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O'Shea Owen R OR Tangaroa Blue Foundation, PO Box 757, Port Douglas 4877, Queensland, Australia; Cape Eleuthera Institute, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Electronic address: - - 2014
Efforts to curb pollution in the marine environment are covered by national and international legislation, yet weather balloons are released into the environment with no salvage agenda. Here, we assess impacts associated with weather balloons in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). We use modeling to assess the ...
Jenczewski Eric - - 2013
Polyploidy can result in both evolutionary dead-ends and successful evolutionary transitions. A pair of recent papers indicates that adapting meiosis is a necessary step on the way to becoming a successful polyploid.
O'Campo Patricia - - 2012
There is increasing interest in the study of the social determinants of maternal and child health. While there has been growth in the theory and empirical evidence about social determinants, less attention has been paid to the kind of modeling that should be used to understand the impact of social ...
Whittle Andrew J - - 2012
Obesity rates are increasing alongside those of its co-morbidities, placing a huge strain on health systems across the globe. Evidence points to inappropriate levels of ectopic lipid accumulation outside of adipose tissue being a major factor in the progression of many of these diseases. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a ...
Silva Mib - - 2012
High body fat (BF) is an alarming condition that also affects nondialyzed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Distinct methods are used to evaluate BF, however in CKD population it remains unclear which one is more reliable showing high accuracy. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), used as reference method to estimate ...
Finkelstein Eric A - - 2012
Previous efforts to forecast future trends in obesity applied linear forecasts assuming that the rise in obesity would continue unabated. However, evidence suggests that obesity prevalence may be leveling off. This study presents estimates of adult obesity and severe obesity prevalence through 2030 based on nonlinear regression models. The forecasted ...
Cadavez V A P - - 2012
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs were slaughtered and their carcasses were cooled for 24 hours. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured between the 12th and 13th rib and breast bone tissue thickness was taken ...
Cruz G D - - 2012
The appreciation of adipose tissue complexity has initiated a new era of multifaceted investigations that continue to provide findings in adipocyte biology, but quantitative descriptions of adipocyte distribution are lacking. The first objective was to develop a finite mixture model to model adipocyte bimodal distribution and to correlate these estimates ...
Martin Billie-Jean - - 2012
Numerous indexes of adiposity have been proposed and are currently in use in clinical practice and research. However, the correlation of these indexes with measures of vascular health remain poorly defined. In order to investigate which measure of adiposity is most strongly associated with endothelial function, data from the Firefighters ...
Oliver Jonathan M - - 2012
The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population ...
Shaw Stephanie M SM Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F0) during anterior-posterior stretching. Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm ...
Zhang Gaosheng - - 2012
The Stepwise Behavioral Response Model (SBRM), which is a conceptual model, postulated that an organism displays a time-dependent sequence of compensatory Stepwise Behavioral Response (SBR) during exposure to pollutants above their respective thresholds of resistance. In order to prove the model, in this study, the behavioral responses (BRs) of medaka ...
Wessel Carolina - - 2012
We develop a biomechanical model of an isolated stellate breast tumour under mammographic compression forces for a range of reported mechanical properties, both linear elastic and hyperelastic. We also introduce different volumes of increased density/stiffness around the tumour as well as a solid pressure effect. We show that each of ...
Seo Youngwook P - - 2012
A model capable of describing the flow behavior of electrorheological (ER) suspensions under different electric field strengths and over the full range of shear rates is proposed. Structural reformation in the low shear rate region is investigated where parts of a material is in an undeformed state, while aligned structures ...
Lanir Yoram - - 2012
Osmotic swelling (OS) and residual stress (RS) significantly affect the function of cardiovascular (CVS) tissues and organs. The physical mechanisms of OS and RS are reviewed and analyzed with focus on the theoretical background and related experimental evidence. It will be shown that swelling of CVS tissues stems from the ...
Cilla M - - 2012
Plaque rupture plays a role in the majority of acute coronary syndromes. Rupture has usually been associated with stress concentrations, which are mainly affected by the plaque geometry and the tissue properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of morphology on the risk of plaque rupture, ...
Zhong Zheng-Cheng - - 2012
In a finite element (FE) analysis of the lumbar spine, different preload application methods that are used in biomechanical studies may yield diverging results. To investigate how the biomechanical behaviour of a spinal implant is affected by the method of applying the preload, hybrid-controlled FE analysis was used to evaluate ...
