Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 928
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Chuh A A T - - 2007
Pityriasis rosea is a scaly rash that mainly affects young adults. It can be very itchy but most people recover within 2 to 12 weeks. To assess the effects of interventions for pityriasis rosea. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (December 2004), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled ...
Fedorowicz Z - - 2007
Recognition of some of the limitations of titanium plates and screws used for the fixation of bones has led to the development of plates manufactured from bioresorbable materials. Whilst resorbable plates appear to offer clinical advantages over metal plates in orthognathic surgery, concerns remain about the stability of fixation and ...
Brown S R - - 2007
Faecal incontinence is a debilitating problem with significant medical, social and economic implications. Treatment options include conservative, non-surgical interventions (e.g. pelvic floor muscle training, biofeedback, drugs, sacral nerve stimulation) and surgical procedures. A surgical procedure may be aimed at correcting an obvious mechanical defect, or augmenting a functionally deficient but ...
Vist G E - - 2007
Some people believe that patients who take part in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) face risks that they would not face if they opted for non-trial treatment. Others think that trial participation is beneficial and the best way to ensure access to the most up to date physicians and treatments. To ...
Gurusamy K S - - 2007
Between 5% and 11% of people undergoing cholecystectomy have common bile duct stones. Open common bile duct exploration is an important operation when endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails or when expertise for laparoscopic common bile duct exploration is not available. The optimal method for performing open common bile duct exploration is ...
Dorhout Mees S M - - 2007
Secondary ischaemia is a frequent cause of poor outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Besides vasospasm, platelet aggregation seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of secondary ischaemia. Experimental studies have suggested that antiplatelet agents can prevent secondary ischaemia. To determine whether antiplatelet agents change outcome in ...
Woodford H H North Cumbria Acute Hospitals, Elderly Medicine, 2 Goschen Road, Carlisle, Cumbria, UK, CA2 5PF. - - 2007
Electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-BFB) is a technique that is believed to have additional benefit when used with standard physiotherapy for the recovery of motor function in stroke patients. However, evidence from individual trials and previous systematic reviews has been inconclusive. To assess the effects of EMG-BFB for motor function recovery following ...
Zheng Ya-Min - - 2006
To assess the clinical and economical validity of glutamine dipeptide supplemented to parenteral nutrition (PN) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. A meta-analysis of all the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. The trials compared the standard PN and PN supplemented with glutamine dipeptide in abdominal surgery. RCTs were identified ...
Hutton B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a fractionated blood product whose off-label use for treating a variety of conditions, including spontaneous recurrent miscarriage, has continued to grow in recent years. Its high costs and short supply necessitate improved guidance on its appropriate applications. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of randomised ...
Bruce Susan P - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trial data, safety profile, precautions, and place in therapy of febuxostat, a novel nonpurine xanthine oxidase inhibitor in development for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. DATA SOURCES: Available studies and abstracts were identified through MEDLINE (1990-November 2006), Science Citation Index, International Pharmaceutical ...
Swanepoel, David; Avian Demography ...
With a perimeter of 82km, the Theewaterskloof Dam is the largest dam in the Western Cape. This paper, based on midsummer and mid-winter surveys between 1993 and 2005, assesses the importance of the dam for waterbirds. The median numbers of waterbirds in summer and winter were 3 086 and 1 ...
Papadimitriou George N - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Rapid cycling (RC) bipolar disorder is often treatment-resistant to pharmacotherapy. Non-pharmacological methods, however, are reasonable considerations in treatment refractory cases of bipolar patients. Thus, such methods may be useful in the management of RC, especially when drugs are not shown to be effective. METHOD: This review is based on ...
McKoy June M - - 2007
Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) was approved for marketing in 2000 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for older patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Four months later, 14 phase II clinical trial participants who received novel GO-containing combination chemotherapy regimens developed an unexpected hepatic toxicity termed sinusoidal ...
Fedorowicz Zbigniew - - 2006
This review was conducted to determine reliable evidence regarding the safety, feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of cataract extraction performed as a day care versus in-patient procedure. The search to identify randomized controlled trials comparing day care and in-patient surgery for age-related cataract included the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials ...
Jenkins Ian - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Severe sepsis and septic shock are common and associated with a 30-50% mortality rate. Evidence-based therapies for severe sepsis supported by international critical care and infectious disease societies exist, but are inconsistently employed. METHODS: The epidemiology and definitions of sepsis syndromes are reviewed; sepsis therapies supported by definitive studies ...
Poole-Wilson Philip A - - 2006
Heart failure is a common condition and becoming more common. Many treatments have been evaluated in large clinical trials during the last few decades. These trials can be criticized but do provide an evidence base for treatment, probably greater than for most other clinical conditions. Weaknesses exist in relation to ...
