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Numminen Elina E Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 68, 00014 Helsinki, Finland - - 2014
There has been growing interest in the statistics community to develop methods for inferring transmission pathways of infectious pathogens from molecular sequence data. For many datasets, the computational challenge lies in the huge dimension of the missing data. Here, we introduce an importance sampling scheme in which the transmission trees and ...
Barbour A D AD Institut für Mathematik, Universität Zürich, Winterthurertrasse 190, 8057, Zürich, Switzerland, - - 2014
Density dependent Markov population processes with countably many types can often be well approximated over finite time intervals by the solution of the differential equations that describe their average drift, provided that the total population size is large. They also exhibit diffusive stochastic fluctuations on a smaller scale about this ...
Bess Elizabeth N EN Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT - - 2014
Assessment of reaction substrate scope is often a qualitative endeavor that provides general indications of substrate sensitivity to a measured reaction outcome. Unfortunately, this field standard typically falls short of enabling the quantitative prediction of new substrates' performance. The disconnection between a reaction's development and the quantitative prediction of new ...
Pamminger T T Institute of Zoology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, - - 2014
The evolution of parasite virulence and host defences is affected by population structure. This effect has been confirmed in studies focusing on large spatial scales, whereas the importance of local structure is not well understood. Slavemaking ants are social parasites that exploit workers of another species to rear their offspring. ...
McMurdie Paul J PJ Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA - - 2014
We have created a Shiny-based web application, called Shiny-phyloseq, for dynamic interaction with microbiome data that runs on any modern web-browser, and requires no programming to use - increasing the accessibility and decreasing the entrance requirement to using phyloseq and related R tools. Along with a data- and context-aware dynamic ...
Pereira Aldenice N AN Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias and Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 74.540, CEP 23851-970, Seropédica, RJ, - - 2014
The potential value of parasites as ecosystem markers was tested by analyzing the metazoan assemblages of Urophycis brasiliensis caught in four locations distributed in three ecoregions of the Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic. A total of 5,001 metazoan parasites belonging to 33 species were found. The identified parasites varied across locations ...
Serobyan Vahan V Department of Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstraße 37, 72076 Tübingen, - - 2014
Polyphenisms can be adaptations to environments that are heterogeneous in space and time, but to persist they require conditional-specific advantages. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is a facultative predator that displays an evolutionarily conserved polyphenism of its mouthparts. During development, P. pacificus irreversibly executes either a eurystomatous (Eu) or stenostomatous (St) ...
Nannyonga B B Department of Mathematics, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062Kampala, Uganda,. Electronic address: - - 2014
Numerous studies have been carried out on within-host plasmodium falciparum malaria with varying results. Some studies have suggested over estimation of parasite growth within an infected host while others stated that evolution of parasitaemia seems to be quelled by parasite load. Various mathematical models have been designed to understand the ...
Koonin Eugene V EV National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA. - - 2014
CRISPR-Cas is an adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes that functions via a unique mechanism which involves incorporation of foreign DNA fragments into CRISPR arrays and subsequent utilization of transcripts of these inserts (known as spacers) as guide RNAs to cleave the cognate selfish element genome. Multiple attempts have been undertaken ...
Mackenzie K K School of Biological Sciences (Zoology),University of Aberdeen,Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, - - 2014
SUMMARY Myxosporeans are among the most common parasites of marine fish. Their economic importance is mainly as pathogens of both wild and farmed fish, but they have also been used as biological tags in population studies of their fish hosts. Here we review the literature and show the distribution of ...
- - 2014
Much has been learned about the diversity and distribution of human-associated microbial communities, but we still know little about the biology of the microbiome, how it interacts with the host, and how the host responds to its resident microbiota. The Integrative Human Microbiome Project (iHMP, http://hmp2.org), the second phase of ...
Pillai Pradeep P Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, 430 Nahant Road, Nahant, MA, 01908, - - 2014
The persistence of mutualisms in host-microbial - or holobiont - systems is difficult to explain because microbial mutualists, who bear the costs of providing benefits to their host, are always prone to being competitively displaced by non-mutualist 'cheater' species. This disruptive effect of competition is expected to be particularly strong ...