Downs Craig A - - 2012
Coral reefs throughout the world are exhibiting documented declines in coral cover and species diversity, which have been linked to anthropogenic stressors including land-based sources of pollution. Reductions in coastal water and substratum quality are affecting coral survivorship, reproduction and recruitment, and hence, the persistence of coral reefs. One major ...
Kermanshah Hamid - - 2012
Abstract Objective. This study evaluated von Mises stress distribution, flexural strength and interface micrographs of IPS-Empress II (IPS) inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (IRFPD) reinforced with Zirconia bars (Zb). Materials and methods: In the Finite element analysis, six three-dimensional models of IRFPD were designed using Solid Works 2006. Five models were ...
Oliaei Sepehr - - 2012
To determine how mechanical stability changes in the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) after varying degrees of cephalic resection in a porcine cartilage nasal tip model. Alar cartilage was harvested from fresh porcine crania (n = 14) and sectioned to precisely emulate a human LLC in size and dimension. Flexural mechanical ...
Kühn Clemens - - 2012
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered as a model organism for the investigation of cellular and molecular processes and gene regulation. Specifically, the response of S. cerevisiae to increase in osmolarity of the external medium (osmoadaptation) is a model adaptation process. The first mathematical model of volume changes in S. cerevisiae due ...
Martojo H - - 2012
Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress ...
Sevrain Amandine - - 2012
Pelvic incidence, sacral slope and slip percentage have been shown to be important predicting factors for assessing the risk of progression of low- and high-grade spondylolisthesis. Biomechanical factors, which affect the stress distribution and the mechanisms involved in the vertebral slippage, may also influence the risk of progression, but they ...
Vecchio Giuseppe - - 2012
The expected potential benefits promised by nanotechnology in various fields have led to a rapid increase of the presence of engineered nanomaterials in a high number of commercial goods. This is generating increasing questions about possible risks for human health and environment, due to the lack of an in-depth assessment ...
Na Yang - - 2011
Knowledge of airflow characteristics in the nasal cavity is essential to understanding the physiologic and pathologic aspects of nasal breathing. Airflows inside post-surgery models were investigated both experimentally and numerically to simulate the inferior turbinectomy. The left cavities of all three models are normal and right cavity is modified by ...
Mathews Edward Henry - - 2011
Blood glucose (BG) is the primary metabolic fuel for, among others, cancer cell progression, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. Stress is an important contributor to the amount of BG produced especially by the liver. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the BG production due to chronic (in the order of ...
Wang Mengcheng - - 2011
The present study examined the invariance of four models of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) across time through an analysis of symptom ratings from the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. Participants included 403 junior middle school students recruited from Sichuan, China at 5 and 11 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Confirmatory ...
Votta Emiliano - - 2012
Recently, the neo-chordae technique (NCT) was proposed to stabilize the surgical correction of isolated aortic valve (AV) prolapse. Neo-chordae are inserted into the corrected leaflet to drive its closure by minimal tensions and prevent relapses. In a previous in vitro study we analysed the NCT effects on healthy aortic roots ...
Dimonte Guy - - 2011
We use the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) at a metal-gas interface to infer the metal's yield stress (Y) under shock loading and release. We first model how Y stabilizes the RMI using hydrodynamics simulations with a perfectly plastic constitutive relation for copper (Cu). The model is then tested with molecular dynamics ...
Nederhof Esther - - 2011
This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the mismatch hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease ...
Panzer Matthew B - - 2011
Finite element (FE) modelling is a popular tool for studying human body response to blast exposure. However, blast modelling is a complex problem owing to more numerous fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) and the high-frequency loading that accompanies blast exposures. This study investigates FE mesh design for blast modelling using a sphere ...
Ratakonda Swapnika - - 2011
We evaluated and modeled the viscoelastic characteristics of chitosan and chitosan-gelatin scaffolds prepared using a freeze-drying technique. Chitosan and chitosan-gelatin solutions (0.5 and 2wt.%) were frozen at -80°C and freeze-dried. Using the scaffolds, uniaxial tensile properties were evaluated under physiological conditions (hydrated in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C) at a ...
Armour Cherie - - 2011
Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) latent structure has been widely debated. To date, two four-factor models (Numbing and Dysphoria) have received the majority of factor analytic support. Recently, Elhai et al. (2011) proposed and supported a revised (five-factor) Dysphoric Arousal model. Data were gathered from two separate samples; War veterans and ...
Ambrosone Alfredo - - 2011
A systematic and thorough quantitative analysis of the in vivo effects of inorganic nanoparticles is extremely important for the design of functional nanomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, better understanding of their non-specificity toward tissues and cell types, and for assessments of their toxicity. This study was undertaken to examine the ...
