The most reliable prediction models of the BMP were those based on the near infrared (NIR) spectrum compared to those based on the chemical composition. The NIR predictions ...
Purse B V BV NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, United Kingdom; email: - - 2014
Culicoides midges are abundant hematophagous flies that vector arboviruses of veterinary and medical importance. Dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Culicoides-borne arboviruses have occurred since 1998, including the emergence of exotic viruses in northern temperate regions, increases in global disease incidence, and enhanced virus diversity in tropical zones. Drivers may ...
Hartemink Nienke N Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Farm Animal Health, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 7, 3584 CL, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Given the veterinary and public health impact of vector-borne diseases, there is a clear need to assess the suitability of landscapes for the emergence and spread of these diseases. Current approaches for predicting disease risks neglect key features of the landscape as components of the functional habitat of vectors or ...
Cáceres C E CE School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, United - - 2014
Species interactions can strongly influence the size and dynamics of epidemics in populations of focal hosts. The "dilution effect" provides a particularly interesting type of interaction from a biological standpoint. Diluters - other host species which resist infection but remove environmentally-distributed propagules of parasites (spores) - should reduce disease prevalence ...
Kapranas Apostolos A Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland; email: - - 2014
Parasitoids of the hymenopterous family Encyrtidae are one of the most important groups of natural enemies of soft scale insects and have been used extensively in biological control. We summarize existing knowledge of the biology, ecology, and behavior of these parasitoids and how it relates to biological control. Soft scale ...
Machkewskyi Volodymyr K VK Laboratory of Parasitology, Fishery Quality Control Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth of Sultanate of Oman, P.O. Box: 427, Muscat, 100, Sultanate of - - 2014
Specimens of Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) were collected from the gills of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Sparidae) in the Arabian Sea. All of these parasites belonged to one and the same species, which is morphologically very close to L. euzeti Diamanka, Boudaya, Toguebaye & Pariselle, 2011. A different ...
Scharf Michael E ME Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907; email: - - 2014
Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted ...
Svensson-Coelho Maria M Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri - - 2014
Abstract How specialization of consumers with respect to resources varies with respect to latitude is poorly understood. Coexistence of many species in the tropics might be possible only if specialization also increases. Alternatively, lower average abundance of more diverse biotic resources in the tropics might force consumers to become more ...
Barbour A D AD Institut für Mathematik, Universität Zürich, Winterthurertrasse 190, 8057, Zürich, Switzerland, - - 2014
Density dependent Markov population processes with countably many types can often be well approximated over finite time intervals by the solution of the differential equations that describe their average drift, provided that the total population size is large. They also exhibit diffusive stochastic fluctuations on a smaller scale about this ...
Bess Elizabeth N EN Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT - - 2014
Assessment of reaction substrate scope is often a qualitative endeavor that provides general indications of substrate sensitivity to a measured reaction outcome. Unfortunately, this field standard typically falls short of enabling the quantitative prediction of new substrates' performance. The disconnection between a reaction's development and the quantitative prediction of new ...
Pamminger T T Institute of Zoology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, - - 2014
The evolution of parasite virulence and host defences is affected by population structure. This effect has been confirmed in studies focusing on large spatial scales, whereas the importance of local structure is not well understood. Slavemaking ants are social parasites that exploit workers of another species to rear their offspring. ...
McMurdie Paul J PJ Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA - - 2014
We have created a Shiny-based web application, called Shiny-phyloseq, for dynamic interaction with microbiome data that runs on any modern web-browser, and requires no programming to use - increasing the accessibility and decreasing the entrance requirement to using phyloseq and related R tools. Along with a data- and context-aware dynamic ...
Pereira Aldenice N AN Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias and Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 74.540, CEP 23851-970, Seropédica, RJ, - - 2014
The potential value of parasites as ecosystem markers was tested by analyzing the metazoan assemblages of Urophycis brasiliensis caught in four locations distributed in three ecoregions of the Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic. A total of 5,001 metazoan parasites belonging to 33 species were found. The identified parasites varied across locations ...
Serobyan Vahan V Department of Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstraße 37, 72076 Tübingen, - - 2014
Polyphenisms can be adaptations to environments that are heterogeneous in space and time, but to persist they require conditional-specific advantages. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is a facultative predator that displays an evolutionarily conserved polyphenism of its mouthparts. During development, P. pacificus irreversibly executes either a eurystomatous (Eu) or stenostomatous (St) ...
Nannyonga B B Department of Mathematics, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062Kampala, Uganda,. Electronic address: - - 2014
Numerous studies have been carried out on within-host plasmodium falciparum malaria with varying results. Some studies have suggested over estimation of parasite growth within an infected host while others stated that evolution of parasitaemia seems to be quelled by parasite load. Various mathematical models have been designed to understand the ...
