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Musoro Jammbe Z JZ Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
This paper presents an extension of the joint modeling strategy for the case of multiple longitudinal outcomes and repeated infections of different types over time, motivated by postkidney transplantation data. Our model comprises two parts linked by shared latent terms. On the one hand is a multivariate mixed linear model ...
Lover Andrew A - - 2014
The distributions of incubation and relapse periods are key components of infectious disease models for the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; however, detailed distributions based upon experimental data are lacking. Using a range of historical, experimental mosquito-transmitted human infections, Bayesian estimation with non-informative priors was used to determine parametric distributions that ...
Gale Paul P Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, - - 2014
The last decade has seen a huge increase in the amount of "omics" data available and in our ability to interpret those data. The aim of this paper is to consider how omics techniques can be used to improve and refine microbiological risk assessment, using dose response models for RNA ...
Lukens Sarah - - 2014
Agent based models (ABM) are useful to explore population-level scenarios of disease spread andcontainment, but typically characterize infected individuals using simplified models of infection andsymptoms dynamics. Adding more realistic models of individual infections and symptoms may helpto create more realistic population level epidemic dynamics. Using an equation-based, host-level mathematical model ...
Hurtado Ana A Department of Animal Health, NEIKER - Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario, Berreaga 1, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia, - - 2014
This study was designed to investigate an outbreak of high mortality that occurred in naïve Assaf sheep introduced into a Latxa sheep flock in the Basque Country, a region where piroplasmosis is endemic. To identify the causes of this outbreak, a panel of different methods, including traditional pathological, biopathological and ...
Chammartin Frédérique - - 2014
In Brazil, preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminthiasis is being scaled-up. Hence, spatially explicit estimates of infection risks providing information about the current situation are needed to guide interventions. Available high-resolution national model-based estimates either rely on analyses of data restricted to a given period of time, or on historical data ...
Ross Joshua V JV School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia - - 2014
Antiviral prophylaxis forms a significant component of health management plans for many countries around the world. A number of studies have shown that the delays typically encountered in distributing these antivirals to households, following the first infectious case, can result in their efficacy being severely reduced. Here, we investigate the ...
Duncan A J AJ Inverness College UHI, Longman Campus, 3 Longman Road, Longman South, Inverness, IV1 1SA, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Comparisons between mass-action or "random" network models and empirical networks have produced mixed results. Here we seek to discover whether a simulated disease spread through randomly constructed networks can be coerced to model the spread in empirical networks by altering a single disease parameter-the probability of infection. A stochastic model ...
Hiebeler David E DE Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 04469, USA, - - 2014
We study an SIS epidemiological model of a population partitioned into groups referred to as communities, households, or patches. The system is studied using stochastic spatial simulations, as well as a system of ordinary differential equations describing moments of the distribution of infectious individuals. The ODE model explicitly includes the ...
Kang Chaeryon C Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2014
Repeated low-dose (RLD) challenge designs are important in HIV vaccine research. Current methods for RLD designs rely heavily on an assumption of homogeneous risk of infection among animals, which, upon violation, can lead to invalid inferences and underpowered study designs. We propose to fit a discrete-time survival model with random ...
Hancock Penelope A PA Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United - - 2014
Prediction and control of the spread of infectious disease in human populations benefits greatly from our growing capacity to quantify human movement behavior. Here we develop a mathematical model for non-transmissible infections contracted from a localized environmental source, informed by a detailed description of movement patterns of the population of ...
Shkarayev Maxim S MS Department of Physics & Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, - - 2014
Motivated by fundamental issues in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, we study the venerable susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model of disease spreading in an idealized, simple setting. Using Monte Carlo and analytic techniques, we consider a fully connected, unidirectional network of odd number of nodes, each having an equal number of in- and out-degrees. ...
Hoffmann A A AA Pest and Disease Vector Group, Department of Genetics, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2014
Wolbachia can suppress dengue and control mosquito populations and this depends on the successful invasion of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes into local populations. Ovitrap data collected during the recent invasion of wMel-infected Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) into Gordonvale near Cairns, Australia, were used to identify variables that help predict the success ...
O'Shea Owen R OR Tangaroa Blue Foundation, PO Box 757, Port Douglas 4877, Queensland, Australia; Cape Eleuthera Institute, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Electronic address: - - 2014
Efforts to curb pollution in the marine environment are covered by national and international legislation, yet weather balloons are released into the environment with no salvage agenda. Here, we assess impacts associated with weather balloons in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). We use modeling to assess the ...
González-Domínguez Elisa E Instituto Agroforestal Mediterráneo, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, - - 2014
A mechanistic, dynamic model was developed to predict infection of loquat fruit by conidia of Fusicladium eriobotryae, the causal agent of loquat scab. The model simulates scab infection periods and their severity through the sub-processes of spore dispersal, infection, and latency (i.e., the state variables); change from one state to ...
Jenczewski Eric - - 2013
Polyploidy can result in both evolutionary dead-ends and successful evolutionary transitions. A pair of recent papers indicates that adapting meiosis is a necessary step on the way to becoming a successful polyploid.
O'Campo Patricia - - 2012
There is increasing interest in the study of the social determinants of maternal and child health. While there has been growth in the theory and empirical evidence about social determinants, less attention has been paid to the kind of modeling that should be used to understand the impact of social ...
Whittle Andrew J - - 2012
Obesity rates are increasing alongside those of its co-morbidities, placing a huge strain on health systems across the globe. Evidence points to inappropriate levels of ectopic lipid accumulation outside of adipose tissue being a major factor in the progression of many of these diseases. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a ...
Silva Mib - - 2012
High body fat (BF) is an alarming condition that also affects nondialyzed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Distinct methods are used to evaluate BF, however in CKD population it remains unclear which one is more reliable showing high accuracy. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), used as reference method to estimate ...
Finkelstein Eric A - - 2012
Previous efforts to forecast future trends in obesity applied linear forecasts assuming that the rise in obesity would continue unabated. However, evidence suggests that obesity prevalence may be leveling off. This study presents estimates of adult obesity and severe obesity prevalence through 2030 based on nonlinear regression models. The forecasted ...
Cadavez V A P - - 2012
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs were slaughtered and their carcasses were cooled for 24 hours. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured between the 12th and 13th rib and breast bone tissue thickness was taken ...
Cruz G D - - 2012
The appreciation of adipose tissue complexity has initiated a new era of multifaceted investigations that continue to provide findings in adipocyte biology, but quantitative descriptions of adipocyte distribution are lacking. The first objective was to develop a finite mixture model to model adipocyte bimodal distribution and to correlate these estimates ...
Martin Billie-Jean - - 2012
Numerous indexes of adiposity have been proposed and are currently in use in clinical practice and research. However, the correlation of these indexes with measures of vascular health remain poorly defined. In order to investigate which measure of adiposity is most strongly associated with endothelial function, data from the Firefighters ...
Oliver Jonathan M JM Applied Exercise Science Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243, USA. - - 2012
The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population ...
Shaw Stephanie M SM Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F0) during anterior-posterior stretching. Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm ...
Zhang Gaosheng - - 2012
The Stepwise Behavioral Response Model (SBRM), which is a conceptual model, postulated that an organism displays a time-dependent sequence of compensatory Stepwise Behavioral Response (SBR) during exposure to pollutants above their respective thresholds of resistance. In order to prove the model, in this study, the behavioral responses (BRs) of medaka ...
Wessel Carolina - - 2012
We develop a biomechanical model of an isolated stellate breast tumour under mammographic compression forces for a range of reported mechanical properties, both linear elastic and hyperelastic. We also introduce different volumes of increased density/stiffness around the tumour as well as a solid pressure effect. We show that each of ...
Seo Youngwook P - - 2012
A model capable of describing the flow behavior of electrorheological (ER) suspensions under different electric field strengths and over the full range of shear rates is proposed. Structural reformation in the low shear rate region is investigated where parts of a material is in an undeformed state, while aligned structures ...
Lanir Yoram - - 2012
Osmotic swelling (OS) and residual stress (RS) significantly affect the function of cardiovascular (CVS) tissues and organs. The physical mechanisms of OS and RS are reviewed and analyzed with focus on the theoretical background and related experimental evidence. It will be shown that swelling of CVS tissues stems from the ...
Cilla M - - 2012
Plaque rupture plays a role in the majority of acute coronary syndromes. Rupture has usually been associated with stress concentrations, which are mainly affected by the plaque geometry and the tissue properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of morphology on the risk of plaque rupture, ...
Zhong Zheng-Cheng - - 2012
In a finite element (FE) analysis of the lumbar spine, different preload application methods that are used in biomechanical studies may yield diverging results. To investigate how the biomechanical behaviour of a spinal implant is affected by the method of applying the preload, hybrid-controlled FE analysis was used to evaluate ...
Downs Craig A - - 2012
Coral reefs throughout the world are exhibiting documented declines in coral cover and species diversity, which have been linked to anthropogenic stressors including land-based sources of pollution. Reductions in coastal water and substratum quality are affecting coral survivorship, reproduction and recruitment, and hence, the persistence of coral reefs. One major ...
Kermanshah Hamid - - 2012
Abstract Objective. This study evaluated von Mises stress distribution, flexural strength and interface micrographs of IPS-Empress II (IPS) inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (IRFPD) reinforced with Zirconia bars (Zb). Materials and methods: In the Finite element analysis, six three-dimensional models of IRFPD were designed using Solid Works 2006. Five models were ...
Kühn Clemens - - 2012
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered as a model organism for the investigation of cellular and molecular processes and gene regulation. Specifically, the response of S. cerevisiae to increase in osmolarity of the external medium (osmoadaptation) is a model adaptation process. The first mathematical model of volume changes in S. cerevisiae due ...
Martojo H - - 2012
Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress ...
Sevrain Amandine - - 2012
Pelvic incidence, sacral slope and slip percentage have been shown to be important predicting factors for assessing the risk of progression of low- and high-grade spondylolisthesis. Biomechanical factors, which affect the stress distribution and the mechanisms involved in the vertebral slippage, may also influence the risk of progression, but they ...
Vecchio Giuseppe - - 2012
The expected potential benefits promised by nanotechnology in various fields have led to a rapid increase of the presence of engineered nanomaterials in a high number of commercial goods. This is generating increasing questions about possible risks for human health and environment, due to the lack of an in-depth assessment ...
Oliaei Sepehr S Department of Otolaryngology, University of California-Irvine, 19182 Jamboree Rd., Irvine, CA 92697, USA. - - 2012
To determine how mechanical stability changes in the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) after varying degrees of cephalic resection in a porcine cartilage nasal tip model. Alar cartilage was harvested from fresh porcine crania (n = 14) and sectioned to precisely emulate a human LLC in size and dimension. Flexural mechanical ...
Na Yang - - 2011
Knowledge of airflow characteristics in the nasal cavity is essential to understanding the physiologic and pathologic aspects of nasal breathing. Airflows inside post-surgery models were investigated both experimentally and numerically to simulate the inferior turbinectomy. The left cavities of all three models are normal and right cavity is modified by ...
Mathews Edward Henry - - 2011
Blood glucose (BG) is the primary metabolic fuel for, among others, cancer cell progression, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. Stress is an important contributor to the amount of BG produced especially by the liver. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the BG production due to chronic (in the order of ...
Wang Mengcheng - - 2011
The present study examined the invariance of four models of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) across time through an analysis of symptom ratings from the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. Participants included 403 junior middle school students recruited from Sichuan, China at 5 and 11 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Confirmatory ...
Votta Emiliano - - 2012
Recently, the neo-chordae technique (NCT) was proposed to stabilize the surgical correction of isolated aortic valve (AV) prolapse. Neo-chordae are inserted into the corrected leaflet to drive its closure by minimal tensions and prevent relapses. In a previous in vitro study we analysed the NCT effects on healthy aortic roots ...
Dimonte Guy - - 2011
We use the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) at a metal-gas interface to infer the metal's yield stress (Y) under shock loading and release. We first model how Y stabilizes the RMI using hydrodynamics simulations with a perfectly plastic constitutive relation for copper (Cu). The model is then tested with molecular dynamics ...
Nederhof Esther - - 2011
This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the mismatch hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease ...
Panzer Matthew B - - 2011
Finite element (FE) modelling is a popular tool for studying human body response to blast exposure. However, blast modelling is a complex problem owing to more numerous fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) and the high-frequency loading that accompanies blast exposures. This study investigates FE mesh design for blast modelling using a sphere ...
Ratakonda Swapnika - - 2011
We evaluated and modeled the viscoelastic characteristics of chitosan and chitosan-gelatin scaffolds prepared using a freeze-drying technique. Chitosan and chitosan-gelatin solutions (0.5 and 2wt.%) were frozen at -80°C and freeze-dried. Using the scaffolds, uniaxial tensile properties were evaluated under physiological conditions (hydrated in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C) at a ...
Armour Cherie - - 2011
Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) latent structure has been widely debated. To date, two four-factor models (Numbing and Dysphoria) have received the majority of factor analytic support. Recently, Elhai et al. (2011) proposed and supported a revised (five-factor) Dysphoric Arousal model. Data were gathered from two separate samples; War veterans and ...
Ambrosone Alfredo - - 2011
A systematic and thorough quantitative analysis of the in vivo effects of inorganic nanoparticles is extremely important for the design of functional nanomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, better understanding of their non-specificity toward tissues and cell types, and for assessments of their toxicity. This study was undertaken to examine the ...
Del Giudice Marco M Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. - - 2012
The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy ...
Savoldelli Charles - - 2011
PURPOSE: This study aims at analysing the stresses distribution in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) using a complete high-resolution finite element model (FE Model). This model is used here to analyse the stresses distribution in the discs during a closing jaw cycle. In the end, this model enables the prediction of ...
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