Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 897
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Smith M J - - 2007
Purpose We sought to determine which outcome measures were most sensitive at detecting the benefits of Sentinel node based management (SNBM) over routine axillary clearance (RAC) in the SNAC trial. Patients and Methods 1088 women with early breast cancer were randomised to either SNBM or RAC. The primary endpoint was ...
Hodge William - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cataract surgery is the most common operative procedure performed in Canada, and how patients are affected by wait times for this surgery has important clinical, public health and health policy considerations. We conducted a systematic review to understand the relation between wait time for cataract surgery and patient outcomes ...
Chow Edward - - 2007
PURPOSE: The objective is to update previous meta-analyses with a systematic review of randomized palliative radiotherapy (RT) trials comparing single fractions (SFs) versus multiple fractions (MFs). METHODS: The analysis includes all published reports from randomized trials comparing SF or MF schedules for the treatment of painful bone metastases with localized ...
Blumberg Neil - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The scientific method requires that only experiments actually and correctly performed be used to draw conclusions. The intention-to-treat principle requires that all patients, even those not or improperly treated, be included. In clinical trials and meta-analyses investigating leukoreduced blood transfusions to reduce postoperative infections, the intention-to-treat principle and the ...
Hofmeijer J - - 2007
As non-randomised studies have suggested that surgical decompression may reduce mortality in patients with space occupying hemispheric infarction, randomisation may be considered unethical in controlled trials testing this treatment strategy. We studied differences in recall of information and in appreciation of the informed consent procedure between representatives included in the ...
Gheorghiade Mihai M Division of Cardiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill 60611, USA. - - 2007
Heart failure causes more than 1 million US hospitalizations yearly, mostly related to congestion. Tolvaptan, an oral, nonpeptide, selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, shows promise in this condition. To evaluate short-term effects of tolvaptan when added to standard therapy in patients hospitalized with heart failure. Two identical prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ...
Mancini Julien - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure women's preferences about decision-making and their impact to participate or not to a hypothetical randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: We surveyed prospectively breast cancer patients invited to participate in a clinical RCT (group 1a=201 acceptances, group 1b=66 refusals) or not invited ...
Williams Nefyn H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The most important risk factors for back and neck pain are psychosocial. Nevertheless, systematic reviews of spinal manipulation have concentrated on pain and spine related disability, and ignored psychological outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether spinal manipulation was effective in improving psychological outcome. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials ...
Karanicolas Paul J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to determine the relative effects of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and standard Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy (SWPD) in patients with pancreatic or periampullary cancer. METHODS: We searched seven bibliographic databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of articles and textbooks, and we contacted experts in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. ...
Vahedi Katayoun K Department of Neurology, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris, Lariboisière Hospital, Paris, - - 2007
Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is associated with an 80% mortality rate. Non-randomised studies have suggested that decompressive surgery reduces this mortality without increasing the number of severely disabled survivors. To obtain sufficient data as soon as possible to reliably estimate the effects of decompressive surgery, results ...
Siempos I I - - 2007
The comparative effectiveness and safety of carbapenems with other beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones for the empirical treatment of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia remains controversial. In the present study, a meta-analysis of 12 relevant randomised controlled trials was performed. Overall, carbapenems were associated with lower mortality than fluoroquinolones or beta-lactams, alone or ...
Peipert Jeffrey J Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110-1094, United States. - - 2007
This manuscript describes the randomized clinical trial titled Stage-Matched Intervention to Increase Dual Method Use or Project PROTECT. Project PROTECT compared two approaches to promote the use of dual methods of contraception among high-risk women. The intervention arm received tailored individualized feedback based on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change ...
Phrommintikul Arintaya - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin is commonly used for treatment of anaemia. Our aim was to determine whether targeting different haemoglobin concentrations with such treatment is associated with altered all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with anaemia caused by chronic kidney disease. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of randomised controlled ...
Gales Barry J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of pyridostigmine bromide for the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched (1966-December 2006) using the terms pyridostigmine, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, orthostatic intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, postural tachycardia syndrome, tachycardia, and orthostatic tachycardia. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: ...
Metharom Pat - - 2007
The first human trial of stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease was performed 4 years ago. Since that time, almost a dozen studies have reported the early and late clinical effects of cell therapy in acute myocardial infarction and chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. Initial nonrandomized trials universally showed slight improvement in ...
van Hilten J J - - 2007
Drugs that mimic dopamine as bromocriptine were introduced as monotherapy or in combination with LD in the hope that this approach would prevent or delay the onset of motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, hitherto, the role of bromocriptine (BR) in this issue has remained controversial. To ...
Vist G E - - 2007
Some people believe that patients who take part in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) face risks that they would not face if they opted for non-trial treatment. Others think that trial participation is beneficial and the best way to ensure access to the most up to date physicians and treatments. To ...