Del Giudice Marco M Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. - - 2012
The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy ...
Savoldelli Charles - - 2011
PURPOSE: This study aims at analysing the stresses distribution in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) using a complete high-resolution finite element model (FE Model). This model is used here to analyse the stresses distribution in the discs during a closing jaw cycle. In the end, this model enables the prediction of ...
Zahl Inger Hilde - - 2011
During their life cycle as farmed animals, there are several situations in which fish are subjected to handling and confinement. Netting, weighing, sorting, vaccination, transport and, at the end, slaughter are frequent events under farming conditions. As research subjects, fish may also undergo surgical procedures that range from tagging, sampling ...
Zhang Zhongpu - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: The reliability and longevity of ceramic prostheses have become a major concern. The existing studies have focused on some critical issues from clinical perspectives, but more researches are needed to address fundamental sciences and fabrication issues to ensure the longevity and durability of ceramic prostheses. The aim of this ...
June Ronald K - - 2011
Cartilage exhibits nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Various models have been proposed to explain cartilage stress relaxation, but it is unclear whether explicit modelling of fluid flow in unconfined compression is needed. This study compared Fung's quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model with a stretched-exponential model of cartilage stress relaxation and examined each of ...
Thayer Julian F - - 2011
The intimate connection between the brain and the heart was enunciated by Claude Bernard over 150 years ago. In our neurovisceral integration model we have tried to build on this pioneering work. In the present paper we further elaborate our model and update it with recent results. Specifically, we performed ...
Pietrzak Robert H - - 2011
BACKGROUND: A large body of confirmatory factor analytic studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has demonstrated the superiority of 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models over the DSM-IV model. Recently, a novel 5-factor model, which separates the DSM-IV hyperarousal symptom cluster into distinct dysphoric and anxious arousal clusters, has ...
Roy Anindya - - 2011
We propose a Bayesian framework for analyzing multivariate linear mixed effect models with linear constraints on the fixed effect parameters. The procedure can incorporate both firm and soft restrictions on the parameters and Bayesian model selection for the random effects. The framework is used to analyze data from the BioCycle ...
Riebe C J - - 2012
The endocannabinoid system seems to play very specific roles in fear extinction, which can only be described within a well-defined model of the various fear relief processes. We, therefore, seek to clarify the current conceptual framework of fear relief within classical and operant fear conditioning paradigms as well as propose ...
Bulelzai M A K - - 2011
The evolution of atherosclerosis in general, and the influence of wall shear stress on the growth of atherosclerotic plaques in particular, is an intricate phenomenon which is still only partly understood. We therefore propose a qualitative mathematical model which consists of a number of ordinary differential equations for the concentrations ...
Hadid Amir - - 2012
Shoulder strain is a major limiting factor associated with load carriage. Despite advances in backpack designs, there are still reports of shoulder discomfort, loss of sensorimotor functions, and brachial plexus syndrome. The current study is aimed at characterizing mechanical loading conditions (strains and stresses) that develop within the shoulder's soft ...
Clarke Jon V - - 2011
The quantification of knee alignment is a routine part of orthopaedic practice and is important for monitoring disease progression, planning interventional strategies, and follow-up of patients. Currently available technologies such as radiographic measurements have a number of drawbacks. The aim of this study was to validate a potentially improved technique ...
Scheff Jeremy D - - 2012
Endogenous glucocorticoids are secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to a wide range of stressors. Glucocorticoids exert significant downstream effects, including the regulation of many inflammatory genes. The HPA axis functions such that glucocorticoids are released in a pulsatile manner, producing ultradian rhythms in plasma glucocorticoid levels. It ...
Abu Kasim Noor H - - 2011
This study aimed to compare the biomechanical behaviour of functionally graded structured posts (FGSPs) and homogenous-type posts in simulated models of a maxillary central incisor. Two models of FGSPs consisting of a multilayer xTi-yHA composite design, where zirconia and alumina was added as the first layer for models A and ...
Teutelink Arno - - 2012
We investigated the intraobserver and interobserver variability of using semiautomatic finite element analysis to calculate the von Mises stress and peak wall rupture risk (PWRR) in patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in longitudinal studies. Four independent observers made 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, with minimal manual adjustments, of small AAAs ...
San Antonio T - - 2011
Most work done on bone simulation has modeled the tissue as inhomogeneous and isotropic even though it is a recognized anisotropic material. Some recent investigations have included orthotropic behavior in bone finite elements (FE) models; however the problem regarding the orientation of these properties along the irregular bone anatomy remains. ...
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