Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 2426
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Caudron Q Q Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA - - 2015
A standard assumption in the modelling of epidemic dynamics is that the population of interest is well mixed, and that no clusters of metapopulations exist. The well-known and oft-used SIR model, arguably the most important compartmental model in theoretical epidemiology, assumes that the disease being modelled is strongly immunizing, directly ...
Li Xiaoning - - 2014
Identification of infectious bacteria responsible for biofilm-associated infections is challenging due to the complex and heterogeneous biofilm matrix. To address this issue and minimize the impact of heterogeneity on biofilm identification, we developed a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based multi-channel sensor to detect and identify biofilms based on their physicochemical properties. Our ...
Jin Zhen Z Complex Systems Research Center, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051, China. - - 2014
In this paper, we propose and study network epidemic models with demographics for disease transmission. We obtain the formula of the basic reproduction number R0 of infection for an SIS model with births or recruitment and death rate. We prove that if R0 ≤ 1 , infection-free equilibrium of SIS ...
Kribs-Zaleta Christopher M CM Departments of Mathematics and Curriculum and Instruction, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19408, Arlington, TX 76019-0408, United States. - - 2014
Honeybee pollination accounts annually for over $14 billion in United States agriculture alone. Within the past decade there has been a mysterious mass die-off of honeybees, an estimated 10 million beehives and sometimes as much as 90% of an apiary. There is still no consensus on what causes this phenomenon, ...
Froelich B A BA The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Institute of Marine Sciences, Morehead City, North Carolina - - 2014
The United States has federal regulations in place to reduce the risk of seafood related infection caused by the estuarine bacteria, Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. However, data to support regulation development has been generated in a very few specific regions of the nation. More regionally specific data is needed ...
Amaku M M School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo,São - - 2014
SUMMARY In this paper we propose a debate on the role of mathematical models in evaluating control strategies for vector-borne infections. Mathematical models must have their complexity adjusted to their goals, and we have basically two classes of models. At one extreme we have models that are intended to check ...
Scott Nichollas E NE Centre for High-throughput Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Electronic address: - - 2014
Standard approaches to studying an interactome do not easily allow conditional experiments but in recent years numerous groups have demonstrated the potential for co-fractionation/co-migration based approaches to assess an interactome at a similar sensitivity and specificity yet significantly lower cost and higher speed than traditional approaches. Unfortunately, there is as ...
Montresor Antonio A Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 20 Av Appia, Geneva 1211, Switzerland - - 2014
Recently, WHO has developed a predictive model to evaluate the impact of preventive chemotherapy programs to control the morbidity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). To make predictions, this model needs baseline information about the proportion of infections classified as low, moderate and high intensity, for each of the three STH species. ...
Musoro Jammbe Z JZ Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
This paper presents an extension of the joint modeling strategy for the case of multiple longitudinal outcomes and repeated infections of different types over time, motivated by postkidney transplantation data. Our model comprises two parts linked by shared latent terms. On the one hand is a multivariate mixed linear model ...
Marmara V V University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Information about infectious disease outbreaks is often gathered indirectly, from doctor's reports and health board records. It also typically underestimates the actual number of cases, but the relationship between the observed proxies and the numbers that drive the diseases is complicated, nonlinear and potentially time- and state-dependent. We use a ...
Lover Andrew A - - 2014
The distributions of incubation and relapse periods are key components of infectious disease models for the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; however, detailed distributions based upon experimental data are lacking. Using a range of historical, experimental mosquito-transmitted human infections, Bayesian estimation with non-informative priors was used to determine parametric distributions that ...
Bauer Rebecca R MAP5, UMR 8145, CNRS, 45 rue des Saints Përes, F-75006 Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Malaria is one of the world׳s most widespread parasitic diseases. The parasitic protozoans of the genus Plasmodium have developed resistance to several antimalarial drugs. Some patients are therefore infected by two or more strains with different levels of antimalarial drug sensitivity. We previously developed a model to estimate the drug ...
Gale Paul P Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, - - 2014
The last decade has seen a huge increase in the amount of "omics" data available and in our ability to interpret those data. The aim of this paper is to consider how omics techniques can be used to improve and refine microbiological risk assessment, using dose response models for RNA ...
Malesios C C Department of Agricultural Development, Democritus University of Thrace, Pantazidou 193, Orestiada, Greece. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sheep pox is a highly transmissible disease which can cause serious loss of livestock and can therefore have major economic impact. We present data from sheep pox epidemics which occurred between 1994 and 1998. The data include weekly records of infected farms as well as a number of covariates. We ...
Lukens Sarah - - 2014
Agent based models (ABM) are useful to explore population-level scenarios of disease spread andcontainment, but typically characterize infected individuals using simplified models of infection andsymptoms dynamics. Adding more realistic models of individual infections and symptoms may helpto create more realistic population level epidemic dynamics. Using an equation-based, host-level mathematical model ...