Pohl A - - 2007
Urinary tract infection (UTI), worldwide, is a major source of disease in children and adults. As it may have long-term consequences such as kidney failure and hypertension, it is important to treat patients with UTI adequately. Although standard management of severe UTI usually means intravenous (IV) therapy, at least initially, ...
Robertson-Malt S - - 2007
The immune response to cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children can lead to a series of postoperative morbidities and mortality i.e. hemodynamic instability, increased infection and tachyarrhythmias. Administration of prophylactic doses of corticosteroids is sometimes used to try and ameliorate this pro-inflammatory response. However, the clinical benefits and harms of ...
Prasad K - - 2007
Antibiotic therapy for suspected acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) needs to be started immediately, even before the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and antibiotic sensitivity are available. Immediate commencement of effective treatment using the intravenous route may reduce death and disability. Although bacterial meningitis guidelines advise the use of third ...
Tomblyn Marcie R - - 2007
New pharmaceuticals, innovative combinations of approved agents, and novel treatment modalities have resulted in a marked increase in the need for clinical trials. Evidence for treatment efficacy is best derived from large phase 3 randomized, controlled clinical trials. However, phase 3 investigations are lengthy and expensive, and consume patient resources. ...
Ren Yijin - - 2007
DATA SOURCE: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, LILACS (Latin American & Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) , Brazilian Bibliography of Odontology and SciELO. Ten Chinese journals were searched by hand and the bibliographies of papers were retrieved. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT of orthodontic ...
Griffiths R - - 2007
Approximately 15% to 25% of all hospitalised patients have indwelling urethral catheters, mainly to assist clinicians to accurately monitor urine output during acute illness or following surgery, to treat urinary retention, and for investigative purposes. The objective of this review was to determine the best strategies for the removal of ...
Chuh A A T - - 2007
Pityriasis rosea is a scaly rash that mainly affects young adults. It can be very itchy but most people recover within 2 to 12 weeks. To assess the effects of interventions for pityriasis rosea. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (December 2004), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled ...
Gurusamy K S - - 2007
Between 5% and 11% of people undergoing cholecystectomy have common bile duct stones. Open common bile duct exploration is an important operation when endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails or when expertise for laparoscopic common bile duct exploration is not available. The optimal method for performing open common bile duct exploration is ...
Figini L - - 2007
Root canal treatment (RoCT), or endodontic treatment, is a common procedure in dentistry. The main indications for RoCT are irreversible pulpitis and necrosis of the dental pulp caused by carious processes, tooth cracks or chips, or dental trauma. Successful RoCT is characterised by an absence of symptoms and clinical signs ...
Dorhout Mees S M - - 2007
Secondary ischaemia is a frequent cause of poor outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Besides vasospasm, platelet aggregation seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of secondary ischaemia. Experimental studies have suggested that antiplatelet agents can prevent secondary ischaemia. To determine whether antiplatelet agents change outcome in ...
Brown S R - - 2007
Faecal incontinence is a debilitating problem with significant medical, social and economic implications. Treatment options include conservative, non-surgical interventions (e.g. pelvic floor muscle training, biofeedback, drugs, sacral nerve stimulation) and surgical procedures. A surgical procedure may be aimed at correcting an obvious mechanical defect, or augmenting a functionally deficient but ...
Fedorowicz Z - - 2007
Recognition of some of the limitations of titanium plates and screws used for the fixation of bones has led to the development of plates manufactured from bioresorbable materials. Whilst resorbable plates appear to offer clinical advantages over metal plates in orthognathic surgery, concerns remain about the stability of fixation and ...
Bath-Hextall F J - - 2007
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest skin cancer. BCCs are slow-growing, locally invasive, epidermal skin tumours which mainly affect white skinned people. The first line treatment is usually surgical excision, but numerous alternatives are available. To assess the effects of treatments for basal cell carcinoma. We searched the Cochrane ...
Mahmood Ansar - - 2007
PURPOSE: To perform a comprehensive quantitative review of the published literature and to assess the methodology of studies comparing the surgical outcomes in minimally invasive hip arthroplasty (MIHA). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using Medline, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL and Google Scholar. The bibliographies of papers were also examined. ...
Day Richard O RO Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, St Vincent's Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. - - 2007
The number of open-label extension studies being performed has increased enormously in recent years. Often it is difficult to differentiate between these extension studies and the double-blind, controlled studies that preceded them. If undertaken primarily to gather more patient-years of exposure to the new drug in order to understand and ...
Thinkhamrop J - - 2007
The transcervical intrauterine route is commonly used for operative gynecological procedures in women. The vagina is an area of the body that is abundant with normal bacterial flora. An operative procedure through the vagina may, therefore, be considered to have added potential for resulting in post-procedure infection. Prophylactic antibiotics may ...