Parides Michael K - - 2006
New left ventricular assist devices promise fewer adverse events but, currently, only minor improvements in survival. Small (survival) treatment effects, limited patient populations, and the increasing number of left ventricular assist devices in development challenge the efficient conduct of premarketing trials (especially in destination therapy) and, maybe more importantly, hamper ...
Ronald Andrew - - 2006
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether aprotinin use was associated with a lower incidence of stroke and neurological complications in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Using the reported search 224 papers were identified on Medline, 722 on ...
Reza M M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: This study compares the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery (LS) and open surgery (OS) for colorectal cancer. METHODS: An electronic search of the literature was undertaken to identify primary studies and systematic reviews. Information on the efficacy and safety of LS versus OS was analysed. A meta-analysis was ...
Wirth Thomas - - 2006
Despite of more than 500 gene therapy trials worldwide very little systematic safety information is available from gene therapy. Safety information was collected from 146 consecutive patients who participated in three randomized, controlled phase II gene therapy trials in cardiovascular diseases and malignant glioma using adenoviruses, plasmid/liposomes and retrovirus packaging ...
Della Pepa C - - 2006
Vertigo is a very frequent disorder, associated with highly disabling symptomatology. Since the aetiology cannot always be easily identified, treatment is often addressed to the symptoms. Betahistine, a drug characterized by a multi-factorial mode of action of the modulatory type, has been widely employed in the management of various vertiginous ...
Ku, Fang-Chi
Although the Neophocaena is currently thought to be monotypic (¡§Neophocaena phocaenoides¡¨) with three ¡§subspecies¡¨, the taxonomy of this genus still remains uncertainty. The finless porpoise (¡§Neophocaena phocaenoides¡¨) is one of the small cetacean species under threats from human activities. At present, finless porpoise is listed in Appendix I of Convention ...
Cassara Joseph E - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endoscopic antireflux procedures have generated much interest among clinicians and patients. These devices utilize a variety of methods in an attempt to decrease reflux of gastric contents. This work reviews the most notable results of endoscopic antireflux procedure studies published in 2005. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of ...
Hsieh Hsiu-Fang - - 2006
This paper reports a systematic review whose objective was to determine the effectiveness of surgical hand scrubs in relation to bacterial growth on the hands of operating room staff members. Despite the need for surgical hand scrubs, evidence shows that frequent and prolonged use of antiseptics and brushes may damage ...
Corrao Salvatore - - 2006
The authors evaluated the retrieval power of PubMed "Clinical Queries," narrow search string, about therapy in comparison with a modified search string to avoid possible retrieval bias. PubMed search strategy was compared to a slightly modified string that included the Britannic English term "randomised." The authors tested the two strings ...
Li Xin - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To pool data on the role of thrombolytic agents in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and evaluate the efficacy and safety of thrombolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical studies in MEDLINE database from 1966 to August 2004 that studied the efficacy and safety in CPR with and without treatment with thrombolytic ...
DiGiuro Giuseppe - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The literature shows wide variations of recurrence rates (RRs) after abdominal surgery for rectal prolapse. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the accuracy of published RRs. METHODS: An electronic search was performed with no restrictions. Inclusion criterion was abdominal surgery in at least 10 adults with follow-up ...
Stuber Kent - - 2006
A narrative literature review of RCTs only, was conducted to ascertain which conservative treatments provide the best results for plantar fasciitis patients. Stretching, prefabricated and custom-made orthotics and night splints have all been scrutinized in numerous studies with mixed results. Chiropractic manipulative therapy has been examined in one study, with ...
Shilling Ashley M - - 2006
Cardiac complications continue to compose a major proportion of serious postoperative morbidity and mortality, and it is appropriate, therefore, that this area has received a lot of attention in the search for pharmacologic modulation of surgical outcomes. Despite numerous studies, conclusive data does not exist, making it difficult to recommend ...
Bain Kevin T - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Chronic insomnia is common among the elderly These elderly patients are often viewed as difficult to treat, yet they are among the groups with the greatest need of treatment. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on the management of chronic insomnia in elderly persons. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE ...
Bongartz Tim - - 2006
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in host defense and tumor growth control. Therefore, anti-TNF antibody therapies may increase the risk of serious infections and malignancies. To assess the extent to which anti-TNF antibody therapies may increase the risk of serious infections and malignancies in patients with rheumatoid ...
Chang Lin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Ischemic colitis and serious complications of constipation have been reported in association with the use of alosetron, which is approved for women with severe diarrhea-predominant IBS who have failed conventional therapies. This systematic review calculated the incidence of these adverse events in alosetron-using patients in clinical trials and post-marketing ...
Riddle Mark S - - 2006
To determine regional estimates of pathogen-specific prevalence and incidence, as well as, describe morbidity associated with diarrhea among deployed US military and similar populations, a systematic review was conducted for publications between January 1990 to June 2005. Point estimates and confidence intervals of pathogen prevalence and travelers' diarrhea incidence were ...