Koonin Eugene V EV National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA. - - 2014
CRISPR-Cas is an adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes that functions via a unique mechanism which involves incorporation of foreign DNA fragments into CRISPR arrays and subsequent utilization of transcripts of these inserts (known as spacers) as guide RNAs to cleave the cognate selfish element genome. Multiple attempts have been undertaken ...
Mackenzie K K School of Biological Sciences (Zoology),University of Aberdeen,Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, - - 2014
SUMMARY Myxosporeans are among the most common parasites of marine fish. Their economic importance is mainly as pathogens of both wild and farmed fish, but they have also been used as biological tags in population studies of their fish hosts. Here we review the literature and show the distribution of ...
- - 2014
Much has been learned about the diversity and distribution of human-associated microbial communities, but we still know little about the biology of the microbiome, how it interacts with the host, and how the host responds to its resident microbiota. The Integrative Human Microbiome Project (iHMP, http://hmp2.org), the second phase of ...
Pillai Pradeep P Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, 430 Nahant Road, Nahant, MA, 01908, - - 2014
The persistence of mutualisms in host-microbial - or holobiont - systems is difficult to explain because microbial mutualists, who bear the costs of providing benefits to their host, are always prone to being competitively displaced by non-mutualist 'cheater' species. This disruptive effect of competition is expected to be particularly strong ...
Jasper John P JP Molecular Isotope Technologies LLC, Niantic, Connecticut, - - 2014
The assessment of provenance of heparin is becoming a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry and its regulatory bodies. Batch-specific [carbon (δ(13) C), nitrogen (δ(15) N), oxygen (δ(18) O), sulfur (δ(34) S), and hydrogen (δD)] stable isotopic compositions of five different animal-derived heparins were performed. Measurements readily allowed their differentiation ...
Cardia Daniel Fontana Ferreira DF Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Centro Universitário de Rio Preto ? UNIRP, São José do Rio Preto, SP, - - 2014
Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934) are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny ...
Langenburg Glenn G Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension, 1430 Maryland Avenue East, Saint Paul, MN 55106, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
We respond to the article "Experimental results of fingerprint comparison validity and reliability: A review and critical analysis" by Ralph and Lyn Haber which offers (a) a one-sided criticism of the state of affairs in latent print examination, (b) lack of original data supporting that their suggested approach, and (c) ...
Lee Jin-Won JW Department of Biology, Korea Institute of Ornithology, Kyung Hee University Seoul, 130-701, - - 2014
Since obligate avian brood parasites depend completely on the effort of other host species for rearing their progeny, the availability of hosts will be a critical resource for their life history. Circumstantial evidence suggests that intense competition for host species may exist not only within but also between species. So ...
Matos Renata C - - 2014
Metazoans establish with microorganisms complex interactions for their mutual benefits. Drosophila, which has already proven useful host model to study several aspects of innate immunity and host-bacteria pathogenic associations has become a powerful model to dissect the mechanisms behind mutualistic host-microbe interactions. Drosophila microbiota is composed of simple and aerotolerant ...
Linardi Pedro Marcos PM Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 486, Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Brazil, - - 2014
Tunga is the most specialized genus among the Siphonaptera because adult females penetrate into the skin of their hosts and, after mating and fertilization, undergo hypertrophy, forming an enlarged structure known as the neosome. In humans and other warm-blooded animals, neosomes cause tungiasis, which arises due to the action of ...
Ghita Ovidiu - - 2014
In this paper we investigate the segmentation of closed contours in sub-cellular data using a framework that primarily combines the pairwise affinity grouping principles with a graph partitioning contour searching approach. One salient problem that precluded the application of these methods to large scale segmentation problems is the onerous computational ...
Redding Colleen A CA a CPRC/Psychology , University of Rhode Island , Kingston , NY , - - 2014
Single occupancy vehicle (SOV) transportation is a key contributor to climate change and air pollution. Sustainable transportation (ST), commuting by any means other than SOV, could both slow climate change and enhance public health. The transtheoretical model (TTM) provides a useful framework for examining how people progress towards adopting ST. ...
Greenblum Ayala - - 2014
With widening interests in using model organisms for reverse genetic approaches and biomimmetic microrobotics, motility phenotyping of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is expanding across a growing array of locomotive environments. One ongoing bottleneck lies in providing users with automatic nematode segmentations of C. elegans in image sequences featuring complex and ...
Shrestha Sourya S Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2014
Classical life-history theory predicts that acute, immunizing pathogens should maximize between-host transmission. When such pathogens induce violent epidemic outbreaks, however, a pathogen's short-term advantage at invasion may come at the expense of its ability to persist in the population over the long term. Here, we seek to understand how the ...
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