Hurtado Ana A Department of Animal Health, NEIKER - Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario, Berreaga 1, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia, - - 2014
This study was designed to investigate an outbreak of high mortality that occurred in naïve Assaf sheep introduced into a Latxa sheep flock in the Basque Country, a region where piroplasmosis is endemic. To identify the causes of this outbreak, a panel of different methods, including traditional pathological, biopathological and ...
Chammartin Frédérique - - 2014
In Brazil, preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminthiasis is being scaled-up. Hence, spatially explicit estimates of infection risks providing information about the current situation are needed to guide interventions. Available high-resolution national model-based estimates either rely on analyses of data restricted to a given period of time, or on historical data ...
Ross Joshua V JV School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia - - 2014
Antiviral prophylaxis forms a significant component of health management plans for many countries around the world. A number of studies have shown that the delays typically encountered in distributing these antivirals to households, following the first infectious case, can result in their efficacy being severely reduced. Here, we investigate the ...
Duncan A J AJ Inverness College UHI, Longman Campus, 3 Longman Road, Longman South, Inverness, IV1 1SA, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Comparisons between mass-action or "random" network models and empirical networks have produced mixed results. Here we seek to discover whether a simulated disease spread through randomly constructed networks can be coerced to model the spread in empirical networks by altering a single disease parameter-the probability of infection. A stochastic model ...
Hiebeler David E DE Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 04469, USA, - - 2014
We study an SIS epidemiological model of a population partitioned into groups referred to as communities, households, or patches. The system is studied using stochastic spatial simulations, as well as a system of ordinary differential equations describing moments of the distribution of infectious individuals. The ODE model explicitly includes the ...
Kang Chaeryon C Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2014
Repeated low-dose (RLD) challenge designs are important in HIV vaccine research. Current methods for RLD designs rely heavily on an assumption of homogeneous risk of infection among animals, which, upon violation, can lead to invalid inferences and underpowered study designs. We propose to fit a discrete-time survival model with random ...
Hancock Penelope A PA Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United - - 2014
Prediction and control of the spread of infectious disease in human populations benefits greatly from our growing capacity to quantify human movement behavior. Here we develop a mathematical model for non-transmissible infections contracted from a localized environmental source, informed by a detailed description of movement patterns of the population of ...
Shkarayev Maxim S MS Department of Physics & Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, - - 2014
Motivated by fundamental issues in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, we study the venerable susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model of disease spreading in an idealized, simple setting. Using Monte Carlo and analytic techniques, we consider a fully connected, unidirectional network of odd number of nodes, each having an equal number of in- and out-degrees. ...
Hoffmann A A AA Pest and Disease Vector Group, Department of Genetics, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2014
Wolbachia can suppress dengue and control mosquito populations and this depends on the successful invasion of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes into local populations. Ovitrap data collected during the recent invasion of wMel-infected Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) into Gordonvale near Cairns, Australia, were used to identify variables that help predict the success ...
Youssef Mina M Network Dynamics and Simulation Science Laboratory, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA ( myoussef@vbi.vt.edu - - 2014
This letter presents an optimal control framework to reduce the spread of viruses in networks. The network is modeled as an undirected graph of nodes and weighted links. We consider the spread of viruses in a network as a system, and the total number of infected nodes as the state ...
O'Shea Owen R OR Tangaroa Blue Foundation, PO Box 757, Port Douglas 4877, Queensland, Australia; Cape Eleuthera Institute, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Electronic address: - - 2014
Efforts to curb pollution in the marine environment are covered by national and international legislation, yet weather balloons are released into the environment with no salvage agenda. Here, we assess impacts associated with weather balloons in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). We use modeling to assess the ...
González-Domínguez Elisa E Instituto Agroforestal Mediterráneo, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, - - 2014
A mechanistic, dynamic model was developed to predict infection of loquat fruit by conidia of Fusicladium eriobotryae, the causal agent of loquat scab. The model simulates scab infection periods and their severity through the sub-processes of spore dispersal, infection, and latency (i.e., the state variables); change from one state to ...
Al-Ahmad Ali A Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Center for Dental Medicine, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, - - 2014
Bacterial infection of biomaterials is a major concern in medicine, and different kinds of antimicrobial biomaterial have been developed to deal with this problem. To test the antimicrobial performance of these biomaterials, the airborne bacterial assay is used, which involves the formation of biohazardous bacterial aerosols. We here describe a ...
- - 2014
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063019.].
Polonsky Jonathan A JA Epicentre, Paris, - - 2014
Typhoid fever remains a significant public health problem in developing countries. In October 2011, a typhoid fever epidemic was declared in Harare, Zimbabwe - the fourth enteric infection epidemic since 2008. To orient control activities, we described the epidemiology and spatiotemporal clustering of the epidemic in Dzivaresekwa and Kuwadzana, the ...
Jenczewski Eric - - 2013
Polyploidy can result in both evolutionary dead-ends and successful evolutionary transitions. A pair of recent papers indicates that adapting meiosis is a necessary step on the way to becoming a successful polyploid.