Jasper John P JP Molecular Isotope Technologies LLC, Niantic, Connecticut, - - 2014
The assessment of provenance of heparin is becoming a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry and its regulatory bodies. Batch-specific [carbon (δ(13) C), nitrogen (δ(15) N), oxygen (δ(18) O), sulfur (δ(34) S), and hydrogen (δD)] stable isotopic compositions of five different animal-derived heparins were performed. Measurements readily allowed their differentiation ...
Matos Renata C - - 2014
Metazoans establish with microorganisms complex interactions for their mutual benefits. Drosophila, which has already proven useful host model to study several aspects of innate immunity and host-bacteria pathogenic associations has become a powerful model to dissect the mechanisms behind mutualistic host-microbe interactions. Drosophila microbiota is composed of simple and aerotolerant ...
Linardi Pedro Marcos PM Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 486, Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Brazil, - - 2014
Tunga is the most specialized genus among the Siphonaptera because adult females penetrate into the skin of their hosts and, after mating and fertilization, undergo hypertrophy, forming an enlarged structure known as the neosome. In humans and other warm-blooded animals, neosomes cause tungiasis, which arises due to the action of ...
Ghita Ovidiu - - 2014
In this paper we investigate the segmentation of closed contours in sub-cellular data using a framework that primarily combines the pairwise affinity grouping principles with a graph partitioning contour searching approach. One salient problem that precluded the application of these methods to large scale segmentation problems is the onerous computational ...
Redding Colleen A CA a CPRC/Psychology , University of Rhode Island , Kingston , NY , - - 2014
Single occupancy vehicle (SOV) transportation is a key contributor to climate change and air pollution. Sustainable transportation (ST), commuting by any means other than SOV, could both slow climate change and enhance public health. The transtheoretical model (TTM) provides a useful framework for examining how people progress towards adopting ST. ...
Greenblum Ayala - - 2014
With widening interests in using model organisms for reverse genetic approaches and biomimmetic microrobotics, motility phenotyping of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is expanding across a growing array of locomotive environments. One ongoing bottleneck lies in providing users with automatic nematode segmentations of C. elegans in image sequences featuring complex and ...
Shrestha Sourya S Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2014
Classical life-history theory predicts that acute, immunizing pathogens should maximize between-host transmission. When such pathogens induce violent epidemic outbreaks, however, a pathogen's short-term advantage at invasion may come at the expense of its ability to persist in the population over the long term. Here, we seek to understand how the ...
Villegas Luis Martínez LM Laboratorio de Entomologia Médica, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte, MG, - - 2014
Anophelines harbour a diverse microbial consortium that may represent an extended gene pool for the host. The proposed effects of the insect microbiota span physiological, metabolic and immune processes. Here we synthesise how current metagenomic tools combined with classical culture-dependent techniques provide new insights in the elucidation of the role ...
Salinas Jorge L JL Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, - - 2014
Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each ...
Yang Jingyu - - 2014
With the advances of depth sensing technologies, color image plus depth information (referred to as RGB-D data hereafter) is more and more popular for comprehensive description of 3-D scenes. This paper proposes a two-stage segmentation method for RGB-D data: 1) oversegmentation by 3-D geometry enhanced superpixels and 2) graph-based merging ...
Ocampo-Peñuela Natalia N Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, - - 2014
We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have ...
Walter Jonathan A JA Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA; Blandy Experimental Farm, University of Virginia, 400 Blandy Farm Lane, Boyce, VA, 22620, - - 2014
1. Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it ...
Nams Vilis O VO Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Box 550, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3, - - 2014
Animal movement paths show variation in space caused by qualitative shifts in behaviours. I present a method that (1) uses both movement path data and ancillary sensor data to detect natural breakpoints in animal behaviour and (2) groups these segments into different behavioural states. The method can also combine analyses ...