Scott Eileen M - - 2006
This systematic review examines whether preventing hypothermia during surgery prevents postoperative complications and thereby improves outcomes for patients. Twenty-six randomized controlled trials were identified, and data extraction and assessment of study quality were carried out by two researchers independently. The results of studies with similar patients, surgical procedures, and outcomes ...
Strand V - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Five double-blind, randomized, saline-controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the United States marketing application for an intra-articular hyaluronan (IA-HA) product for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. We report an integrated analysis of the primary Case Report Form (CRF) data from these trials. METHOD: Trials were similar ...
Gingerich Joel - - 2006
Acute leukemia is common in the elderly and, due to the aging population and poorer prognosis, represents a major challenge. Elderly acute leukemia patients have been arbitrarily defined as >or=55 to 65 years of age and are underrepresented in clinical trials. There are physiologic differences between elderly and non-elderly patients. ...
Walter S D - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Development of a new method of analysis to evaluate the acceptability of (or preferences for) the treatments in a randomized trial, and the benefit of treatment among compliers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We characterize trial participants through the groups who would: accept either treatment if offered (compliers); refuse ...
Rodrigo Gustavo J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend the use of inhaled tiotropium in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, this statement is based on a relatively small number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and related systematic reviews. This review was undertaken to incorporate the more recent evidence available about the ...
Gichangi Anthony - - 2006
Analysing duration of treatment episodes has become a standard task in many pharmacoepidemiological studies. However, such analyses are often carried out in a rather simplistic manner and more subtle issues are often ignored. In this paper, methods of analysing duration treatment episodes beyond simple analyses allowing investigation of the risk ...
Tokuda Yasuharu - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have shown conflicting findings about the role of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of empyema and complicated parapneumonic effusions in adult patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical efficacy and summarize the current evidence of intrapleural fibrinolytic use in patients with empyema and complicated parapneumonic effusions ...
Vermeulen Hester - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether refraining from nasogastric intubation (NGI) in patients after abdominal surgery will result in the same therapeutic effectiveness as using NGI. Data Source We identified randomized trials from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials published between January 1990 and January 2005. STUDY SELECTION: Two of us ...
Pallanti Stefano - - 2006
While controlled trials with SRIs have demonstrated a selective efficacy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), up to 40-60% of patients do not have a satisfactory outcome. Non-response to treatment in OCD is associated with serious social disability. There are a large number of non-responsive patients, and they are difficult to cluster ...
Audigé Laurent - - 2006
This paper discusses topics related to the planning and implementation of non-randomised clinical studies in orthopaedics. A well-conducted case-series is appropriate to demonstrate the safety of a surgical intervention. The case-series design involves the provision of a defined intervention to a group of patients with the ultimate objective of describing ...
Stafinski Tania - - 2006
PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of SRS alone or in combination with WBRT compared to surgery and/or WBRT in prolonging survival and improving the quality-of-life and functional status of patients with brain metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and concurrent cohort studies examining SRS versus SRS ...
Mulcahy Risteard - - 2006
The early trials of coronary artery surgery compared to conservative management in patients with non-acute coronary heart disease are no longer relevant because of recent advances in surgery and medical treatment. There have been no recent major trials, including trials of female patients. Only one recent limited trial has been ...
Brull Richard - - 2006
Consent for a clinical anesthesia research trial is frequently sought in hospital on the day of surgery. This time is often associated with increased anxiety, diminished privacy, and limited opportunity for reflection. Our objective was to determine whether a preadmission telephone call on the day before surgery resulted in greater ...
Suissa Samy - - 2006
Randomized trials and a meta-analysis suggesting that inhaled corticosteroids reduce exacerbation rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show major discrepancies that may be due to different approaches to data analysis. These trials used statistical techniques that were either weighted or unweighted for follow-up time, with p values ...
Zhang Liying - - 2006
PURPOSE: An acceptability study of an injectable preparation of the synthetic steroid testosterone undecanoate as a once-a-month male contraceptive method was carried out concurrently with, but independently from, a clinical safety and efficacy trial of this preparation in China, from 1997 to 1999. METHOD: Three hundred eight men, the entire ...
Ficarra Vincenzo - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: A recent Cochrane meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) concluded that surgical or radiological treatment of varicocele in men from couples with otherwise unexplained subfertility cannot be recommended. The aim of the present study is to address criticisms of this review carrying out a critical analysis of all available ...
LORENZO PRENDINI
Two new flat rock scorpions, both endemic to South Africa, are described in the bicolor group of Hadogenes Kraepelin, 1894: H. polytrichobothrius n.sp.; H. soutpansbergensis n.sp. Both occupy discrete distributional ranges, allopatric with the other three species in the bicolor group: H. bicolor Purcell, 1899; H. longimanus Prendini, 2001; H. ...
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