Brown S R - - 2007
Although conventional colonoscopy is the most sensitive test available for the investigation of the colorectum for polyps, there are data that raise concerns about its sensitivity. Chromoscopy may be one way of enhancing the ability for colonoscopy to detect polyps particularly diminutive flat lesions that may be otherwise difficult to ...
Shepherd Jonathan - - 2007
DATA SOURCES: Medline and the Cochrane library databases were searched and additional studies located by scrutinising publications obtained. STUDY SELECTION: Studies included in analysis were randomised controlled trails (RCT) about prevention of alveolar osteitis (AO) that were written in English, French, German or any of the Nordic languages (Danish, Finnish, ...
Del Fabbro M - - 2007
Though success rates of endodontic initial treatment have been improving over the years, persistence of periapical disease is far from being a rare condition. The most common therapeutical options for the re-treatment of teeth with periapical pathosis are non-surgical orthograde treatment and surgical treatment. Selection between alternative treatments should be ...
Di Nisio M - - 2007
The optimal treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis (ST) of the legs remains poorly defined. While improving or relieving the local painful symptoms, treatment should aim at preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE), which might complicate the natural history of ST. To assess the efficacy and safety of topical, medical, and surgical treatments in ...
McAlister V C - - 2007
Cholecystectomy is not required in up to 64% of patients who adopt a wait-and-see policy after endoscopic clearance of common bile duct stones. Although reports of retrospective cohort series have shown a higher mortality among patients who defer cholecystectomy, it is not known if this is due to the patients' ...
Seltzer Ben - - 2007
The cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine are the current mainstays in the drug treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is convincing evidence that these agents provide at least modest cognitive, behavioural and functional benefit for 6-12 months at all stages of the disease. Longer term benefits cannot be ...
Casetta I - - 2007
Azathioprine is the most widely used immunosuppressive treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS). It is an alternative to interferon beta for treating MS also because it is less expensive. Concerns about its safety, mainly a possible increased risk of malignancy, has limited its use. This systematic review aimed to determine the ...
Van der Linden P - - 2007
Perioperative fluid therapy remains the subject of active controversy. Indeed, clinical trials investigating the effects of fluid administration on outcome in surgical patients report controversial results. Critical review of these trials reveals that current standard fluid therapy is not at all evidence-based. Although it is evident that fluid overload should ...
Field M L - - 2007
The intra aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a mechanical assist device which improves cardiac function. The device has a well-established place in algorithms for managing low cardiac output following cardiac surgery. There is increasing evidence that certain cardiac surgery patients benefit from a period of preoperative augmentation with the intra ...
van Hilten J J - - 2007
Drugs that mimic dopamine, such as bromocriptine (BR), were introduced as monotherapy or in combination with levodopa (LD) in the hope that this approach would prevent or delay the onset of motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, hitherto, the role of BR has remained controversial. We present ...
Dodson Tom - - 2007
DATA SOURCES: Medline (1966-2005), Embase (1989-2005) and (CENTRAL) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1800-2005) were searched. Several experts were contacted to ensure that eligible studies were not overlooked. Key journals were searched by hand, together with reference lists of all relevant articles. No language restrictions were applied. STUDY SELECTION: ...
Neufeld M - - 2007
The objective of this study was to determine the levels of evidence and grades of recommendations available for techniques in antireflux surgery. Areas of technical controversy in antireflux surgery were identified and developed into eight answerable questions. The external evidence was surveyed using the databases Medline and EMBASE. Abstracts and ...
Woodford H H North Cumbria Acute Hospitals, Elderly Medicine, 2 Goschen Road, Carlisle, Cumbria, UK, CA2 5PF. - - 2007
Electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-BFB) is a technique that is believed to have additional benefit when used with standard physiotherapy for the recovery of motor function in stroke patients. However, evidence from individual trials and previous systematic reviews has been inconclusive. To assess the effects of EMG-BFB for motor function recovery following ...
Altunaiji S - - 2007
Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease. Infants are at highest risk of severe disease and death. Erythromycin for 14 days is currently recommended for treatment and contact prophylaxis, but is of uncertain benefit. To study the benefits and risks of antibiotic treatment of and contact prophylaxis against whooping cough. ...
Zheng Yamin - - 2007
The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and economic validity of perioperative immunonutrition and effect on postoperative immunity in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Immunonutrition diet supplemented two or more of nutrients including glutamine, arginine, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and ribonucleic acids. A meta-analysis of all relevant clinical randomized ...
Ezra D G - - 2007
Cataract is defined as loss of transparency of the natural lens and is usually an age-related phenomenon. The only recognized treatment available for cataract involves surgery. An ideal anaesthetic should allow for pain-free surgery with no systemic or local complications. It should be cost effective and should facilitate a stress-free ...
Subirana M - - 2007
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common complication in ventilated patients. Endotracheal suctioning is a procedure that may constitute a risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia. It can be performed with an open system or with a closed system. In view of suggested advantages being reported for the closed system, a systematic review ...
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