Chang Violeta V Department of Computer Science, University of Chile, Beauchef 851, 4th Floor, Santiago, Chile; Laboratory for Scientific Image Analysis (SCIAN-Lab), Centro de Espermiograma Digital Asistido por Internet (CEDAI SpA), Biomedical Neuroscience Institute (BNI), Program of Anatomy and Developmental Biology (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Independencia 1027, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address: - - 2014
Semen analysis is the first step in the evaluation of an infertile couple. Within this process, an accurate and objective morphological analysis becomes more critical as it is based on the correct detection and segmentation of human sperm components. In this paper, we present an improved two-stage framework for detection ...
Asman Andrew J AJ Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Label fusion is a critical step in many image segmentation frameworks (e.g., multi-atlas segmentation) as it provides a mechanism for generalizing a collection of labeled examples into a single estimate of the underlying segmentation. In the multi-label case, typical label fusion algorithms treat all labels equally - fully neglecting the ...
Bajelan Soheil S Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, - - 2014
The human chair-rise ability reduces according to various factors such as; Age, Incidents, diseases and etc. The Sit-to-Stand (STS) movement strategy modification is a way chosen to compensate the STS inabilities.OBJECTIVE: Musculoskeletal evaluation of the effects of standing up strategy modification is beneficial for correct selection. The aim of this ...
Ishizuka W W Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, - - 2014
To avoid winter frost damage, evergreen coniferous species develop cold hardiness with suitable phenology for the local climate regime. Along the elevational gradient, a genetic cline in autumn phenology is often recognised among coniferous populations, but further quantification of evolutionary adaptation related to the local environment and its responsible signals ...
Li Wenliang W Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, - - 2014
The selectivity of indoor pollution gases (including formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene) over N2 on a set of 37 covalent organic frameworks (COFs) was modeled by combining classical grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) methods and periodic density functional theory with dispersion correction (DFT-D2). The pore volume, pore size, and the isosteric ...
Barker Jeffrey B - - 2014
Numerical finite element models of the neck have been developed to simulate occupant response and predict injury during motor vehicle collisions. However, there is a paucity of data on the response of young cervical spine segments under dynamic loading in flexion and extension, which is essential for the development or ...
Farkas Alexandra - - 2014
It is a widely discussed hypothesis that Viking seafarers might have been able to locate the position of the occluded sun by means of dichroic or birefringent crystals, the mysterious sunstones, with which they could analyze skylight polarization. Although the atmospheric optical prerequisites and certain aspects of the efficiency of ...
Rasić Gordana - - 2014
A novel strategy for suppressing disease transmission by Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, uses releases of mosquitoes infected with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia are currently released to interfere with viral transmission, but there is also potential to use strains in mosquito suppression and elimination programs via the ...
Altman Irit - - 2014
Parasites are integral members of natural communities, but large-scale determinants of their abundance and diversity, including the importance of biotic and abiotic factors, both natural and anthropogenic, are often not well understood. Here, we examine which factors best predict larval trematode communities in the mudsnail host Ilyanassa obsoleta across a ...
Wood Chelsea L - - 2014
Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected ...
Adamson Chris C Royal Childrens Hospital, 50 Flemington Road Parkville, VIC, Melbourne, 3052, Australia, - - 2014
This paper presents a fully automated pipeline for thickness profile evaluation and analysis of the human corpus callosum (CC) in 3D structural T 1-weighted magnetic resonance images. The pipeline performs the following sequence of steps: midsagittal plane extraction, CC segmentation algorithm, quality control tool, thickness profile generation, statistical analysis and ...
Taljaard Monica - - 2014
An interrupted time series design is a powerful quasi-experimental approach for evaluating effects of interventions introduced at a specific point in time. To utilize the strength of this design, a modification to standard regression analysis, such as segmented regression, is required. In segmented regression analysis, the change in intercept and/or ...
Van den Herrewegen Inge I Mobilab, Thomas More University College, - - 2014
Multi-segmental foot kinematics have been analyzed by means of optical marker-sets or by means of inertial sensors, but never by markerless dynamic 3D scanning (D3DScanning). The use of D3DScans implies a radically different approach for the construction of the multi-segment foot model: the foot anatomy is identified via the surface ...
Cheung Yiu-Ming - - 2014
This paper addresses the problem of segmenting lip region from frontal human face image. Supposing each pixel of the target image has an optimal local scale from the segmentation viewpoint, we treat the lip segmentation problem as a combination of observation scale selection and observed data classification. Accordingly, we propose ...
Bajelan Soheil S Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, - - 2014
The human chair-rise ability reduces according to various factors such as; Age, Incidents, diseases and etc. The Sit-to-Stand (STS) movement strategy modification is a way chosen to compensate the STS inabilities. Musculoskeletal evaluation of the effects of standing up strategy modification is beneficial for correct selection. The aim of this ...
Li Hongliang - - 2014
In this paper, we improve co-segmentation performance by repairing bad segments based on their quality evaluation and segment propagation. Starting from co-segmentation results of the existing cosegmentation method, we first perform co-segmentation quality evaluation to score each segment. Good segments can be filter out based on the scores. Then, a ...
Larsen Peter E PE Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A. Electronic address: - - 2014
Rising atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and ozone will impact productivity and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. The scale of this process and the potential economic consequences provide an incentive for the development of models to predict the types and rates of ecosystem responses and feedbacks that result from and ...
Yan Zhennan Z CBIM, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, - - 2014
Automated assessment of hepatic fat-fraction is clinically important. A robust and precise segmentation would enable accurate, objective and consistent measurement of hepatic fat-fraction for disease quantification, therapy monitoring and drug development. However, segmenting the liver in clinical trials is a challenging task due to the variability of liver anatomy as ...
Kim Hyune-Ju HJ Department of Mathematics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 13244, - - 2014
In this paper, we propose methods to cluster groups of two-dimensional data whose mean functions are piecewise linear into several clusters with common characteristics such as the same slopes. To fit segmented line regression models with common features for each possible cluster, we use a restricted least squares method. In ...
Holden Matthew Stephen - - 2014
Computer-assisted training systems promote both training efficacy and patient health. An important component for providing automatic feedback in computer-assisted training systems is workflow segmentation: the determination of what task in the workflow is being performed. Our objective was to develop a workflow segmentation algorithm for needle interventions using needle tracking ...
Eisank Clemens C Department of Geoinformatics-Z_GIS, University of Salzburg, Schillerstraße 30, 5020 Salzburg, - - 2014
Mapping or "delimiting" landforms is one of geomorphology's primary tools. Computer-based techniques such as land-surface segmentation allow the emulation of the process of manual landform delineation. Land-surface segmentation exhaustively subdivides a digital elevation model (DEM) into morphometrically-homogeneous irregularly-shaped regions, called terrain segments. Terrain segments can be created from various land-surface ...
Valle Laia Guàrdia LG Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08182, Spain - - 2014
New data about trichomycetes (arthropod gut endosymbionts) from northern Italy (Piedmont [Piemonte] region) are reported, including the description of two new species of Harpellales: Glotzia distorta from mayfly nymphs and Orphella intropus from stonefly nymphs. The latter species is characterized by a cellular bulbous holdfast that perforates the gut lining ...
Dekker David M T DM Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, Leiden, 2300 RC, - - 2014
Implementation of double cable models to simulate the behavior of myelinated peripheral nerve fibers requires defining a segmentation of the internode between successive nodes of Ranvier. The number of internodal segments is a model parameter that is not well agreed on, with values in the literature ranging from 1 to ...
Ali Asem M AM Electrical Engineering Department, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt; Computer Vision and Image Processing Laboratory, UofL, Louisville, KY 40292, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
We propose a novel vertebral body segmentation approach, which is based on the graph cuts technique with shape constraints. The proposed approach depends on both image appearance and shape information. Shape information is gathered from a set of training shapes. Then we estimate the shape variations using a new distance ...
Kim Eun Young EY Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa, IA, 52242, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Machine learning (ML)-based segmentation methods are a common technique in the medical image processing field. In spite of numerous research groups that have investigated ML-based segmentation frameworks, there remains unanswered aspects of performance variability for the choice of two key components: ML-algorithm and intensity normalization. This investigation reveals that the ...
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