O'Campo Patricia - - 2012
There is increasing interest in the study of the social determinants of maternal and child health. While there has been growth in the theory and empirical evidence about social determinants, less attention has been paid to the kind of modeling that should be used to understand the impact of social ...
Whittle Andrew J - - 2012
Obesity rates are increasing alongside those of its co-morbidities, placing a huge strain on health systems across the globe. Evidence points to inappropriate levels of ectopic lipid accumulation outside of adipose tissue being a major factor in the progression of many of these diseases. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a ...
Silva Mib - - 2012
High body fat (BF) is an alarming condition that also affects nondialyzed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Distinct methods are used to evaluate BF, however in CKD population it remains unclear which one is more reliable showing high accuracy. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), used as reference method to estimate ...
Finkelstein Eric A - - 2012
Previous efforts to forecast future trends in obesity applied linear forecasts assuming that the rise in obesity would continue unabated. However, evidence suggests that obesity prevalence may be leveling off. This study presents estimates of adult obesity and severe obesity prevalence through 2030 based on nonlinear regression models. The forecasted ...
Cadavez V A P - - 2012
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs were slaughtered and their carcasses were cooled for 24 hours. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured between the 12th and 13th rib and breast bone tissue thickness was taken ...
Cruz G D - - 2012
The appreciation of adipose tissue complexity has initiated a new era of multifaceted investigations that continue to provide findings in adipocyte biology, but quantitative descriptions of adipocyte distribution are lacking. The first objective was to develop a finite mixture model to model adipocyte bimodal distribution and to correlate these estimates ...
Martin Billie-Jean - - 2012
Numerous indexes of adiposity have been proposed and are currently in use in clinical practice and research. However, the correlation of these indexes with measures of vascular health remain poorly defined. In order to investigate which measure of adiposity is most strongly associated with endothelial function, data from the Firefighters ...
Oliver Jonathan M JM Applied Exercise Science Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243, USA. - - 2012
The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population ...
Shaw Stephanie M SM Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F0) during anterior-posterior stretching. Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm ...
Zhang Gaosheng - - 2012
The Stepwise Behavioral Response Model (SBRM), which is a conceptual model, postulated that an organism displays a time-dependent sequence of compensatory Stepwise Behavioral Response (SBR) during exposure to pollutants above their respective thresholds of resistance. In order to prove the model, in this study, the behavioral responses (BRs) of medaka ...
Wessel Carolina - - 2012
We develop a biomechanical model of an isolated stellate breast tumour under mammographic compression forces for a range of reported mechanical properties, both linear elastic and hyperelastic. We also introduce different volumes of increased density/stiffness around the tumour as well as a solid pressure effect. We show that each of ...
Seo Youngwook P - - 2012
A model capable of describing the flow behavior of electrorheological (ER) suspensions under different electric field strengths and over the full range of shear rates is proposed. Structural reformation in the low shear rate region is investigated where parts of a material is in an undeformed state, while aligned structures ...
Lanir Yoram - - 2012
Osmotic swelling (OS) and residual stress (RS) significantly affect the function of cardiovascular (CVS) tissues and organs. The physical mechanisms of OS and RS are reviewed and analyzed with focus on the theoretical background and related experimental evidence. It will be shown that swelling of CVS tissues stems from the ...
Cilla M - - 2012
Plaque rupture plays a role in the majority of acute coronary syndromes. Rupture has usually been associated with stress concentrations, which are mainly affected by the plaque geometry and the tissue properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of morphology on the risk of plaque rupture, ...
Zhong Zheng-Cheng - - 2012
In a finite element (FE) analysis of the lumbar spine, different preload application methods that are used in biomechanical studies may yield diverging results. To investigate how the biomechanical behaviour of a spinal implant is affected by the method of applying the preload, hybrid-controlled FE analysis was used to evaluate ...
Downs Craig A - - 2012
Coral reefs throughout the world are exhibiting documented declines in coral cover and species diversity, which have been linked to anthropogenic stressors including land-based sources of pollution. Reductions in coastal water and substratum quality are affecting coral survivorship, reproduction and recruitment, and hence, the persistence of coral reefs. One major ...
Kermanshah Hamid - - 2012
Abstract Objective. This study evaluated von Mises stress distribution, flexural strength and interface micrographs of IPS-Empress II (IPS) inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (IRFPD) reinforced with Zirconia bars (Zb). Materials and methods: In the Finite element analysis, six three-dimensional models of IRFPD were designed using Solid Works 2006. Five models were ...
Kühn Clemens - - 2012
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered as a model organism for the investigation of cellular and molecular processes and gene regulation. Specifically, the response of S. cerevisiae to increase in osmolarity of the external medium (osmoadaptation) is a model adaptation process. The first mathematical model of volume changes in S. cerevisiae due ...
Martojo H - - 2012
Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >