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Results 151 - 200 of 1359
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Kuaban C - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical, radiological and microbiological factors associated with the non conversion of sputum smears in new smear positive cases of pulmonary tuberculosis after two months of treatment and to evaluate the influence of non-smear conversion on treatment outcomes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tuberculosis centre of H?pital ...
Sreehari U - - 2009
A longitudinal study was carried out to assess the impact of indoor residual spray with Vectron 20 WP (etofenprox) against Anopheles culicifacies and on malaria transmission in a selected village of Dadri primary health centre (PHC), District Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. Two villages, namely Patadi and Anandpur in ...
Ribotsky Bret M - - 2009
Tinea pedis, both in its acute and chronic phase, is a common skin condition that often is overlooked but can lead to onychomycosis and acute bacterial cellulitis if left untreated. Therefore, aggressive treatment with a topical antifungal agent is warranted. Sertaconazole nitrate cream 2% is a newer imidazole agent that ...
Pisseri F - - 2009
Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic molds, some of which are responsible for ringworm. Among them Trichophyton equinum, which mostly infects equids, can cause extensive outbreaks in stud farms. The conventional treatment of equine trichophytosis is topic, based upon medicated shampoos to reduce the spread of infection among ...
Georgi A - - 2009
A 53-year old immunocompetent Swiss female is described who developed severe meningoencephalitis due to infection with Cryptococcus gattii 13 months following exposure on Vancouver Island, Canada. Diagnosis was based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, i.e., positive India-ink staining, positive latex particle agglutination, and positive culture. Species identification was performed by ...
Cordonnier Catherine - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Empirical antifungal therapy is the standard of care for neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies who remain febrile despite broad-spectrum antibacterial treatment. Recent diagnostic improvements may ensure the early diagnosis of potentially invasive fungal disease. Reserving antifungals for this stage may achieve similar survival rates and reduce treatment toxicity and ...
Shin Dong-Hoon - - 2009
This study investigated p-octyloxy-phenyl-phenyl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate (OPPI) as a photoinitiator, in combination with camphorquinone/amine photoinitiation systems, for use with di(meth)acrylate-based composite resins. The investigation determined if the inclusion of OPPI improved degree and rate of conversion, initial color and color stability of a representative composite resin dental material. Camphorquinone (CQ) ...
Hafizi H - - 2009
SETTING: Albania, population 3.4 million. OBJECTIVE: To describe DOTS (directly observed treatment-short course chemotherapy) implementation, treatment outcomes and epidemiological situation in Albania from 2001 to 2008. DESIGN: DOTS strategy was introduced in 2001 and gradually expanded. A retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes and epidemiological data on TB patients was analyzed ...
Fatiregun Akinola A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment outcomes and determinants of outcome among tuberculosis patients. DESIGN: A longitudinal study design involving a cohort of sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients at initiation of therapy, who were followed up to the end of treatment at eighth month. SETTING: Tuberculosis treatment centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. RESULTS: ...
Ranawaka Ranthilaka R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Three patients with histology- and culture-proven chromoblastomycosis reported to the Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka, in 2005. All three were men (age range, 48-53 years). The duration of symptoms varied from 1 to 8 years and the lesions were on the lower limbs. METHODS: The patients were treated ...
Krishnan-Natesan Suganthini S Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University, John D Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA. - - 2009
Zygomycoses is a rapidly progressive infection associated with high mortality. Although amphotericin B (AMB) has been the only treatment option for years, recent studies have demonstrated that posaconazole (PCZ) has good activity against Zygomycetes. Because rapid onset of antifungal activity is crucial in the management and never studied before, we ...
Wasay Mohammad - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if the preoperative use of antifungal therapy positively influences clinical outcome in patients with Aspergillus brain abscess. METHODS: We studied 25 patients with confirmed diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis. We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients treated with either amphotericin B ...
Crausman Robert S - - 2009
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic diaphragm paralysis is probably more common and responsible for more morbidity than generally appreciated. Bell's palsy, or idiopathic paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve, may be seen as an analogous condition. The roles of zoster sine herpete and herpes simplex have increasingly been recognized in Bell's palsy, ...
O'Connor Nigel - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC), a lipid-based formulation of amphotericin B, is an effective treatment for fungal infections, but is associated with mild to moderate drug delivery reactions (DDRs), such as fever, rigors and chills, in some patients. Although clinical studies have indicated that premedication with hydrocortisone may reduce ...
Sriranjini S J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The treatment options for improving the balance in degenerative cerebellar ataxias are very few. Ayurvedic texts have described diverse treatment regimens for this disease. AIMS: To determine the change in balance indices, if any, by dynamic posturography (Biodex Balance System, USA) in progressive cerebellar ataxia following Ayurvedic treatment. MATERIALS ...
Muangchan Chayawee - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To study of clinical manifestations of osteoarticular tuberculosis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This study is an observational retrospective study design from the electronic medical record database of Siriraj Hospital in 2005-2006. RESULTS: Ninety- nine patients fit in to the inclusion criteria. All were non HIV-infected. There were 44 males (44.4%) ...
Lee Sang Joon - - 2009
We describe two patients with fungal keratitis refractory to standard antifungal therapy whose conditions were managed with voriconazole. The first case is a patient with endophthalmitis and corneal ulcer due to Candida parapsilosis after receiving a corneal transplant. The patient was treated with amphotericin but showed no signs of improvement. ...
Imbert Patrick - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Splenic rupture during acute malaria is rare but underreported. Because splenic rupture occurs mostly in non-immune adults, ongoing malaria elimination efforts may paradoxically increase the proportion of Plasmodium-infected patients suffering from this life-threatening complication. The pathogenesis and optimal patient management are still debated. METHOD: We collected and analysed reports ...
Das Vidya Nand Rabi - - 2009
There is significant variation in Amphotericin B (AMB) efficacy and relapses in antimony unresponsive visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases over a period of time (10-15 years). Keeping in mind the above mentioned view this study was undertaken with an objective to assess the magnitude of cure and relapse rates of AMB ...
Lim, Pharath
Abstract Background The combination of artesunate and mefloquine was introduced as the national first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia in 2000. However, recent clinical trials performed at the Thai-Cambodian border have pointed to the declining efficacy of both artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Since pfmdr1 modulates susceptibility to mefloquine and ...
Freifeld Alison - - 2009
In a retrospective review of 24 patients with histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, or coccidioidomycosis treated with voriconazole (most for salvage therapy), the outcome was favorable (improved or stable) for 22 (95.8%) within 2 months of starting voriconazole and for 20 (83.3%) at the last follow-up. Prospective studies are required to determine its ...
Etard Jean-François - - 2009
Estimate tuberculosis (TB) incidence among patients receiving HAART. Compare the dynamic of the CD4-cell count and viral load before notification of the TB with the dynamic among patients remaining free of TB. Prospective cohort with ascertainment of TB cases from medical records. The first 404 adults HIV-1 infected patients enrolled ...
Dawson Rod - - 2009
Current treatment regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis require at least 6 months of therapy. Immune adjuvant therapy with recombinant interferon-gamma1b (rIFN-gammab) may reduce pulmonary inflammation and reduce the period of infectivity by promoting earlier sputum clearance. We performed a randomized, controlled clinical trial of directly observed therapy (DOTS) versus DOTS supplemented ...
Malla Pushpa - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe treatment outcomes for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outpatients on a standardized regimen in Nepal. METHODOLOGY: Data on pulmonary MDR-TB patients enrolled for treatment in the Green Light Committee-approved National Programme between 15 September 2005 and 15 September 2006 were studied. Standardized ...
Asante Kwaku Poku - - 2009
Introduction. To enhance effective treatment, african nations including Ghana changed its malaria treatment policy from monotherapy to combination treatment with artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ). The major challenge to its use in loose form is adherence. Objective. The objectives of this study were to investigate adherence and treatment outcome among patients treated with ...
Siemion-Szcześniak Izabela - - 2009
The aim of the study was to evaluate treatment outcomes in sputum culture positive patients with tuberculosis in three Polish provinces (Warsaw, Gdansk and Siedlce Provinces) in 1995 and again in 2000. We also assessed whether the implementation of the Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS) strategy in the former ...
Sagara Issaka - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy has already been demonstrated in a number of studies all over the world, and some of them can be regarded as comparably effective. Ease of administration of anti-malarial treatments with shorter courses and fewer tablets may be key determinant of compliance. METHODS: Patients ...
Maraite N - - 2009
Herpes encephalitis can be a life-threatening condition, despite early instauration of acyclovir treatment. In particular patients may succumb to rapidly progressive cerebral oedema. We report a 66-year patient with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 6 and incipient uncus herniation of the right temporal lobe on the third day. Decompressive ...
Charle Pilar - - 2009
Objectives. The objectives of the study were (i) to evaluate the efficacy of combination drugs, such as artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) and amodiaquine + sulphadoxine-pyripethamine (AQ + SP) in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria (ii) to differentiate recrudescence from reinfection by analysing msp-1 and msp-2 genes of Plasmodium ...
Kherad Omar - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has decreased since the 1990s, reflecting worldwide efforts to identify and treat TB according to WHO recommendations. However TB remains an important public health problem in industrialized countries with a high proportion of cases occurring among subjects originating from high prevalence ...
Barnes Karen I - - 2009
Malaria is one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Every year, nearly one million deaths result from malaria infection. Malaria can be controlled in endemic countries by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in combination with indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). At least 40 ...
Gutman Julie - - 2009
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended as a means of prolonging the effectiveness of first-line malaria treatment regimens. Different brands of mefloquine (MQ) have been reported to be non-bioequivalent; this could result in sub-therapeutic levels of mefloquine with decreased efficacy. In 2002, mefloquine-artesunate (MQ-AS) combination therapy was adopted as the ...
Coulibaly Boubacar - - 2009
With the availability of new preventive and curative interventions, global malaria control has been strengthened significantly in recent years. Drugs effective in reducing malaria gametocytaemia might contribute to local elimination and possible long-term eradication. We here report on the effects of methylene blue (MB)-based malaria combination therapy on gametocytaemia during ...
Zwang Julien - - 2009
The fixed dose antimalarial combination of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is a promising new artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We present an individual patient data analysis of efficacy and tolerability in acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, from seven published randomized clinical trials conducted in Africa and South East Asia using a predefined in-vivo protocol. ...
Ndiaye Jean Louis - - 2009
The use of artemisinin derivative-based combination therapy (ACT) such as artesunate plus amodiaquine is currently recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose combinations are more adapted to patients than regimens involving multiple tablets and improve treatment compliance. A fixed-dose combination of artesunate + amodiaquine (ASAQ) was recently ...
Hebart H - - 2009
We compared the efficacy and safety of empirical plus PCR-based vs empirical liposomal amphotericin B treatment after Allo-SCT. Allo-SCT recipients were randomized to receive either PCR-based preemptive therapy (group A; n=198) or empirical antifungal therapy (group B; n=211) with liposomal amphotericin B. In group A, therapy was started after one ...
Vega Juan Carlos - - 2009
An open label, comparative study to compare the efficacy of thermotherapy to meglumine antimoniate in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in an operational context was carried out in Chaparral, Colombia. After enrollment patients were followed-up for up to 100 days. Per protocol and intention-to-treat cure rates for 47 patients treated using ...
Stepniewska, Kasia
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify and compare factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in three regions of differing malaria endemicity. Methods Retrospective data from Thailand, The Gambia and Tanzania were used. The data came from large prospective field-based clinical trials, which investigated gametocyte carriage ...
Bodsworth Neil - - 2008
Background: The brief period of viral replication in recurrent genital herpes lesions suggests shorter therapeutic regimens may be as effective as standard 5-day courses. Objective: To demonstrate that a 2-day course of famciclovir 500 mg statim, then 250 mg twice daily was non-inferior to the standard 5-day course of 125 ...
Teka, Hiwot
Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. The first report of CQ treatment failure in P. vivax was from Debre Zeit, which suggested the presence of chloroquine resistance. ...
Szmitko Paul E - - 2009
A 29-year-old patient who was born in Angola developed Plasmodium falciparum malaria 8 years after leaving Africa. She had not returned to a malaria-endemic area, and there were no apparent risks of local or nosocomial acquisition of malaria in Canada. She recovered after treatment with oral quinine sulfate and doxycycline.
Bomgaars Lisa - - 2008
Valacyclovir, an orally administered pro-drug of acyclovir, is utilized in the therapy of herpes simplex and herpes zoster infections. Little data regarding the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability are available for pediatric patients. This report describes acyclovir pharmacokinetics following valacyclovir administration in immunocompromised pediatric patients, compares pharmacokinetic parameters following oral valacyclovir ...
Shean K P - - 2008
SETTING: Brooklyn Chest Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the treatment outcome and 2- and 5-year follow-up of patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with individualized regimens. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of all MDR-TB patients starting treatment during 1992-2002. Patients were evaluated every 6 months for 2 years ...
Kisinza W N - - 2008
In recognising the success attained through community-directed treatment with Ivermectin, there has been a growing interest to use a similar approach for delivery of interventions against other communicable diseases. This study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the impact of community directed intervention (CDI) on delivering five health interventions namely ...
Krishna Gopal G 1 Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New - - 2008
To analyze the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole administered as prophylaxis for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in neutropenic patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Pharmacokinetic subanalysis of a phase III, prospective, randomized, multicenter, evaluator-blinded trial comparing posaconazole with standard azoles (fluconazole and itraconazole). One hundred ninety-four ...
Alexander Barbara D BD Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Box 3035, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. - - 2008
The incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients has increased during the past 20 years and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this post hoc analysis of a large, open-label, multicenter study, we evaluated efficacy and safety of posaconazole, a new extended-spectrum triazole, ...
Yuanjie Zhu - - 2009
An immunocompetent 8-year-old girl was presented with cryptococcal meningitis. She was cured clinically and mycologically after 6 weeks of amphotericin B plus flucytocin and 2 months of fluconazole, and no relapse and sequelae were observed. Mycological and clinical profile of the patient during treatment was recorded.
Queiroz-Telles Flavio - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis is increasingly prevalent in premature infants and seriously ill children, and pediatric data on available antifungal therapies are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a pediatric substudy as part of a double-blind, randomized, multinational trial to compare micafungin (2 mg/kg) with liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg) as first-line treatment ...
Abudalu Mohammed - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recurrent genital herpes is a major problem for patients worldwide. Early episodic treatment with short-course therapy is effective, often stopping progression of outbreaks. This study is the first head-to-head comparison of single-day famciclovir (1000 mg administered twice daily) versus 3-day valacyclovir (500 mg administered twice daily) for episodic therapy ...
Bodsworth Neil - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The brief period of viral replication in recurrent genital herpes lesions suggests shorter therapeutic regimens may be as effective as standard 5-day courses. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that a 2-day course of famciclovir 500 mg statim, then 250 mg twice daily was non-inferior to the standard 5-day course of 125 ...
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